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1.
J Nurs Adm ; 54(3): 137-138, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381568

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Association for Leadership Science in Nursing (ALSN) 2023 International Conference was held on October 28 to 30 in Birmingham, Alabama, and sponsored by the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing. ALSN is dedicated to uniting academic and practice leaders to shape leadership science, education in nursing, and the practice of nursing leadership. The theme for the conference was Building Leaders for an Equitable and Inclusive Future. Nurse leaders from the United States, Canada, and Brazil gathered to discuss leadership science.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Administradoras , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Alabama , Liderança , Canadá , Brasil
2.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 3712024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228401

RESUMO

Tarballs are formed from released or discharged crude oil containing sulfur compounds. A considerable amount and variety of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were identified in tarballs collected from the intertidal and supratidal zones of Alabama's Gulf beaches. Amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that SRB were more abundantly distributed in the core than on the surface of tarballs, while no significant differences were observed in the distribution of SOB. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the spatial distribution of diverse SRB and SOB in tarballs.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Enxofre , Alabama , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Oxirredução , Sulfatos
3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 257: 66-75, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe baseline results of the Alabama Screening and Intervention for Glaucoma and Eye Health through Telemedicine (AL-SIGHT) for patients at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Candidates were persons at risk for glaucoma-associated diseases (GAD) based on age, race/ethnicity, current diagnosis of GAD, family history, and diabetes. DESIGN: Baseline screening visit followed by remote diagnosis and referral for follow-up examinations. METHODS: Patients presenting to FQHCs who were at least 18 years of age were enrolled and underwent screening for acuity, autorefraction, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, and fundus imaging. Results were transmitted to an ophthalmologist at University of Alabama at Birmingham for diagnosis who made referrals for follow-up; follow-up attendance was noted. Questionnaires assessed participants' perspectives on screening. Primary outcomes were rates of disease detection, referral for follow-up, follow-up attendance, and participant satisfaction. RESULTS: Of the 500 participants enrolled (mean age 58 years), 45.6% were African American and 51.6% White. Remote diagnostic evaluation of ocular screening by ophthalmologist revealed 30% GAD, 6.8% diabetic retinopathy, 37.6% cataract, 68.4% refractive error, 9.2% other eye conditions. In all, 47.2% of the participants were referred for follow-up examination and for acuity 20/40 or worse or IOP ≥23 mm Hg in one or both eyes. Follow-up examination attendance was 76.7% for those referred. Participants reported being very satisfied with screening (85.8%) and with the convenience of screening in their primary care clinic (92.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of patients diagnosed with treatable eye conditions at telemedicine screening suggest these programs in FQHCs can be effective and scalable nationwide. Attendance when referred for follow-up examination was high. Participants welcomed screenings in their communities.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alabama/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Pressão Intraocular , Tonometria Ocular , Telemedicina/métodos
4.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(1): 9, 2023 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127198

RESUMO

We herein describe Proterometra wigglewomble n. sp. (Digenea: Azygiidae: Azygiinae) from the Cahaba River, Alabama, USA, which asexually reproduces in the compact elimia, Elimia showalteri (Lea, 1860) (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and matures in the oesophagus of the blackbanded darter, Percina nigrofasciata (Agassiz, 1854) (Perciformes: Percidae). Adults of the new species differ from congeners by having a small body and eggs having a wholly fimbriated surface that appears as a cilia-like brush border. Live naturally-shed cercariae of the new species differ from those of its congeners by having a strongly claviform tail stem bearing aspinose mammillae, a single furca, excretory pores that open on the posterior margin of the single furca, and few eggs in the cercarial distome. The behaviour of the cercaria further differentiates the new species. Naturally-shed cercariae of P. wigglewomble secrete a jelly-like adhesive that coats the surface of the furca and evidently facilitates attachment to the surface of glass, plastic, and snail shell. Attached cercariae vigorously wiggle and thrash about once attached, as if mimicking the larva of a stream insect so as to lure the blackbanded darter to eat it. Phylogenetic analyses recovered monophyletic Azygiidae, comprising monophyletic Leuceruthrinae Goldberger, 1911 and polyphyletic Azygiinae Lühe, 1909. The present study is the largest taxon sampling for Azygiidae and the first to include 28S sequences of Leuceruthrus. Compact elimia and blackbanded darter are new host records for Proterometra. The new species is the 3rd congener reported from the Cahaba River, a region renowned for its fish and snail endemic biodiversity.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Percas , Trematódeos , Animais , Filogenia , Alabama , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Trematódeos/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131731

