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1.
Clin Lab ; 70(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a helminthic infection found in tropical areas. It is commonly seen in patients in contact with soil contaminated by cat and dog hookworm larvae. CLM manifests as an erythematous, serpiginous, and pruritic cutaneous eruption. We present a case of a 27-year-old female with a serpiginous lesion on the plantar surface of the right foot. METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient was prescribed Albendazole at 400 mg twice a day for three days. After treatment, the lesion and pruritus have decreased in severity. CONCLUSIONS: Hookworm-related CLM is diagnosed clinically based on the typical clinical presentation. Clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of hookworm-related CLM with a history of travel to tropical areas, especially walking barefoot.


Assuntos
Larva Migrans , Feminino , Cães , Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Adulto , Larva Migrans/diagnóstico , Larva Migrans/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Viagem , Catalase/uso terapêutico
2.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 20(2): 124-127, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495659

RESUMO

Cardiac echinococcosis is a rare and severe manifestation of hydatid disease. It is caused by parasitic infestation by the Echinococcus species and can lead to life-threatening complications. Diagnosis is difficult due to nonspecific symptoms, but echocardiography is a highly sensitive diagnostic method. Albendazole treatment is effective in managing these cysts and can be an alternative to surgery. A patient with multiple cardiac hydatid cysts was successfully treated with albendazole, highlighting the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent life-threatening complications.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Animais , Humanos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Coração , Ecocardiografia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6841, 2024 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514717

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are major constraints to health and productivity of small ruminants. Methods of their control relies mainly on anthelmintic drugs; however, the indiscriminate use of these drugs could lead to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR). This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of GINs infection, and field evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy in sheep. The epidemiological data were collected using a cross-sectional study design while a farm-based field study design was employed for the evaluation of anthelminthic efficacy. Furthermore, standard parasitological techniques were employed for qualitative and quantitative worm identification. The overall prevalence indicated 50.3%. Six genera of GINs (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum/Chabertia, Trichuris, Teladosargia/Ostertagia and Nematodirus) were identified. Among the identified genera, Haemonchus (25.4%) and Trichostrongylus (24.8%) were the dominant genera followed by mixed infection (21.8%), Oesophagostomum/Chabertia (10.4%), Trichuris (7.8%), Teladosargia (Ostertagia) (5.7%) and Nematodirus (4.1%). Mixed infections consisted either of double infections with Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus, or triple infections with Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Trichuris. The McMaster egg counting results showed that the mean EPG of infected sheep was 845.6. The results also showed 66 (34.2%), 101 (52.3%) and 26 (13.5%) sheep had low, moderate and heavy worm burden, respectively. Albendazole and Ivermectin showed low efficacy (percentage reductions = 90% and 92%; 95% lower confidence limit = 82.1% and 83.6% respectively) whereas Tetramisole was effective (FECR% = 96.8%; 95% LCL = 93.4%). Factors such as age, body condition, management system and past deworming history of sheep were found to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05) influence on the occurrence and burden of the worms. This is further explained as the highest prevalence and worm burden was detected in sheep of young age (p = 0.008; OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.39-0.87), poor body condition (p = 0.001; OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.04-0.16) and sheep kept under semi-intensive (p = 0.04; OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.02-2.29) with no deworming history for the last two months (p = 0.001; OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.94-4.56). The study results revealed that nematode infections were among sheep health constraints that could hurt their productivity while low efficacy of Albendazole and Ivermectin were detected. Therefore, the appropriate management techniques of GIN infections should be designed and implemented. Moreover, a further study involving more sensitive techniques (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC, molecular, and serological techniques) should be conducted by considering different host and environmental risk factors such as production level and seasons.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ruminantes , Trichostrongylus , Oesophagostomum , Trichuris , Fezes
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 57: e008012024, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451691

RESUMO

We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis associated with the ingestion of raw fish (Cichla sp.) from the Brazilian Amazon, likely caused by Gnathostoma. A 36-year-old male visited Juruena river on a fishing trip. After 50 days, the patient presented with an intense frontal headache. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed 63% eosinophilia. Another individual who ingested raw fish developed linear dermatitis on the abdominal wall. Anti-Gnathostoma serum antibodies were detected, and the patient made a full recovery after treatment with corticosteroids and albendazole. To date, autochthonous Gnathostoma spp. infections in Latin American countries have only caused linear panniculitis. This report raises awareness of gnathostomiasis-causing meningitis.


