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1.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709871

RESUMO

Chirality, a fundamental property of matter, is often overlooked in the studies of marine organic matter cycles. Dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS), a globally abundant organosulfur compound, serves as an ecologically important currency for nutrient and energy transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria in the ocean. However, the chirality of DHPS in nature and its transformation remain unclear. Here, we developed a novel approach using chiral phosphorus-reagent labeling to separate DHPS enantiomers. Our findings demonstrated that at least one enantiomer of DHPS is present in marine diatoms and coccolithophores, and that both enantiomers are widespread in marine environments. A novel chiral-selective DHPS catabolic pathway was identified in marine Roseobacteraceae strains, where HpsO and HpsP dehydrogenases at the gateway to DHPS catabolism act specifically on R-DHPS and S-DHPS, respectively. R-DHPS is also a substrate for the dehydrogenase HpsN. All three dehydrogenases generate stable hydrogen bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls of DHPS and highly conserved residues, and HpsP also form coordinate-covalent bonds between the chirality-center hydroxyls and Zn2+, which determines the mechanistic basis of strict stereoselectivity. We further illustrated the role of enzymatic promiscuity in the evolution of DHPS metabolism in Roseobacteraceae and SAR11. This study provides the first evidence of chirality's involvement in phytoplankton-bacteria metabolic currencies, opening a new avenue for understanding the ocean organosulfur cycle.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton , Rhodobacteraceae , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Biotransformação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Alcanossulfonatos
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1370971, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633237

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationships between perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure and glucose metabolism indices. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 waves were used. A total of 611 participants with information on serum PFASs (perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA); perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA); perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS); perfluorooctane sulfonates acid (PFOS); perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA)), glucose metabolism indices (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin) as well as selected covariates were included. We used cluster analysis to categorize the participants into three exposure subgroups and compared glucose metabolism index levels between the subgroups. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), multiple linear regression analysis and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to assess the effects of single and mixed PFASs exposures and glucose metabolism. Results: The cluster analysis results revealed overlapping exposure types among people with higher PFASs exposure. As the level of PFAS exposure increased, FPG level showed an upward linear trend (p < 0.001), whereas insulin levels demonstrated a downward linear trend (p = 0.012). LASSO and multiple linear regression analysis showed that PFNA and FPG had a positive relationship (>50 years-old group: ß = 0.059, p < 0.001). PFOA, PFUA, and PFHxS (≤50 years-old group: insulin ß = -0.194, p < 0.001, HOMA-IR ß = -0.132, p = 0.020) showed negative correlation with HOMA-IR/insulin. PFNA (>50 years-old group: insulin ß = 0.191, p = 0.018, HOMA-IR ß = 0.220, p = 0.013) showed positive correlation with HOMA-IR/insulin, which was essentially the same as results that obtained for the univariate exposure-response map in the BKMR model. Association of exposure to PFASs on glucose metabolism indices showed positive interactions between PFOS and PFHxS and negative interactions between PFOA and PFNA/PFOS/PFHxS. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that positive and negative correlations between PFASs and FPG and HOMA-IR/insulin levels are observed, respectively. Combined effects and interactions between PFASs. Given the higher risk of glucose metabolism associated with elevated levels of PFAS, future studies are needed to explore the potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos , Fluorocarbonos , Insulinas , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Teorema de Bayes , Alcanossulfonatos , Glucose
3.
Environ Pollut ; 351: 124041, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685552

