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1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 14(7): e299-e303, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral testing and treatments such as systemic steroids and inhaled corticosteroids are low-value care for routine bronchiolitis. We sought to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on low-value care in young children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We included children <2 years seen in a pediatric emergency department for bronchiolitis. We selected a priori 3 study periods: September 2018 to February 2020 (prepandemic), March 2020 to August 2022 (early pandemic), and September 2022 to January 2023 (late pandemic). Low-value care included respiratory syncytial virus testing, chest radiography, albuterol, or corticosteroids and was compared across the 3 time periods. RESULTS: At least 1 element of low-value care was provided in 45%, 47%, and 44% of encounters in the prepandemic, early pandemic, and late pandemic periods, respectively. There was little variation in the use of albuterol and chest radiography across time periods and a slight increase in systemic corticosteroid use from prepandemic to early and late pandemic groups. Viral testing increased from 36% prepandemic to 65% early pandemic and 67% late pandemic, which appeared to be driven by SARS-CoV-2 testing and combination viral testing. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clinically significant change in low-value care for bronchiolitis during the pandemic. Because of SARS-CoV-2 testing, however, overall frequency of viral testing increased dramatically over time. This marked increase in overall viral testing should be taken into consideration for future quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lactente , Estudos Transversais , Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/diagnóstico , Bronquiolite/terapia , Bronquiolite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido
2.
Respir Med ; 230: 107693, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salbutamol is a cornerstone for relieving acute asthma symptoms, typically administered through a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) offer an alternative, but concerns exist whether DPIs provide an effective relief during an obstructive event. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to show non-inferiority of Salbutamol Easyhaler DPI compared to pMDI with spacer in treating methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Applicability of Budesonide-formoterol Easyhaler DPI as a reliever was also assessed. METHODS: This was a randomized, parallel-group trial in subjects sent to methacholine challenge (MC) test for asthma diagnostics. Participants with at least 20 % decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were randomized to receive Salbutamol Easyhaler (2 × 200 µg), Ventoline Evohaler with spacer (4 × 100 µg) or Budesonide-formoterol Easyhaler (2 × 160/4.5 µg) as a reliever. The treatment was repeated if FEV1 did not recover to at least -10 % of baseline. RESULTS: 180 participants (69 % females, mean age 46 yrs [range 18-80], FEV1%pred 89.5 [62-142] %) completed the trial. Salbutamol Easyhaler was non-inferior to pMDI with spacer in acute relief of bronchoconstriction showing a -0.083 (95 % LCL -0.146) L FEV1 difference after the first dose and -0.032 (-0.071) L after the last dose. The differences in FEV1 between Budesonide-formoterol Easyhaler and Salbutamol pMDI with spacer were -0.163 (-0.225) L after the first and -0.092 (-0.131) L after the last dose. CONCLUSION: The study confirms non-inferiority of Salbutamol Easyhaler to Ventoline Evohaler with spacer in relieving acute bronchoconstriction, making Easyhaler a sustainable and safe reliever for MC test and supports its use during asthma attacks.


Assuntos
Albuterol , Asma , Broncoconstrição , Broncodilatadores , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Cloreto de Metacolina , Humanos , Cloreto de Metacolina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Broncoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Administração por Inalação , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Adolescente , Testes de Provocação Brônquica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Espaçadores de Inalação , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico
3.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(2): 231-234, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822517