Assuntos
Gnatostomíase , Meningite , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Gnatostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil , Meningite/diagnóstico , Meningite/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ingestão de Alimentos
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5843, 2024 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462650

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. The majority of currently available anti-trichinellosis medications exhibit inadequate efficacy. The efficacy of a natively prepared new formulation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was evaluated in the treatment of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection in mice alone and combined with multivitamin-mineral (MM). After investigating the product's biological and pharmacological characteristics, its therapeutic dose was estimated to be Ag-NPs at 21.5 mg/kg B.W. This dose was orally inoculated to experimentally infected mice at 3-5 days post-inoculation (dpi) against the mature worms, at 8-10 dpi against the newborn larvae, and at 33-35th dpi against the encapsulated larvae. Each treatment's efficacy was assessed by scarifying control and treated mice 3 days post-treatment. The drug alone or in supplement form has a high trichinocidal effect exceeding that of the reference drug. Early treatment (3-5 dpi) by Ag-NPs or Ag-NPs + MM and albendazole revealed high efficacy against the intestinal stage, reaching 93.3%, 94.7%, and 90.6% for the three treatments, respectively. The materials causing a significant (P-value < 0.001) decrease in the mean encapsulated larvae reached 86.61%, 89.07%, and 88.84%/gm of muscles using the three treatments, respectively. Moreover, all larvae extracted from Ag-NPs-treated groups failed to induce infection post-inoculation in new mice. Additionally, combining the material with MM proved to overcome the reversible adverse effects of silver material on the estimated redox parameters and liver and kidney biomarkers, denoting its ability to alleviate Ag-NP toxicity. In conclusion, the high trichinocidal effect of Ag-NPs against the adult and encapsulated larvae during a short inoculation period introduced Ag-NPs as an alternative to other nematicidal drugs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Camundongos , Animais , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Larva , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 141, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intermuscular hydatid cyst is one of the rarest types of hydatid cyst, and as far as we know, only nine cases were reported in the literature before this study. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 10-year-old Iranian child with an intermuscular cystic mass in the medial-distal thigh. Despite the typical imaging findings, the patient's serological and hematological tests were negative for hydatid cyst. The cyst underwent wide excision accompanied by neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with Albendazole. No evidence of recurrence was detected during the one-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue cystic masses in endemic areas, and aspiration or drainage should be avoided as much as possible, even when serological tests are negative and imaging is non-diagnostic. In cases where the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst has been confirmed before the surgery, it is recommended to approach the cyst, like a tumor with chemotherapy using Albendazole both before and after wide cyst excision.


Assuntos
Cistos , Equinococose , Criança , Humanos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Irã (Geográfico) , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/terapia , Equinococose/patologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 687-690, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442429

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. It ranges in severity from mundane to life-threatening, depending on organ involvement. The lungs are often affected, manifesting as coughing, wheezing, and chest pain. However, pleural effusions rarely occur in patients with pulmonary toxocariasis. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with highly suspected toxocariasis who presented with an eosinophilic pleural effusion and eosinophilia. He developed dyspnea and a right-sided pleural effusion. Thoracentesis revealed an exudative effusion containing numerous eosinophils. The pleural effusion continued to increase, and the eosinophilia rapidly progressed. Although the patient had not recently had contact with animals or known exposure to contaminated food, water, or soil, toxocariasis was confirmed by positive serological test results for anti-Toxocara antibodies in the serum and pleural effusion. The patient was cured with albendazole treatment for 28 days. The pleural effusion and eosinophilia resolved and did not recur. Clinicians should consider toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with eosinophilic pleural effusions.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia , Derrame Pleural , Toxocaríase , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Idoso , Toxocaríase/complicações , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Toxocara , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294977, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427660