RESUMO

The use of surfactants is crucial for the prevention and control of coal dust pollution in coal mining operation areas, yet there still exist many challenges in the control of coal dust pollution. In this paper, the green biomass-based amino acid surfactant sodium myristoyl glutamate (SMG) and the anionic surfactant sodium α-alkenyl sulfonate (AOS) were selected to investigate the improvement of coal dust wettability by single and binary solutions from the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives. Molecular simulations were used to reveal the microscopic mechanism of the wettability of coal dust by the different solutions. Experimental measurements showed that the contact angle of the AOS + SMG aqueous solution was as low as 13.8° on a coal surface. Coating the coal dust with the AOS + SMG solution reduced the surface tension by 12.02% compared to coating the coal with a single component solution. Additionally, the use of the binary AOS + SMG solution increased the hydrophilic group content in the coating by 11.77% compared to a single component solution, and the linkage between hydrophilic groups was enhanced, which pulls the water molecules to wet the coal dust. These research results should provide a new way to promote more environmentally friendly coal dust pollution control technology.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Tensoativos , Poeira/análise , Tensoativos/química , Aminoácidos/química , Molhabilidade , Alcanossulfonatos/química , Minas de Carvão , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116399, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677070

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as pollutants, can cause palpable environmental and health impacts around the world, as endocrine disruptors, can disrupt endocrine homeostasis and increase the risk of diseases. Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (F-53B), as a substitute for PFAS, was determined to have potential toxicity. Puberty is the stage when sexual organs develop and hormones change dramatically, and abnormal uterine development can increase the risk of uterine lesions and lead to infertility. This study was designed to explore the impact of F-53B on uterine development during puberty. Four-week-old female SD rats were exposed to 0.125 and 6.25 mg/L F-53B during puberty. The results showed that F-53B interfered with growth and sex hormone levels and bound to oestrogen-related receptors, which affected their function, contributed to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, ultimately causing uterine dysplasia.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos , Apoptose , Disruptores Endócrinos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Maturidade Sexual , Útero , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcanossulfonatos/toxicidade
5.
Environ Pollut ; 348: 123782, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484959

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic organofluorine compounds known for their chemical and physical stability as well as their wide range of uses. Some PFAS are widely distributed in the environment, leading to concerns related to both environmental and human health. High temperature thermal treatment (i.e., incineration) has been utilized for PFAS treatment, but this requires significant infrastructure and energy, prompting interest in lower temperature approaches that may still lead to efficient destruction. Lower treatment temperatures, however, increase the potential for incomplete PFAS mineralization and formation of volatile organofluorine (VOF) products. Herein, we report the formation of novel VOF products that include chlorinated and brominated compounds during the thermal treatment of potassium perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), a representative perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA). By comparing the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results of known VOF stocks to evolved VOF during thermal treatment of PFAS, the formation of perfluorohexyl chloride and perfluorohexyl bromide was observed when PFHxS was heated at temperatures between 275 and 475 °C in the presence of NaCl and NaBr, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chlorinated or brominated VOF products during thermal treatment of a PFAA. These findings suggest that a range of mixed halogenated VOF may form during thermal treatment of PFAS at relatively low temperature (e.g., 500 °C) and that these can be a function of salts present in the matrix.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorocarbonos , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio , Temperatura , Alcanossulfonatos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 348: 123770, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493862