RESUMO

The static charge on the plastic body of spacers attracts drug aerosols, reducing the drug available for inhalation from plastic spacers. Some instructions exist to decrease the electric charge on plastic spacers, such as priming them with salbutamol (20 puffs) before use. This study investigates whether priming plastic spacer devices with this method can improve the bronchodilator test result. This study included children with stable mild to moderate asthma. All subjects underwent two pulmonary function tests to evaluate their bronchodilator response on separate days at 24-48 hours intervals. On each day, spirometry was performed at the baseline and 15 min after inhalation of four puffs of salbutamol (100 µg/puff) through either a primed or a new spacer. The change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) after inhaling salbutamol was the primary outcome measure. When the patients used a new spacer, the mean baseline FEV1 (% predicted) and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) were 89.56±11.95 and 86.17±6.87, respectively. However, the mean increase in FEV1 from the baseline was 10.87±8.99 in this group. On the other hand, with the primed spacer, the respective mean baseline FEV1 and FEV1/FVC values were 89.41±12.14 and 85.49±6.76, while it increased by 12.1±11.01 after salbutamol inhalation. There were no significant differences between the techniques regarding the variation in FEV1 before and after bronchodilator use via a new spacer or primed spacer. Priming new plastic spacers with 20 puffs of salbutamol did not cause additional bronchodilation in asthmatic children, suggesting this practice is inefficient in clinics.


Assuntos
Albuterol , Asma , Broncodilatadores , Humanos , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Administração por Inalação , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espaçadores de Inalação , Plásticos , Espirometria
4.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 326: 104271, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703974

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to explore the transport, size growth, and deposition of Salbutamol Sulphate (SS) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A CT-based realistic model of human airways from the oral cavity to the 5th generation of the lung was utilized as the computational domain. Four Test Cases (TC) with varying temperature and relative humidity (RH) under two inspiratory waveforms were considered to completely evaluate the impact of inhalation conditions on particle growth. Salbutamol Sulphate (SS) is a ß2-adrenergic agonist and has been extensively used for asthma treatment. A monodispersed distribution of SS particles with an initial diameter of 167 nm was considered at the mouth inlet based on pharmaceutical data. Results indicated that inhalation of saturated/supersaturated air (RH>100%) leads to significant hygroscopic growth of SS particles with a factor of 10. In addition, the deposition efficiency of SS particles under the Quick and Deep (QD) inhalation profile was enhanced as the flow temperature and humidity increased. However, the implementation of Slow and Deep (SD) inspiratory waveform revealed that the same particle size growth is achieved in the respiratory system with lower deposition efficiency in the mouth-throat (less than 3%) and tracheobronchial airway (less than 2.18%). For the escaped particles form the right lung, in the SD waveform under TC 3, the maximum particle size distribution was for 600 nm particles with 25% probability. In the left lung, 30% of the particles were increased up to 950 nm in size. For the QD waveform in TC 3 and TC4, the most frequent particles were 800 nm with 36% probability. This holds practical significance in the context of deep lung delivery for asthmatic patients with enhanced deposition efficiency and large particle size. The findings of the present study can contribute to the development of targeted drug delivery strategies for the treatment of pulmonary diseases using hygroscopic dry powder formulations.


Assuntos
Albuterol , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Umidade , Molhabilidade , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo
5.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 18: 17534666241232264, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698565

RESUMO

What is this summary about?This summary describes the results of a clinical study called MANDALA that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2022. In the MANDALA study, researchers looked at a new asthma rescue inhaler that contains both albuterol and budesonide in a single inhaler (known as albuterol-budesonide, AIRSUPRA™). This summary describes the results for people aged 18 yearsand older who took part in the study.