RESUMO

The impact of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) (initiated in 2000 in Ghana and ran for 12 years) in mitigating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in LF-endemic areas is unknown. During a 1-year hiatus which ensued between 2011 and 2012, a longitudinal study was conducted to determine GPELF effect on hookworm infections in selected communities involved in the programme since its inception, while measuring the effectiveness of biannual ALB treatments on schoolchildren living in such communities. A total of 399 school children aged 3 to 18 years were randomly selected from four communities in the Kpandai district of northern Ghana. Each presented a single stool sample at baseline, 21 days post-treatment, at the 3rd and 6th months, 21 days post-second intervention (i.e. following sample collection and treatment with ALB in the 6th month), and in the ninth month of the study period. Haemoglobin (hb) levels were also measured at all time points using finger prick blood samples and a URIT digital test kit. Each participant submitting a sample, was treated with a single-dose ALB (400mg) at baseline and in the sixth month. Stool samples were processed by preparing duplicate Kato-Katz slides per sample, and examined by microscopy. The Body Mass Index-for-age z-scores (BAZ) of participants were assessed following the determination of BMIs at each time point by measuring their height and weight with a stadiometer and weighing scale. Overall hookworm prevalences were 25.68% (95% CI = 20.51-31.75) at baseline, 11.18% (95% CI = 7.87-15.41) 21 days post-treatment, 11.78% (95% CI = 8.38-16.11) and 6.95% (95% CI = 4.41-10.43) in the 3rd and 6th months, 0.91% (95% CI = 0.19-2.65) 21 days post-second intervention, and 8.46% (95% CI = 5.62-12.23) in the ninth month. Observed overall faecal egg count reduction rates (ERRs) were 94.21% (95% CI = 81.50%- 100.00%) 21 days after baseline treatment, 97.70% (95% CI = 85.08-100.00) and 96.95% (95% CI = 84.18%- 100.00%) in the 3rd and 6th months, 99.98% (95% CI = 86.42%- 100.00%) 21 days post-second intervention, and 17.18% (95% CI = 14.07%- 20.67%) in the 9th month. Respective cure rates (CRs) were 62.35% (95% CI = 46.71-81.56%), 85.88% (95% CI = 67.32-100.00%), 87.06% (95% CI = 68.36%- 100.00%), 98.82% (95% CI = 78.83%- 100.00%), and 36.36% (95% CI = 9.91%- 93.11%). Additionally, increases in the percent frequency of 'normal hb' (p < 0.01) were observed across the study time points, whilst 'normal BAZ' cases remained high (from 94.87% to 98.87%) throughout the study period. These findings primarily indicate satisfactory effectiveness of ALB which may be maintainable in mass drug administration programmes by the modification of treatment strategies from annual to bi-annual regimes. This could minimize the likelihood of emerging poorly-responding hookworm phenotypes in Ghana. Additionally, a positive impact of bi-annual treatment on participant anaemia status is herein indicated with particular regard to the school children in our cohort.


Assuntos
Anemia , Anti-Helmínticos , Filariose Linfática , Helmintíase , Infecções por Uncinaria , Criança , Humanos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gana/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Solo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6271, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491091

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections continue to be a persistent global public health problem. Control strategies for STH have been based on the use of mass drug administration (MDA). Coverage and compliance assessment is critical to understanding the true effectiveness of albendazole (ABZ) in those MDA programs. The aims of this work were to characterize the pattern of albendazole and metabolites excretion in human saliva, and to develop a saliva-based biomarker (HPLC drug/metabolite detection) useful to accurately estimate the coverage/compliance in MDA campaigns. The study subjects were 12 healthy volunteers treated with a single oral dose of ABZ (400 mg). Saliva and blood (dried blood spot, DBS) samples were taken previously and between 2 and 72 h post-treatment. The samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detection, C18 reversed-phase column. ABZ sulphoxide was the main analyte recovered up to 72 h p.t. in blood and saliva. The concentration profiles measured in the blood (DBS samples) were higher (P < 0.05) than those in saliva, however, this ABZ-metabolite was recovered longer in saliva. The in vivo measurement of drugs/metabolites in saliva samples from ABZ-treated volunteers offers strong scientific evidence to support the use of saliva as a valid biological sample for assessing compliance in MDA programs.