RESUMO

Despite well-documented global declines in physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known regarding the specific impact among underserved, rural Alabama counties. This is concerning as this region was already disproportionately burdened by inactivity and related chronic diseases and was among the hardest hit by COVID-19. Thus, the current study examined the effect of COVID-19 on PA in four rural Alabama counties. An ancillary survey was administered between March 2020 and August 2021 to the first cohort (N = 171) of participants enrolled in a larger PA trial. Main outcomes of this survey included the perceived impact of COVID-19 on PA, leisure-time PA, and social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs at 3 months. Almost half of the participants reported being less active during the pandemic (49.7%) and endorsed that COVID-19 made PA more difficult (47.4%), citing concerns such as getting sick from exercising outside of the home (70.4%) and discomfort wearing a face mask while exercising (58%). Perceived COVID-19 impact on PA was significantly associated with education, household dependents, and gender (p's < 0.05). More women, parents, and college graduates reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made PA more difficult. Overall, there were no significant associations between PA, SCT constructs, or perceived COVID-19 impact on PA scores at 3 months. While the pandemic made PA difficult for many participants, these barriers were not associated with leisure-time PA levels or related theoretical mechanisms of action, which bodes well for the success of our ongoing intervention efforts and the resiliency of these communities.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Sobrepeso , Pandemias , Feminino , Humanos , Alabama/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/etnologia , Exercício Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(12): 2461-2470, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987581

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) in areas of rural Alabama, USA, that have sanitation deficits. We enrolled 777 children; 704 submitted stool specimens and 227 a dried blood spot sample. We microscopically examined stool specimens from all 704 children by using Mini-FLOTAC for helminth eggs. We tested a subset by using molecular techniques: real-time PCR analysis for 5 STH species, TaqMan Array Cards for enteric helminths, and digital PCR for Necator americanus hookworm. We analyzed dried blood spots for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara spp. roundworms by using serologic testing. Despite 12% of our cohort reporting living in homes that directly discharge untreated domestic wastewater, stool testing for STH was negative; however, 5% of dried blood spots were positive for Toxocara spp. roundworms. Survey data suggests substantial numbers of children in this region may be exposed to raw sewage, which is itself a major public health concern.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Solo/parasitologia , Alabama/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
8.
BMJ ; 383: 2720, 2023 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977570

Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Humanos , Alabama
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 142(4): 873-885, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Black patients are three times more likely to die of pregnancy-related causes than White patients in the United States, and Alabama has the third worst maternal mortality rate in the nation. We sought to identify health care practitioner and maternity service factors contributing to disparities in Alabama, as well as potential strategies to address these contributors. METHODS: We conducted key informant interviews with obstetricians, nurses, doulas, lactation counselors, health system administrators, and representatives of professional organizations who deliver maternity care to racially and ethnically diverse patients in Alabama. The interview guide was developed using Howell's conceptual framework on racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Adopting a thematic analysis approach, we coded and analyzed transcripts using NVivo 12 software. Open coding and selective coding were conducted to identify themes related to health care practitioner- and maternity services-level determinants. RESULTS: Overall, 20 health care practitioners or administrators were interviewed. Primary themes related to health care practitioners included implicit bias and explicit racism, lack of communication and lack of positive patient-health care practitioner relationships, lack of cultural sensitivity, and variation in clinical knowledge and experience. Primary themes related to maternity services included lack of accessibility, inadequate quality and content of care, lack of continuity of care, discriminatory facility policies, and workforce shortages and lack of diversity. Strategies suggested by participants to address these factors included bias trainings for health care practitioners, improvements in racial and interdisciplinary diversity in the maternity workforce, and evidence-based interventions such as group prenatal care, disparities dashboards, simulation trainings, early warning signs criteria, and coordinated care. CONCLUSION: We gained diverse perspectives from health care practitioners and administrators on how maternity health care practitioner and maternity health services factors contribute to inequities in maternal health in Alabama. Strategies to address these contributing factors were multifaceted.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Alabama , Grupos Raciais , Instalações de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
10.
BMJ Open ; 13(9): e072253, 2023 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666558