Assuntos
Albuterol , Asma , Broncodilatadores , Budesonida , Combinação de Medicamentos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Humanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 296, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough in children worldwide. The diagnosis of CVA in children remains challenging. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of impulse oscillometry (IOS) pulmonary function in children with CVA. METHODS: This study included children aged 4 to 12 years diagnosed with CVA who underwent IOS pulmonary function and bronchodilation (BD) tests. A control group of healthy children was matched. Pre- and post-BD IOS parameters were recorded and presented as mean ± standard deviation or median. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the discriminatory potential of the IOS parameters for diagnosing CVA. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients with CVA and 65 control subjects were included. The baseline IOS parameters in the CVA group, except X5%pred, were significantly greater compared to the control group. After inhalation of salbutamol sulfate, all IOS parameters improved significantly in the CVA group. However, Z5%pred, R5%pred, and R20%pred remained greater in the CVA group compared to the control group. The improvement rates of IOS parameters in the CVA group significantly surpassed those in the control group. The ROC curve results for pre-BD IOS parameters and the improvement rate during the BD test showed that the combinations of pre-Z5%pred+△Z5% and pre-R5%pred+△R5% achieved the highest AUC value of 0.920 and 0.898, respectively. The AUC values of these combined parameters surpassed those of individual ones. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that children with CVA exhibit greater IOS parameters compared to healthy children. The changes in IOS parameters during the BD test provided valuable diagnostic information for CVA, and the combination of various parameters can help pediatricians accurately identify CVA in children.


Assuntos
Asma , Tosse , Oscilometria , Humanos , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Criança , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Oscilometria/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Curva ROC , Albuterol , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Broncodilatadores , Variante Tussígena da Asma
7.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 37(3): 115-124, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563793

RESUMO

Introduction: During mechanical ventilation (MV), inspired gases require heat and humidification. However, such conditions may be associated with reduced aerosol delivery efficiency. The practice of turning off heated humidification before nebulization and the impact of nebulization on humidity in a dry ventilator circuit remain topics of debate. This study aimed to assess the effect of turning off heated humidification on inhaled dose and humidity with nebulizer use during adult MV. Methods: A bronchodilator (albuterol) and two antibiotics (Colistimethate sodium and Amikacin sulfate) were nebulized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer placed at the humidifier inlet and in the inspiratory limb at the Y-piece. Additionally, albuterol was nebulized using a jet nebulizer in both placements. Aerosol particle size distribution was determined through a cascade impactor. Absolute humidity (AH) and temperature of inspired gases were determined with anemometer/hygrometers before, during, and after nebulization, before, during, and up to 60 minutes after interrupting active humidification. Aerosol collected on a filter distal to the endotracheal tube and on impactor stages were eluted and assayed by spectrophotometry. Results: The inhaled dose was greater when both nebulizers were placed at the humidifier inlet than the inspiratory limb at the Y-piece. Irrespective of the nebulizer types and placements, the inhaled dose either decreased or showed no significant change after the humidifier was turned off. The aerosol particle size ranged from 1.1 to 2.7 µm. With interruption of active humidification, humidity of inspired gas quickly dropped below recommended levels, and nebulization in dry ventilator circuit produced an AH between 10 and 20 mgH2O/L, lower than the recommended minimum of 30 mgH2O/L. Conclusion: Interrupting active humidification during MV before nebulization did not improve aerosol delivery efficiency for bronchodilator or antibiotics, but did reduce humidity below recommended levels.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Albuterol , Antibacterianos , Broncodilatadores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tamanho da Partícula , Respiração Artificial , Temperatura , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Desenho de Equipamento , Umidificadores , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 37(3): 125-131, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563958