RESUMO

The widespread detection of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental compartments across the globe has raised several health concerns. Destructive technologies that aim to transform these recalcitrant PFAS into less toxic, more manageable products, are gaining impetus to address this problem. In this study, a 9 MeV electron beam accelerator was utilized to treat a suite of PFAS (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates: PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate: FTS) at environmentally relevant levels in water under different operating and water quality conditions. Although perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid showed >90% degradation at <500 kGy dose at optimized conditions, a fluoride mass balance revealed that complete defluorination occurred only at/or near 1000 kGy. Non-target and suspect screening revealed additional degradation pathways differing from previously reported mechanisms. Treatment of PFAS mixtures in deionized water and groundwater matrices showed that FTS was preferentially degraded (∼90%), followed by partial degradation of long-chain PFAS (∼15-60%) and a simultaneous increase of short-chain PFAS (up to 20%) with increasing doses. The increase was much higher (up to 3.5X) in groundwaters compared to deionized water due to the presence of PFAS precursors as confirmed by total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay. TOP assay of e-beam treated samples did not show any increase in PFCAs, confirming that e-beam was effective in also degrading precursors. This study provides an improved understanding of the mechanism of PFAS degradation and revealed that short-chain PFAS are more resistant to defluorination and their levels and regulation in the environment will determine the operating conditions of e-beam and other PFAS treatment technologies.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Elétrons , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 925: 171742, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No study has examined the association between per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk. This study aims to explore this relationship. METHODS: This study enrolled 4541 individuals who had available data on PFAS, COPD, and covariates from NHANES 2007-2018. Serum PFAS including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were analyzed, because of high detective rates. Considering the skew distribution of PFAS levels, the natural logarithm-transformed PFAS (Ln-PFAS) was used. Logistic regression analysis, restricted cubic spline (RCS), and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression were performed to explore the single, nonlinear, and mixed effects. A mediating analysis was used to evaluate the mediated effects of albumin. RESULTS: Individuals with COPD had higher levels of PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS compared to those without COPD. Ln-PFNA (OR males: 1.92, 95 % CI:1.31 to 2.80, P: <0.001; OR females: 1.07, 95 % CI: 0.81 to 1.40, P: 0.636) and ln-PFOA (OR males: 2.17, 95 % CI:1.38 to 3.41, P: <0.001; OR females: 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.08 to 2.05, P: 0.016) were associated with COPD risk especially in males. The interaction between PFNA exposure and sex on COPD risk was significant (P interaction: <0.001). The RCS curve demonstrated the nonlinear relationship between the ln-PFOA (P nonlinear:0.001), ln-PFNA (P nonlinear:0.045), and COPD risk in males. WQS analysis showed mixed PFAS exposure was correlated with COPD risk in males (OR: 1.44, 95 % CI:1.18 to 1.75, P: <0.001). Albumin mediated the relationship between PFOA and COPD (mediated proportion: -17.94 %). CONCLUSION: This study concludes PFOA and PFNA are linked to a higher COPD risk in males, and serum albumin plays a mediating role in the relationship between PFOA and COPD. Thess findings are beneficial for the prevention of COPD. Further studies are required to explore potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos , Fluorocarbonos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Albumina Sérica , Prevalência , Alcanossulfonatos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133919, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432093

RESUMO

Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA), a substitute for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), has been widely used in the Chinese electroplating industry under the trade name F-53B. The production and use of F-53B is keep increasing in recent years, consequently causing more emissions into the environment. Thus, there is a growing concern about the adverse effects of F-53B on human health. However, related research is very limited, particularly in terms of its toxicity to the vascular system. In this study, C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.04, 0.2, and 1 mg/kg F-53B for 12 weeks to assess its impact on the vascular system. We found that F-53B exposure caused aortic wall thickening, collagen deposition, and reduced elasticity in mice. In addition, F-53B exposure led to a loss of vascular endothelial integrity and a vascular inflammatory response. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were found to be indispensable for this process. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis revealed that F-53B can decrease the repair capacity of endothelial cells by inhibiting their proliferation and migration. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that F-53B exposure induces vascular inflammation and loss of endothelial integrity as well as suppresses the repair capacity of endothelial cells, which ultimately results in vascular injury, highlighting the need for a more thorough risk assessment of F-53B to human health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Éter/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alcanossulfonatos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Fluorocarbonos/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141664, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485001