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Incorrect penicillin allergy records are recognised as an important barrier to the safe treatment of infection and affect an estimated 2.7 million people in England. Penicillin allergy records are associated with worse health outcome and antimicrobial resistance. The ALlergy AntiBiotics And Microbial resistAnce (ALABAMA) trial aims to determine if an intervention package, centred around a penicillin allergy assessment pathway (PAAP) initiated in primary care, is safe and effective in improving patient health outcomes and antibiotic prescribing. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The ALABAMA trial is a multicentre, parallel-arm, open-label, randomised pragmatic trial with a nested pilot study. Adults (≥18 years) with a penicillin allergy record and who have received antibiotics in the previous 24 months will be eligible for participation. Between 1592 and 2090 participants will be recruited from participating National Health Service general practices in England. Participants will be randomised to either usual care or intervention to undergo a pre-emptive PAAP using a 1:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome measure is the percentage of treatment response failures within 28 days of an index prescription. 2090 and 1592 participants are estimated to provide 90% and 80% power, respectively, to detect a clinically important absolute difference of 7.9% in primary outcome at 1 year between groups. The trial includes a mixed-methods process evaluation and cost-effectiveness evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial has been approved by London Bridge Research Ethics Committee (ref: 19/LO/0176). It will be conducted in compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent will be obtained from all subjects involved in the study. The primary trial results will be submitted for publication to an international, peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN20579216.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Humanos , Alabama , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina Estatal , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto
11.
Am J Manag Care ; 29(9): e274-e279, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Continuity of care measures are widely used to evaluate the quality of health care delivery, but which visits are included vary across studies. Our objective was to determine how the provider specialties included affect continuity values, year-to-year stability, and association with emergency department (ED) visits. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of Alabama Medicaid administrative data. METHODS: We included beneficiaries with diabetes who had at least 3 outpatient visits in each of 2018 and 2019 (N = 9578). We defined 3 provider groupings: all providers, diabetes-broad (primary care, cardiology, neurology, endocrinology, ophthalmology, nephrology, and psychiatry), and diabetes-narrow (primary care and endocrinology). Continuity of care was calculated using the Continuity of Care Index (COCI) for each provider grouping. We compared correlation between measures and from year to year using Spearman correlations, and we used multivariable logistic regression to determine association with ED visits. RESULTS: The mean COCI was 0.54 using visits with all providers, 0.64 with diabetes-broad providers, and 0.83 with diabetes-narrow providers. COCI with diabetes-narrow providers was moderately correlated with the broader sets of providers (Spearman ρ, 0.52-0.65). Comparing each participant's COCI in 2018 with that in 2019, the mean intraperson difference was similar (0.16-0.22), and correlation was moderate (Spearman ρ, 0.41-0.47) for each measure. COCI had similar weak association with ED visits using each provider grouping (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99 for each 0.1-unit difference in COCI). CONCLUSIONS: Continuity values differed substantially depending on which provider specialties were included. The importance of this variation is uncertain, as continuity was weakly associated with ED visits using each of the measures.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Alabama , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(2S): S99-S107, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using the Asset Bundle Model, we sought to understand the social support assets and needs of underrepresented minority (URM) high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. SETTING: Study participants were or had participated in health sciences pathway programs at Birmingham City Schools and/or the University of Alabama at Birmingham. METHODS: We took a concurrent mixed methods approach to conduct an environmental scan of health science pathway programs in the Birmingham, AL area. Four focus groups were conducted between November 2022 and January 2023, and a 225-item online survey was administered between November 4, 2022, and February 4, 2023. Both tools collected data from high school, undergraduate, and graduate students to examine key components of existing health care pathways programs for URMs and identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of such programs. RESULTS: Twenty-two students participated in the focus groups, and 168 individuals responded to the survey. Both focus group participants and interview respondents were primarily URMs (eg, 68.2% and 65.7% identified as Black or African American, respectively). Survey responses and focus group discussions showed that, overall, undergraduate and graduate students programs develop more robust identities as future health care professionals through friendships and institutional supports, expand their networks more broadly through mentorship, and feel more supported by family members in their academic endeavors than high school students. CONCLUSIONS: Health science pathway programs for URMs should facilitate and bolster social supports for students, especially those in high school, to enhance persistence through education and into the workforce.