Assuntos
Albendazol , Anti-Helmínticos , Humanos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Saliva/metabolismo , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Cooperação do Paciente
10.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist ; 24: 100527, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447333

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes causing serious losses in sheep production of tropical and subtropical regions. Prophylaxis of gastrointestinal nematode infections is based on anthelmintics use, but their frequent administration selects multiple-resistant parasites. To evaluate how the situation has changed over the last decades, the anthelmintic resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep flocks was assessed in the current study and compared to previous surveys. In each one of the 15 flocks evaluated, animals (n ≥ 7) were allocated into at least five groups and treated as follows: 1) untreated control; 2) albendazole; 3) levamisole; 4) ivermectin; and 5) monepantel. If more animals were available, two additional groups were included: 6) closantel, and 7) moxidectin. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was carried out to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment using the SHINY tool. Haemonchus spp. was the most prevalent nematode from faecal cultures. The mean efficacy of albendazole was 40%. Only in two farms, levamisole presented a relatively high percentage of reduction in the FECRT about 90%, while ivermectin and moxidectin presented the worst mean efficacy of 34% and 21% among all farms, respectively. Like other anthelmintics, closantel demonstrated low efficacy (63%) across all farms evaluated. Monepantel presented an overall mean efficacy of 79%, but it was the only anthelmintic that presented efficacy ≥95%, in five farms. The results revealed that gastrointestinal nematodes with multiple anthelmintic resistance were prevalent in all 15 sheep herds. The research suggests that nematodes are becoming more and more resistant to various anthelmintic compounds, which has made the problem worse. This circumstance highlights the necessity to put into practice sustainable and long-lasting methods to prevent gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep husbandry.