RESUMO

The perfluoalkyl substance (PFASs) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been widely used in industry. However, PFOS is a persistent organic pollutant and has been gradually replaced by its short-chain analogs, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFASs are extremely persistent and are very frequently detected among the general population. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of selected PFASs on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the mechanisms of their action. PBMCs were exposed to PFOS, PFBS and PFHxS at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 400 µM for 24 h, they were then tested for viability, apoptosis (changes in cytosolic calcium ions level and caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation), ferroptosis (changes in chelatable iron ions level and lipid peroxidation), and autophagy (LC3-II and Raptor level assay). PFOS exposure decreased cell viability, increased calcium ion level and caspase-8 activation; it also enhanced lipid peroxidation and increased the intracellular pool of chelatable iron ions as well as LC3-II protein content. In contrast, short-chain PFBS and PFHxS induced significant changes in the markers of apoptosis but had no substantial impact on ferroptosis or autophagy markers over a wide range of concentrations. Our results indicate that only PFOS demonstrated pro-ferroptotic and pro-autophagic potential but observed changes occurred at relatively high exposure. A short-chain substitute (PFBS) exhibited strong pro-apoptotic potential at concentrations related to occupational exposure. While the short-chain PFASs strongly affected the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, apoptosis itself was only induced by PFBS via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. It seems that the length of the carbon chain in PFASs appears to determine the cell death mechanisms activated in human PBMCs following exposure. Our findings provide a new insight into the immune toxicity mechanism induced by these compounds.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorocarbonos , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Humanos , Cálcio , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/metabolismo , Alcanossulfonatos , Apoptose , Íons , Ferro
10.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 258: 114359, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that prenatal per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposures are associated with shorter breastfeeding duration. Studies assessing PFAS mixtures and populations in North America are sparse. METHODS: We quantified PFAS concentrations in maternal plasma collected during pregnancy in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (2010-2017). Participants completed standardized breastfeeding surveys at regular intervals until weaning (n = 813). We estimated associations between mixtures of 5 PFAS and risk of stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months or any breastfeeding before 12 months using probit Bayesian kernel machine regression. For individual PFAS, we calculated the relative risk and hazard ratio (HR) of stopping breastfeeding using modified Poisson regression and accelerated failure time models respectively. RESULTS: PFAS mixtures were associated with stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months, primarily driven by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). We observed statistically significant trends in the association of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), PFOA, and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (p-trends≤0.02) with stopping exclusive breastfeeding. Participants in the highest PFOA quartile had a 28% higher risk of stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months compared to those in the lowest quartile (95% Confidence Interval: 1.04, 1.56). Similar trends were observed for PFHxS and PFNA with exclusive breastfeeding (p-trends≤0.05). PFAS were not associated with stopping any breastfeeding before 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, we observed that participants with greater overall plasma PFAS concentrations had greater risk of stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months and associations were driven largely by PFOA. These findings further support the growing literature indicating that PFAS may be associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Aleitamento Materno , Teorema de Bayes , New Hampshire , Alcanossulfonatos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 266(Pt 2): 131134, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537848

RESUMO

In this article, the binding interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and three 1-alkylsulfonates, namely sodium 1-dodecanesulfonate, sodium 1-decanesulfonate, and sodium 1-octanesulfonate, have been thoroughly investigated. The study employed various experimental techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (SF), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), and molecular dynamics-based simulations. The objective was to understand the influence of the alkyl chain length of the investigated ligands on several aspects, including the strength of the interaction, the stoichiometry of the resulting complexes, the number of BSA binding sites, and the underlying mechanisms of binding. Notably, the study also demonstrated that sodium dodecyl sulfate (S12S) can serve as an effective site marker for BSA when studying ligands with similar structural and topological features. These findings may have significant implications for enhancing our understanding of the interactions between small amphiphilic molecules and proteins.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ligação Proteica , Soroalbumina Bovina , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligantes , Alcanossulfonatos/química , Termodinâmica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(14): 6415-6424, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528735