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Alabama , Estudantes , Escolaridade , Apoio Social
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 20: E81, 2023 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in diabetes management, only one-quarter of people with diabetes in the US achieve optimal targets for glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol. We sought to evaluate temporal trends and predictors of achieving glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes covered by Alabama Medicaid from 2011 through 2019. METHODS: We completed a retrospective analysis of Medicaid claims and laboratory data, using person-years as the unit of analysis. Inclusion criteria were being aged 19 to 64 years, having a diabetes diagnosis, being continuously enrolled in Medicaid for a calendar year and preceding 12 months, and having at least 1 HbA1c result during the study year. Primary outcomes were HbA1c thresholds of <7% and <8%. Primary exposure was study year. We conducted separate multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions to evaluate relationships between study year and HbA1c thresholds. RESULTS: We included 43,997 person-year observations. Mean (SD) age was 51.0 (9.9) years; 69.4% were women; 48.1% were Black, 42.9% White, and 0.4% Hispanic. Overall, 49.1% had an HbA1c level of <7% and 64.6% <8%. Later study years and poverty-based eligibility were associated with lower probability of reaching target HbA1c levels of <7% or <8%. Sex, race, ethnicity, and geography were not associated with likelihood of reaching HbA1c <7% or <8% in any model. CONCLUSION: Later study years were associated with lower likelihood of meeting target HbA1c levels compared with 2011, after adjusting for covariates. With approximately 35% not meeting an HbA1c target of <8%, more work is needed to improve outcomes of low-income adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Controle Glicêmico , Alabama/epidemiologia , Medicaid , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
South Med J ; 116(9): 776-781, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) is complex, involving biological, psychological, and social factors to be considered when designing effective programs. Trauma-informed psychiatric care integrated with a developmentally appropriate intensive 12-step approach is being used at A Reprieve for Women (Reprieve), a long-term intensive residential recovery program for female emerging adults with SUDs located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The Reprieve treatment philosophy focuses on long-term intensive care, treatment of coexisting trauma and psychiatric disorders, and development of life skills. The purpose of this article is to outline Reprieve's programmatic features and report Reprieve's 1- and 2-year sobriety rates for women who completed the 6-month residential program and compare it with national sobriety rates for other residential SUD treatment programs. METHODS: Reprieve provided 1- and 2-year sobriety rates and duration of treatment from 110 deidentified participants who completed Reprieve's 6-month residential program between September 2016 and November 2020. The researchers defined sobriety as complete abstinence from any addictive substances. Reprieve staff contacted program graduates to determine sobriety status following completion of the program. This research, approved by the University of Alabama's institutional review board, involved usable data points from 68 of the 110 participants. RESULTS: We determined that Reprieve has a 75% 1-year sobriety rate and a 63% 2-year sobriety rate. The national average sobriety rate for people completing SUD treatment in residential programs is 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Reprieve's higher-than-national sobriety rates make it a valuable program to study. Its emphasis on the treatment of coexisting psychiatric problems and past traumas, development of life skills, and the unique needs of female emerging adults may contribute to the program's success. It is hoped that this program description and preliminary analysis of outcomes will provide valuable information for future SUD treatment program development. More rigorous study is needed to delineate the effects of specific programmatic features on sobriety.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Alabama , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Desenvolvimento de Programas
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(35): 938-943, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651272