Assuntos
Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Macrolídeos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Salicilanilidas , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Resistência a Medicamentos
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012073, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control efforts of soil-transmitted helminthiases rely primarily on large scale administration of anthelminthic drugs. The assessment of drug efficacies and understanding of drug behavior is pivotal to the evaluation of treatment successes, both in preventive chemo-therapy programs as well as in research of novel treatment options. The current WHO guidelines recommend an interval of 14-21 days between the treatment and follow-up, yet no in-depth analysis of egg excretion patterns of Trichuris trichiura after treatment has been conducted to date. METHODS: Within the framework of a multi-country trial to assess the efficacy and safety of albendazole-ivermectin combination therapy vs albendazole monotherapy against T. trichiura infections, we conducted a study collecting daily stool samples over the period of 28 days post-treatment in 87 participants in Pak Khan, Lao PDR. Egg counts were derived by duplicate Kato-Katz on-site for T. trichiura, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides and stool sample aliquots were subsequently analyzed by qPCR for the detection of T. trichiura infections. Sensitivity and specificity was calculated for each day separately using data derived by Kato-Katz to determine the optimal timepoint at which to assess drug efficacy. RESULTS: Egg excretion patterns varied across treatment arms. For T. trichiura, only the albendazole-ivermectin treatment led to a considerable reduction in mean egg counts, whereas both treatments reduced hookworm egg counts and A. lumbricoides were cleared in all participants after day 7. For T. trichiura, we found sensitivity to be highest at days 18 and 22 when using egg counts as outcome and days 19 and 24 when using qPCR. Specificity was high (>0.9) from day 14 onwards. For hookworm, the highest sensitivity and specificity were found at days 17 and 25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the ideal time period to assess drug efficacy for soil-transmitted helminth infections would be between day 18 and 24. The current WHO recommendation of 14 to 21 days is likely to yield acceptable outcome measures for soil-transmitted helminth infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03527732.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Tricuríase , Animais , Humanos , Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Solo , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ancylostomatoidea , Trichuris , Fezes
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 99, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis can affect the brain by inducing inflammatory and vascular changes. Drug management with the antiparasitic drug albendazole can be enhanced by natural compounds such as curcumin. The potential benefit of curcumin as an adjuvant to albendazole in the management of cerebral affection during experimental T. spiralis infection was evaluated. Animals received either curcumin 150 mg/Kg, albendazole 50 mg/Kg or a combination of both drugs. Animal groups receiving treatment were compared with infected and non-infected control groups. Blood levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dopamine were measured, and brain tissue expression of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) and CD34 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: T. spiralis infection resulted in a state of oxidative stress, which was improved by albendazole and curcumin. Also, both drugs restored the peripheral dopamine level, which was decreased in infected non-treated mice. Curcumin was also found to be efficient in improving brain pathology and reducing local COX-2 and CD 34 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory and pathological changes during neurotrichinosis can be improved by the addition of curcumin to conventional anti-parasitic drugs.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Camundongos , Animais , Albendazol/farmacologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico , Triquinelose/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Dopamina/uso terapêutico
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 63, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combined application of predatory fungi and antiparasitic drugs is a sustainable approach for the integrated control of animal gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. However, literature addressing the possible interference of antiparasitic drugs on the performance of these fungi is still scarce. This research aimed to assess the in vitro susceptibility of six native coccidicidal fungi isolates of the species Mucor circinelloides and one Mucor lusitanicus isolate to several antiparasitic drugs commonly used to treat GI parasites' infections in birds, namely anthelminthics such as Albendazole, Fenbendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin, and anticoccidials such as Lasalocid, Amprolium and Toltrazuril (drug concentrations of 0.0078-4 µg/mL), using 96-well microplates filled with RPMI 1640 medium, and also on Sabouraud Agar (SA). RESULTS: This research revealed that the exposition of all Mucor isolates to the tested anthelminthic and anticoccidial drug concentrations did not inhibit their growth. Fungal growth was recorded in RPMI medium, after 48 h of drug exposure, as well as on SA medium after exposure to the maximum drug concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings from this research suggest the potential compatibility of these Mucor isolates with antiparasitic drugs for the integrated control of avian intestinal parasites. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários , Mucor , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Albendazol
14.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 188, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is the most common parasitic nematode in ruminants and is prevalent worldwide. H. contortus resistance to albendazole (ABZ) hinders the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate this of drug resistance. Recent research has demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can exert significant influence as pivotal regulators of the emergence of drug resistance. RESULTS: In this study, transcriptome sequencing was conducted on both albendazole-sensitive (ABZ-sensitive) and albendazole-resistant (ABZ-resistant) H. contortus strains, with three biological replicates for each group. The analysis of lncRNA in the transcriptomic data revealed that there were 276 differentially expressed lncRNA (DElncRNA) between strains with ABZ-sensitive and ABZ-resistant according to the criteria of |log2Foldchange|≥ 1 and FDR < 0.05. Notably, MSTRG.12969.2 and MSTRG.9827.1 exhibited the most significant upregulation and downregulation, respectively, in the resistant strains. The potential roles of the DElncRNAs included catalytic activity, stimulus response, regulation of drug metabolism, and modulation of the immune response. Moreover, we investigated the interactions between DElncRNAs and other RNAs, specifically MSTRG.12741.1, MSTRG.11848.1, MSTRG.5895.1, and MSTRG.14070.1, involved in regulating drug stimulation through cis/trans/antisense/lncRNA‒miRNA-mRNA interaction networks. This regulation leads to a decrease (or increase) in the expression of relevant genes, consequently enhancing the resistance of H. contortus to albendazole. Furthermore, through comprehensive analysis of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) involved in drug resistance-related pathways, such as the mTOR signalling pathway and ABC transporter signalling pathway, the relevance of the MSTRG.2499.1-novel-m0062-3p-HCON_00099610 interaction was identified to mainly involve the regulation of catalytic activity, metabolism, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation of gene promoters. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) validation indicated that the transcription profiles of six DElncRNAs and six DEmRNAs were consistent with those obtained by RNA-seq. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study allowed us to better understand the changes in the lncRNA expression profile of ABZ-resistant H. contortus. In total, these results suggest that the lncRNAs MSTRG.963.1, MSTRG.12741.1, MSTRG.11848.1 and MSTRG.2499.1 play important roles in the development of ABZ resistance and can serve as promising biomarkers for further study.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Albendazol/farmacologia , Albendazol/análise , Albendazol/metabolismo , Haemonchus/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/metabolismo , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 16, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control guidelines endorse the use of albendazole or mebendazole for school-based targeted preventive chemotherapy (PC), yet their reduced efficacy against Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura presents significant limitations. Emerging evidence indicates that community-wide PC [or mass drug administration (MDA)] using ivermectin, commonly used in other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control programs, may play an important role in controlling these parasites. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of ivermectin PC in reducing STH prevalence in endemic populations. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and Web of Science on February 14, 2023, for studies that investigated the effectiveness of ivermectin PC, either alone or in combination with other anthelmintic drugs, on STH infections, and provided a measure of STH prevalence before and after PC. We calculated pooled prevalence reductions for each STH using random-effects meta-analyses. Our protocol is available on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42023401219). RESULTS: A total of 21 were eligible for the systematic review, of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. All studies delivered ivermectin through MDA. The pooled prevalence reduction of S. stercoralis following MDA with ivermectin alone was 84.49% (95% CI 54.96-94.66) across five studies and 81.37% (95% CI 61.62-90.96) across seven studies with or without albendazole. The prevalence reduction of T. trichiura was 49.93% (95% CI 18.23-69.34) across five studies with ivermectin alone, and 89.40% (95% CI 73.66-95.73) across three studies with the addition of albendazole. There was high heterogeneity for all syntheses (I2 > 65%). CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the key role of ivermectin-based MDA in addressing limitations in current global STH guidelines in terms of limited efficacy against S. stercoralis and T. trichiura. Based on these findings, revising international STH guidelines to include ivermectin is a promising option to progress the control and eventual elimination of STHs and other NTDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1288: 342196, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220264