RESUMO

Background: Some experts recommend specific ventilator settings during nebulization for mechanically ventilated patients, such as inspiratory pause, high inspiratory to expiratory ratio, and so on. However, it is unclear whether those settings improve aerosol delivery. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the impact of ventilator settings on aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: Salbutamol (5.0 mg/2.5 mL) was nebulized by a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) in an adult MV model. VMN was placed at the inlet of humidifier and 15 cm away from the Y-piece of the inspiratory limb. Eight scenarios with different ventilator settings were compared with endotracheal tube (ETT) connecting 15 cm from the Y-piece, including tidal volumes of 6-8 mL/kg, respiratory rates of 12-20 breaths/min, inspiratory time of 1.0-2.5 seconds, inspiratory pause of 0-0.3 seconds, and bias flow of 3.5 L/min. In-line suction catheter was utilized in two scenarios. Delivered drug distal to the ETT was collected by a filter, and drug was assayed by an ultraviolet spectrophotometry (276 nm). Results: Compared to the use of inspiratory pause, the inhaled dose without inspiratory pause was either higher or similar across all ventilation settings. Inhaled dose was negatively correlated with inspiratory flow with VMN placed at 15 cm away from the Y-piece (rs = -0.68, p < 0.001) and at the inlet of humidifier (rs = -0.83, p < 0.001). The utilization of in-line suction catheter reduced inhaled dose, regardless of the ventilator settings and nebulizer placements. Conclusions: When VMN was placed at the inlet of humidifier, directly connecting the Y-piece to ETT without a suction catheter improved aerosol delivery. In this configuration, the inhaled dose increased as the inspiratory flow decreased, inspiratory pause had either no or a negative impact on aerosol delivery. The inhaled dose was greater with VMN placed at the inlet of humidifier than 15 cm away the Y-piece.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Albuterol , Broncodilatadores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Respiração Artificial , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Humanos , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Catéteres , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Vibração , Sucção , Adulto , Inalação , Fatores de Tempo , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
9.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 34(1): 6, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684652

RESUMO

Short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) over-use in asthma is harmful for patients and the environment. The Investment and Impact Fund (IIF) 2022/2023 financially rewarded English primary care networks that achieved specific targets, including reducing SABA over-use (RESP-02) and lowering the mean carbon footprint per salbutamol inhaler prescribed (ES-02). SENTINEL Plus is a co-designed quality improvement package that aims to improve asthma outcomes and reduce asthma's environmental impact by addressing SABA over-use. We investigated the impact of (i) the IIF incentives and (ii) SENTINEL Plus implementation on asthma prescribing. Using Openprescribing.net data, we demonstrate that IIF 2022-2023 had no significant impact on the total number of SABA prescribed in England (25,927,252 during 12-months pre- and 25,885,213 12-months post-IIF; 0.16% decrease; p=NS), but lower carbon footprint SABA inhaler use increased (Salamol™ prescribing increased from 5.1% to 19% of SABA prescriptions, p < 0.01). In contrast, SENTINEL Plus sites significantly reduced SABA prescribing post-implementation (5.43% decrease, p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Asma , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Inglaterra , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562440