RESUMO

In the United States, unintentional falls are the leading cause of injury and injury death among adults aged ≥65 years (older adults). Patterns of nonfatal and fatal falls differ by sex and state. To describe this variation, data from the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2021 National Vital Statistics System were used to ascertain the percentage of older adults who reported falling during the previous year and unintentional fall-related death rates among older adults. Measures were stratified by demographic characteristics, U.S. Census Bureau region, and state. In 2020, 14 million (27.6%) older adults reported falling during the previous year. The percentage of women who reported falling (28.9%) was higher than that among men (26.1%). The percentage of older adults who reported falling ranged from 19.9% (Illinois) to 38.0% (Alaska). In 2021, 38,742 (78.0 per 100,000 population) older adults died as the result of unintentional falls. The unintentional fall-related death rate was higher among men (91.4 per 100,000) than among women (68.3). The fall-related death rate among older adults ranged from 30.7 per 100,000 (Alabama) to 176.5 (Wisconsin). CDC's Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths and Injuries (STEADI) initiative recommends that health care providers screen and assess older adults for fall risk and intervene using effective preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Alaska , Alabama , Illinois , Wisconsin
16.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 63(6): 1731-1742.e4, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37619850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that Alabama has the highest opioid prescribing rate in the nation, efforts to promote safe opioid use and reduce overdose mortality are critical. To address this, the Auburn University Harrison College of Pharmacy developed and piloted a didactic-experiential naloxone learning model in the first-year PharmD curriculum in 2020-2021 consisting of lectures, skills laboratory, and 120-hour community pharmacy introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Student-delivered naloxone education services (SDNES), including naloxone counseling and dispensing, were incorporated into the IPPE. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and usefulness of SDNES frovm the perspective of community pharmacy IPPE preceptors. METHODS: This study used a mixed methods design including cross-sectional online surveys and follow-up semistructured telephone interviews. Survey measures were informed by validated scales and included feasibility (11 items), acceptability (13 items), and usefulness (6 items) of SDNES. Survey outcomes were assessed via 5-point Likert-type scales (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Follow-up semistructured telephone interview questions were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains of inner and outer setting and focused on SDNES barriers and facilitators, recommended strategies for service enhancement, and resource needs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using deductive and inductive rapid content analysis to determine themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Twenty-five preceptor surveys were completed (22.52% response rate). Overall, SDNES was rated as feasible (mean [SD] scale score 4.04 [0.77]), acceptable (3.95 [0.83]), and useful (3.87 [0.98]). Interviewees (N = 8) discussed 13 barrier subthemes, 12 facilitator subthemes, 7 recommended strategies, and 8 resource needs across 3 overarching themes, most of which were related to the inner setting. CONCLUSION: Community pharmacy IPPE preceptors found SDNES feasible, acceptable, and useful in their practices. The SDNES model may be used to build capacity for naloxone services delivery in community pharmacies, potentially increasing patient access to naloxone education and distribution.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Overdose de Drogas , Educação em Farmácia , Farmácias , Humanos , Naloxona , Analgésicos Opioides , Farmacêuticos , Alabama , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudantes , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes
17.
Chemosphere ; 340: 139906, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611771

RESUMO

Increasing loading of phosphorus (P) into freshwater systems is deemed as one of the key drivers triggering harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, conventional water quality monitoring of P normally uses the operational cutoff (e.g., 450-nm filter membrane) to separate particulate and dissolved phases (entities passing through the 450-nm membrane are regarded as dissolved phase), which completely neglects the roles of small colloids (450-100 nm) and nanoparticles (100-1 nm). Herein, a new particle size separation approach was used to separate water samples collected from catfish aquaculture ponds in west Alabama into six size fractions: large particles (>1000 nm), large colloids (1000-450 nm), small colloids (450-100 nm), large nanoparticles (100-50 nm), small nanoparticles (50-1 nm), and the truly dissolved phase (<1 nm). The speciation and concentration of P in these six size fractions were then investigated using Hedley's sequential extraction method. The new particle size separation results showed that particle loading (mass) followed the order: >1000 nm, 450-100 nm, 1000-450 nm, 100-50 nm, and 50-1 nm. This is mainly due to the abundance of large-sized (>1000 nm) zooplankton and phytoplankton such as algae and cyanobacteria in the catfish aquaculture ponds. Importantly, the small colloid (450-100 nm) and nanoparticle (100-1 nm) size fractions, which were previously regarded as the dissolved phase using the 450-nm membrane filtration operation, accounted for ∼41.8% of the total particle mass. The Hedley's sequential extraction results showed that sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-extracted P represented the largest P pool, followed by water (H2O)- and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-extracted P pools. Smaller particles exhibited a higher loading of P due to their large surface areas. These new findings suggest that the new particle size separation approach needs to be adopted for future water quality monitoring and mitigation of HABs in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Nanopartículas , Animais , Fósforo , Lagoas , Alabama , Ecossistema , Aquicultura , Coloides
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(8): 2575-2581, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the HPV vaccine is known to prevent associated cancers, studies found a low awareness among Korean Americans (KA). This study aimed to examine the HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among KA in Alabama. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 278 KA residing in Alabama to understand the levels of HPV and HPV vaccine awareness and associated factors. RESULTS: Those who heard of HPV were 31.7% and 29.5% for HPV vaccine. Those who were older than 50 years old and married were less likely to hear of HPV and HPV vaccine. Those who were female and had annual health check-ups were more likely to hear of both. Using the Internet for health information was positively associated with HPV vaccine awareness. DISCUSSION: HPV education tailored to sociodemographic and using the Internet might be an effective strategy in improving the HPV and HPV vaccine awareness levels.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Uso da Internet , Alabama , Papillomavirus Humano , Asiático , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico
19.
J Parasitol ; 109(4): 349-356, 2023 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37527275