RESUMO

Albendazole (ABZ), a benzimidazole-based anthelmintic, is widely used to treat helminth infections. The extensive and improper use of ABZ may cause drug residues in animal-origin food and anthelmintics resistance, which potentially threaten human health. Meanwhile, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), a metabolite of ABZ, also exhibits toxic effects. Therefore, the detection of ABZ and ABZSO in animal-derived food is significantly necessary. Herein, a dual-emission europium fluorescent sensor (EuUHC-30) was rationally designed and constructed. EuUHC-30 exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity towards ABZ and ABZSO with a detection limit of 0.10 and 0.13 µM, respectively. Furthermore, EuUHC-30 was successfully applied for quantification of ABZ and ABZSO in milk and pig kidney, which were verified by HPLC analysis. Moreover, a smartphone-assisted EuUHC-30 fluorescent paper sensor was fabricated for the practical determination of ABZ and ABZSO in real food. Overall, this work provides a visual, rapid, and intelligent method for the detection of ABZ and ABZSO in animal-origin food.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Albendazol , Anti-Helmínticos/metabolismo , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011882, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) targeted by the World Health Organization for elimination as a public health problem (EPHP). Since 2000, more than 9 billion treatments of antifilarial medicines have been distributed through mass drug administration (MDA) programmes in 72 endemic countries and 17 countries have reached EPHP. Yet in 2021, nearly 900 million people still required MDA with combinations of albendazole, diethylcarbamazine and/or ivermectin. Despite the reliance on these drugs, there remain gaps in understanding of variation in responses to treatment. As demonstrated for other infectious diseases, some urgent questions could be addressed by conducting individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses. Here, we present the results of a systematic literature review to estimate the abundance of IPD on pre- and post-intervention indicators of infection and/or morbidity and assess the feasibility of building a global data repository. METHODOLOGY: We searched literature published between 1st January 2000 and 5th May 2023 in 15 databases to identify prospective studies assessing LF treatment and/or morbidity management and disease prevention (MMDP) approaches. We considered only studies where individual participants were diagnosed with LF infection or disease and were followed up on at least one occasion after receiving an intervention/treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 138 eligible studies from 23 countries, having followed up an estimated 29,842 participants after intervention. We estimate 14,800 (49.6%) IPD on pre- and post-intervention infection indicators including microfilaraemia, circulating filarial antigen and/or ultrasound indicators measured before and after intervention using 8 drugs administered in various combinations. We identified 33 studies on MMDP, estimating 6,102 (20.4%) IPD on pre- and post-intervention clinical morbidity indicators only. A further 8,940 IPD cover a mixture of infection and morbidity outcomes measured with other diagnostics, from participants followed for adverse event outcomes only or recruited after initial intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The LF treatment study landscape is heterogeneous, but the abundance of studies and related IPD suggest that establishing a global data repository to facilitate IPD meta-analyses would be feasible and useful to address unresolved questions on variation in treatment outcomes across geographies, demographics and in underrepresented groups. New studies using more standardized approaches should be initiated to address the scarcity and inconsistency of data on morbidity management.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática , Filaricidas , Humanos , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Dietilcarbamazina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico
18.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 12: 23247096231224328, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193443

RESUMO

Trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trichuris trichiura that spreads through the ingestion of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil, water, or food. In nonendemic areas, T trichiura infestation is very rare and sporadic and is often diagnosed in immigrants from endemic countries such as the Philippines. Whipworms feed on human blood and also erode the colonic mucosa, thereby evoking an inflammatory response. In milder forms, trichuriasis can be asymptomatic and often an incidental diagnosis on screening colonoscopy. Heavily infested patients usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, tenesmus, chronic diarrhea, iron deficiency anemia, or stunted growth. T trichiura worms can be removed with biopsy forceps during a colonoscopy; however, most patients require a course of albendazole, mebendazole, or ivermectin. We describe a unique case of T trichiura as an incidental finding during a screening colonoscopy. The whipworms were retrieved using biopsy forceps and the patient was treated with albendazole. At the time of the colonoscopy, the patient did not exhibit any specific symptoms related to the worm infestation.