RESUMO

Objective: To comparison of the application of Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer and Jet Nebulizer in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Research Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statements. The primary outcome measures analyzed included: The amount of inhaler in the urine sample at 30 minutes after inhalation therapy (USAL0.5), The total amount of inhaler in urine sample within 24 hours (USAL24), Aerosol emitted, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced vital capacity (FVC). Results: Ten studies were included with a total of 314 study participants, including 157 subjects in the VMN group and 157 subjects in the JN group. The data analysis results of USAL0.5, MD (1.88 [95% CI, 0.95 to 2.81], P = 0.000), showed a statistically significant difference. USAL24, MD (1.61 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.09], P = 0.000), showed a statistically significant difference. The results of aerosol emitted showed a statistically significant difference in MD (3.44 [95% CI, 2.84 to 4.04], P = 0.000). The results of FEV1 showed MD (0.05 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.35], P=0.716), the results were not statistically significant. The results of FVC showed MD (0.11 [95% CI, -0.18 to 0.41], P=0.459), the results were not statistically significant. It suggests that VMN is better than JN and provides higher aerosols, but there is no difference in improving lung function between them. Conclusion: VMN is significantly better than JN in terms of drug delivery and utilization in the treatment of patients with COPD. However, in the future use of nebulizers, it is important to select a matching nebulizer based on a combination of factors such as mechanism of action of the nebulizer, disease type and comorbidities, ventilation strategies and modes, drug formulations, as well as cost-effectiveness, in order to achieve the ideal treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Administração por Inalação , Albuterol , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios
11.
J Vet Intern Med ; 38(3): 1835-1841, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salbutamol and hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) are commonly used bronchodilators in horses with severe asthma (SA). OBJECTIVE: To compare the bronchodilation potency, duration, and adverse effects of salbutamol and HBB in SA. ANIMALS: Six horses in exacerbation of SA. METHODS: The effects of inhaled salbutamol (1000 µg) and HBB (150 mg, IV) were compared in a randomized, blinded, crossover experiment. Lung function, intestinal borborygmi and heart rate were assessed before and sequentially until 180 minutes after drug administration, and analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. RESULTS: Both treatments caused a similar improvement in lung function. Pulmonary resistance and reactance returned to baseline values within 30 minutes after HBB administration, whereas salbutamol improved reactance until 180 minutes (mean improvement at 180 minutes of 0.040 Kpa/L/s, 95% CI = 0.004 to 0.076; P = .02 for salbutamol and of 0.009 Kpa/L/s, 95% CI = -0.028 to 0.045; P = .98 for HBB for the resistance at 3 Hz and of 0.040 Kpa/L/s, 95% CI = 0.007 to 0.074; P = .01 for salbutamol and of 0.009 Kpa/L/s, 95% CI = -0.024 to 0.042; P = .97 for HBB for the reactance at 7 Hz). From 5 to 30 minutes after HBB administration, the heart rate accelerated (mean increase of 3.3 beats per minute, 95% CI = -6.6 to 13.1; P = .92 for salbutamol, and of 13.0 beats per minute, 95% CI = 3.6 to 22.4; P = .002 for HBB at 30 minutes) and the gut sounds decreased (mean reduction of 1.3, 95% CI = -0.1 to 2.8; P = .09 for salbutamol and of 2.8 for the gastrointestinal auscultation score, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.3; P < .0001 for HBB at 30 minutes). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Both drugs have a similar bronchodilator potency but with a longer duration for salbutamol. Gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects were noted only with HBB, suggesting the preferential use of salbutamol to relieve bronchoconstriction in horses with asthma.