RESUMO

While surveying the parasites of birds associated with western Alabama aquaculture ponds, we collected several specimens of Anativermis normdroneni n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae) from the nasopharyngeal cavity of a Canada goose, Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Anseriformes: Anatidae). These flukes were heat killed and fixed in neutral buffered formalin for morphology or preserved in 95% ethanol for DNA extraction. Anativermis resembles Morishitium (Witenberg, 1928) by having testes that are spheroid with smooth margins and located in the posterior quarter of the body, an anterior testis that is lateral to the midline and abuts the respective cecum, a posterior testis that is medial (testes diagonal) and abuts the cyclocoel, a genital pore that is immediately postpharyngeal, and a vitellarium that is discontinuous posteriorly. The new genus differs from Morishitium and is unique among all other cyclocoelid genera by having the combination of a body that is broadest in the anterior body half, a posterior body end that is more sharply tapered than the anterior body end, an ovary that nearly abuts the posterior testis, a vitellarium that is asymmetrical and distributes from the area immediately posterior to the cecal bifurcation posteriad to approximately the level of the ovary, and uterine loops extending dorsolateral to the ceca and filling the space between the ceca and the respective body margin for nearly the entire body length. The new genus was recovered as a distinct lineage in separate 28S, 18S, and ITS2 phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of a cyclocoelid infecting the Canada goose and of a cyclocoelid from Alabama.


Assuntos
Anseriformes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Alabama/epidemiologia , Patos , Canadá , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 155: 87-102, 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37650480

RESUMO

Between 2010 and 2014, an unusual mortality event (UME) involving bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico, associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS). Cause of death (COD) patterns in bottlenose dolphins since then have not been analyzed, and baseline prevalence data for Brucella ceti and cetacean morbillivirus, 2 pathogens previously reported in this region, are lacking. We analyzed records from bottlenose dolphins stranded in Alabama from 2015 to 2020 with necropsy and histological findings to determine COD (n = 108). This period included another UME in 2019 associated with prolonged freshwater exposure. A subset of individuals that stranded during this period were selected for molecular testing for Brucella spp. and Morbillivirus spp. Causes of death for all age classes were grouped into 6 categories, including (1) human interaction, (2) infectious disease, (3) noninfectious disease (prolonged freshwater exposure and degenerative), (4) trauma, (5) multifactorial, and (6) unknown. Two additional categories unique to perinates included fetal distress and in utero pneumonia. Human interaction was the most common primary COD (19.4%) followed closely by infectious disease (17.6%) and noninfectious disease (freshwater exposure; 13.9%). Brucella was detected in 18.4% of the 98 animals tested, but morbillivirus was not detected in any of the 66 animals tested. Brucella was detected in some moderately to severely decomposed carcasses, indicating that it may be beneficial to test a broad condition range of stranded animals. This study provides valuable information on COD in bottlenose dolphins in Alabama following the DWHOS and is the first to examine baseline prevalence of 2 common pathogens in stranded animals from this region.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Poluição por Petróleo , Animais , Humanos , Causas de Morte , Alabama/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/veterinária , Prevalência
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