Assuntos
Tricuríase , Trichuris , Humanos , Animais , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Achados Incidentais , Colonoscopia
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 8, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) program of albendazole to at-risk populations as preventive chemotherapy is the core public health intervention to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Achieving this goal relies on drug effectiveness in reducing the parasite reservoirs in the community and preventing reinfection. We assessed the efficacy of albendazole against STH parasite infection and reinfection status after cure. METHODS: A total of 984 schoolchildren infected with at least one type of STH parasite (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) in southern Ethiopia were enrolled and received albendazole and praziquantel in MDA campaign conducted from January to March 2019. Stool exams at week-4 and at week-8 of post-MDA were done using Kato Katz technique. The primary outcome was efficacy assessed by cure rate (CR) and fecal egg reduction rates (ERRs) at four weeks of post-MDA. The secondary outcome was reinfection status defined as parasite egg positivity at eight weeks among those who were cured at 4 weeks of post-MDA. Group comparisons in CR and related factors were assessed with chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Predictors of CR were examined through univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: The overall CR and ERR for hookworm infection were 97.2% (95% CI 94.6-99.4) and 97.02%, respectively. The overall CR and ERR for A. lumbricoides were 71.5% (95% CI 68.3-74.6) and 84.5% respectively. The overall CR and ERR and for T. trichiura were 49.5% (95% CI 44.8-54.2) and 68.3%, respectively. The CR among moderate T. trichiura infection intensity was 28.6%. Among children cured of hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura at week 4 post-MDA, 4.6%, 18.3% and 52.4% became reinfected at week-8 post-MDA, respectively. Significantly lower CR (36.6%) and higher reinfection after cure (60.6%) among A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura coinfected children than A. lumbricoides only (CR = 69.6%, reinfection rate = 15.1%) or T. trichiura only infected children (CR = 55.6%, reinfection rate = 47.1%) was observed. Pre-treatment coinfection with ≥ two types of STH parasites was significantly associated with re-infection after cure. CONCLUSION: Albendazole MDA is efficacious against hookworm but has reduced efficacy against A. lumbricoides and is not effective against T. trichiura. The low drug efficacy and high reinfection rate after cure underscore the need for alternative treatment and integration of other preventive measures to achieve the target of eliminating STHs as a public health problem by 2030.


Assuntos
Ascaris lumbricoides , Coinfecção , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Trichuris , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reinfecção
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1548, 2024 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233460

RESUMO

Trichinosis is a zoonotic disease of communal health concern as it instigated human outbreaks in several countries. Besides, the development of resistance, traditional therapy has numerous antagonistic effects. Thereby, finding efficient natural alternatives is required. In comparison to albendazole, this study evaluated the impact of pumpkin decoction on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected mice. The anthelmintic action of pumpkin decoction (500 mg/kg) was determined using T. spiralis infected mice in enteric phase for 5 days. Pumpkin decoction anthelmintic activity fortified by mixing with honey (1:1). Pumpkin decoction and Pumpkin decoction-honey mixture were evaluated by comprising with reference drug, albendazole (50 mg/kg). The T. spiralis adult count was significantly lower in all treated groups, with the pumpkin decoction-honey mixture showing the largest reduction (83.2%) when compared to the infected group (P ≤ 0.001). The intestinal histological changes and the level of COX-2 expression in the intestinal tissue were both significantly reduced in the same group. The pumpkin decoction improved the immune response, as evidenced by a significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and a significant increase in the expression of the transforming growth factor (TGF-1ß) and interleukin-17 (IL-17). The pumpkin decoction's anthelmintic action was facilitated by the TGF-1ß and IL-17-driven Weep and Sweep mechanism. Both administration of pumpkin decoction beside honey showed the best treatment group that resulted in high infection reduction besides amelioration of biochemical markers and restoration of histological to normal state. In conclusion, pumpkin decoction is highly effective against T. spiralis which could be a promising alternative herbal drug and the pumpkin decoction effect was higher in the case of combination with honey.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Cucurbita , Trichinella spiralis , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17 , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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