Assuntos
Albuterol , Asma , Broncodilatadores , Brometo de Butilescopolamônio , Estudos Cross-Over , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Cavalos , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/farmacologia , Masculino , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD003214, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants and is associated with respiratory morbidity. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small airways with muscle hypertrophy. Increased compliance and tidal volume, and decreased airway resistance, have been documented with the use of bronchodilators in infants with CLD. Therefore, bronchodilators are widely considered to have a role in the prevention and treatment of CLD, but there remains uncertainty as to whether they improve clinical outcomes. This is an update of the 2016 Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of inhaled bronchodilators given as prophylaxis or as treatment for chronic lung disease (CLD) on mortality and other complications of preterm birth in infants at risk for or identified as having CLD. SEARCH METHODS: An Information Specialist searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and three trials registers from 2016 to May 2023. In addition, the review authors undertook reference checking, citation searching and contact with trial authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving preterm infants less than 32 weeks old that compared bronchodilators to no intervention or placebo. CLD was defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days of life or at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Initiation of bronchodilator therapy for the prevention of CLD had to occur within two weeks of birth. Treatment of infants with CLD had to be initiated before discharge from the neonatal unit. The intervention had to include administration of a bronchodilator by nebulisation or metered dose inhaler. The comparator was no intervention or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Critical outcomes included: mortality within the trial period; CLD (defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days of life or at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age); adverse effects of bronchodilators, including hypokalaemia (low potassium levels in the blood), tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, tremor, hypertension and hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar); and pneumothorax. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included two randomised controlled trials in this review update. Only one trial provided useable outcome data. This trial was conducted in six neonatal intensive care units in France and Portugal, and involved 173 participants with a gestational age of less than 31 weeks. The infants in the intervention group received salbutamol for the prevention of CLD. The evidence suggests that salbutamol may result in little to no difference in mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 2.31; risk difference (RD) 0.01, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.11; low-certainty evidence) or CLD at 28 days (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.37; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.17; low-certainty evidence), when compared to placebo. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of salbutamol on pneumothorax. The one trial with usable data reported that there were no relevant differences between groups, without providing the number of events (very low-certainty evidence). Investigators in this study did not report if side effects occurred. We found no eligible trials that evaluated the use of bronchodilator therapy for the treatment of infants with CLD. We identified no ongoing studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-certainty evidence from one trial showed that inhaled bronchodilator prophylaxis may result in little or no difference in the incidence of mortality or CLD in preterm infants, when compared to placebo. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of salbutamol on pneumothorax, and neither included study reported on the incidence of serious adverse effects. We identified no trials that studied the use of bronchodilator therapy for the treatment of CLD. Additional clinical trials are necessary to assess the role of bronchodilator agents in the prophylaxis or treatment of CLD. Researchers studying the effects of inhaled bronchodilators in preterm infants should include relevant clinical outcomes in addition to pulmonary mechanical outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Pneumopatias , Pneumotórax , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Doenças do Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Oxigênio
13.
Respir Care ; 69(7): 847-853, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal aerosol delivery methods for spontaneously breathing patients with a tracheostomy remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to assess the impact of nebulizer placement, flow settings, and interfaces on aerosol delivery by using a vibrating mesh nebulizer and a jet nebulizer in line with unheated humidification. METHODS: An 8.0-mm tracheostomy tube was connected to the lung model that simulates adult breathing parameters via a collecting filter. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered via a vibrating mesh nebulizer and a jet nebulizer, which was placed in line with unheated humidification provided by a large-volume nebulizer, with FIO2 set at 0.28, with gas flows of 2 L/min versus 6 L/min. Nebulizers were placed in line distal and proximal to the lung model by using a tracheostomy collar and a T-piece. Conventional nebulization was tested using a vibrating mesh nebulizer and a jet nebulizer directly connected to the tracheostomy tube bypassing the humidification device. The drug was eluted from the collecting filter and assayed with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (276 nm). RESULTS: During in-line nebulizer placement with unheated humidification, the inhaled dose was 2-4 times higher with a gas flow of 2 L/min than 6 L/min, regardless of nebulizer type, placement, or interface (all P < .05). At 6 L/min, the inhaled dose was higher with proximal than distal placement when using both interfaces, but, at 2 L/min, the inhaled dose was lower with proximal placement. With a jet nebulizer, the tracheostomy collar generated a higher inhaled dose at proximal placement compared with the T-piece, whereas the T-piece resulted in a higher inhaled dose than the tracheostomy collar with distal placement, regardless of the flow settings. Compared with conventional nebulization using a vibrating mesh nebulizer, an in-line vibrating mesh nebulizer with a large-volume nebulizer at 2 L/min had a similar inhaled dose, regardless of nebulizer placement and interface. In contrast, the in-line jet nebulizer was influenced by both placement and interface. CONCLUSIONS: Aerosol delivery with an in-line vibrating mesh nebulizer and jet nebulizer with unheated humidification was affected by nebulizer placement, interface, and gas flow settings.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Albuterol , Broncodilatadores , Umidade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Traqueostomia , Humanos , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Anatômicos , Respiração , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação
14.
BMJ ; 384: q673, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490648

Assuntos
Albuterol , Médicos , Humanos
15.
J Int Med Res ; 52(3): 3000605241238993, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The OpenVigil database can be used to assess medications that may cause supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and to produce a reference for their safe use in clinical settings. METHODS: We analyzed first-quarter data from 2004 to 2023, obtained by searching the OpenVigil database using the keyword "supraventricular tachycardia." Trade names and generic names were obtained by querying the RxNav database, and the proportions were summarized. The proportionate reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio, and chi-square values were also summarized. We created Asahi diagrams and set the screening criteria to drug events ≥30, PRR >2, and chi-square >4. Outcomes were evaluated using the Side Effect Resource database, several scientific literature databases, and the Hangzhou Yiyao Rational Medication System. RESULTS: A total of 2435 distinct medications were found to induce SVT between the first quarter of 2004 and 2023, leading to 22,375 documented adverse events related to SVT. Further investigation revealed that salbutamol, paroxetine, formoterol, paclitaxel, venlafaxine, and theophylline were most likely to cause SVT. CONCLUSION: We conducted signal mining of adverse drug events using the OpenVigil database and evaluated the six drugs most likely to cause SVT. The results of this research can serve as a drug safety reference in the clinic.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Taquicardia Supraventricular , Humanos , Taquicardia Supraventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Taquicardia Supraventricular/epidemiologia , Albuterol , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fumarato de Formoterol
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 132, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491503

RESUMO

This is a letter in response to an article by Ahmed et al., which concluded that in comparison to salbutamol, Fluticasone/salmeterol combination increases FEV1, FEV1% of predicted, and FEV1/FVC ratio, however it did not offer novel insights, as both agents met the 12%- and 200-mL reversibility benchmarks and Concerns about incorporating a combination medication that includes an inhaled corticosteroid, inhaled corticosteroids are not typically associated with bronchodilation.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Albuterol , não Fumantes , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/uso terapêutico
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 12(4): 882-888, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316182

RESUMO

Prevention of asthma exacerbations and reduction of systemic corticosteroid burden remain unmet needs in asthma. US asthma guidelines recommend concomitant short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA) and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as an alternative reliever at step 2. The Food and Drug Administration approved a pressurized metered-dose inhaler containing albuterol and budesonide for as-needed treatment or prevention of bronchoconstriction and for reducing exacerbation risk in patients with asthma aged ≥18 years. This combination is approved for use as a reliever with or without maintenance therapy, but it is not indicated for maintenance therapy (or for single maintenance and reliever therapy). Intervening with as-needed SABA-ICS during the window of opportunity to reduce inflammation during loss of asthma control can reduce exacerbation risk, by exerting both genomic and nongenomic anti-inflammatory effects. We propose that the use of albuterol-budesonide rather than albuterol as a reliever to manage episodic symptoms driven by acute bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation can improve outcomes. This combination approach, shown to decrease asthma exacerbations and oral corticosteroid burden in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma, represents a paradigm shift for asthma treatment in the United States. Further safety and efficacy studies should provide evidence that this type of reliever should be standard of care.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Corticosteroides , Administração por Inalação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 12(4): 889-893, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346474

RESUMO

Overuse of reliever as short-acting beta-agonist and associated underuse of controller as inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) administered via separate inhalers results in worse asthma outcomes. Such discordance can be obviated by combining both controller and reliever in the same inhaler. So-called anti-inflammatory reliever (AIR) therapy comprises the use of a single inhaler containing an ICS such as budesonide (BUD) in conjunction with a reliever as either albuterol (ALB) or formoterol (FORM), to be used on demand, with variable dosing driven by asthma symptoms in a flexible patient-centered regimen. Global guidelines now support the use of BUD-ALB as AIR therapy to reduce exacerbations, either on its own in mild asthma or in conjunction with fixed-dose maintenance ICS-long-acting beta-agonist in moderate to severe asthma. Using BUD-FORM on its own allows patients to seamlessly move in an intuitive flexible fashion between AIR and maintenance and reliever therapy, by stepping up and down the dosing escalator across a spectrum of asthma severities. Head-to-head clinical studies are indicated to compare BUD-FORM versus BUD-ALB as AIR in mild asthma, and also BUD-FORM as maintenance and reliever therapy versus BUD-ALB as AIR plus maintenance ICS-long-acting beta-agonist in moderate to severe asthma. Patients should be encouraged to make an informed decision in conjunction with their health care professional regarding the best therapeutic option tailored to their individual needs, which in turn is likely to result in long-term compliance and associated optimal asthma control.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Humanos , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação
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