RESUMO

The total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay has been extensively used for detecting PFAS pollutants that do not have analytical standards. It uses hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from the heat activation of persulfate under alkaline pH to convert H-containing precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) for target analysis. However, the current TOP assay oxidation method does not apply to emerging PFAS because (i) many structures do not contain C-H bonds for HO• attack and (ii) the transformation products are not necessarily PFCAs. In this study, we explored the use of classic acidic persulfate digestion, which generates sulfate radicals (SO4-•), to extend the capability of the TOP assay. We examined the oxidation of Nafion-related ether sulfonates that contain C-H or -COO-, characterized the oxidation products, and quantified the F atom balance. The SO4-• oxidation greatly expanded the scope of oxidizable precursors. The transformation was initiated by decarboxylation, followed by various spontaneous steps, such as HF elimination and ester hydrolysis. We further compared the oxidation of legacy fluorotelomers using SO4-• versus HO•. The results suggest novel product distribution patterns, depending on the functional group and oxidant dose. The general trends and strategies were also validated by analyzing a mixture of 100000- or 10000-fold diluted aqueous film-forming foam (containing various fluorotelomer surfactants and organics) and a spiked Nafion precursor. Therefore, (1) the combined use of SO4-• and HO• oxidation, (2) the expanded list of standard chemicals, and (3) further elucidation of SO4-• oxidation mechanisms will provide more critical information to probe emerging PFAS pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto , Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Éter , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Éteres , Alcanossulfonatos , Etil-Éteres , Digestão , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(14): 6117-6127, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525964

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is inevitable among pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of research investigating the connections between prenatal PFAS exposure and the placental structure and efficiency. Based on 712 maternal-fetal dyads in the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort, we analyzed associations between individual and mixed PFAS exposure and placental measures. We repeatedly measured 12 PFAS in the maternal serum during pregnancy. Placental weight, scaling exponent, chorionic disc area, and disc eccentricity were used as the outcome variables. Upon adjusting for confounders and implementing corrections for multiple comparisons, we identified positive associations between branched perfluorohexane sulfonate (br-PFHxS) and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) with placental weight. Additionally, a positive association was observed between br-PFHxS and the scaling exponent, where a higher scaling exponent signified reduced placental efficiency. Based on neonatal sex stratification, female infants were found to be more susceptible to the adverse effects of PFAS exposure. Mixed exposure modeling revealed that mixed PFAS exposure was positively associated with placental weight and scaling exponent, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Furthermore, br-PFHxS and 6:2 Cl-PFESA played major roles in the placental measures. This study provides the first epidemiological evidence of the relationship between prenatal PFAS exposure and placental measures.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Placenta , Coorte de Nascimento , Alcanossulfonatos
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(4): 2186-2196, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466818

RESUMO

Eumelanin is a natural pigment that can be particularly valuable for sustainable bioelectronic devices due to its inherent biocompatibility and hydration-dependent conductivity. However, the low conductivity of eumelanin limits its technological development. In this research, electrochemical doping was proposed as an alternative route to increase the electronic conductivity of synthetic eumelanin derivatives. Thin films of sulfonated eumelanin were deposited on platinum interdigitated electrodes and electrochemically treated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry treatments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed ion doping in sulfonated melanin. Current-voltage, current-time, and electrochemical impedance measurements were used to investigate the effect of different aqueous electrolytes (including KCl and LiClO4) treatments on the charge transport of sulfonated eumelanin. We show that the conductivity depends on the type and size of the anion used and can reach 10-3 S·cm-1. Additionally, depending on the electrolyte, there is a change in charge transport from mixed ionic/electronic to a predominantly electronic-only conduction. Our results show that the chemical nature of the ion plays an important role in the electrochemical doping and, consequently, in the charge transport of eumelanin. These insights serve as inspiration to explore the use of alternative electrolytes with different compositions further and develop eumelanin-based devices with tunable conductivities.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos , Melaninas , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrônica , Eletrólitos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116141, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394760

RESUMO

As a nondestructive means of environmental monitoring, bird feathers have been used to analyze levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in specific environments. In this study, feather samples from 10 waterbird species around Poyang Lake were collected, and a pretreatment method for PFASs in feathers was optimized. The results showed that a combined cleaning method using ultrapure water and n-hexane effectively removed external PFASs. Twenty-three legacy and emerging PFASs were identified in the feathers of waterbirds, of which hexafluoropropylene oxides (HFPOs), chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs), and sodium p-perfluorinated noneoxybenzene sulfonate (OBS) were reported for the first time, with their concentrations ranging from 0.060-2.4 ng·g-1 dw, 0.046-30 ng·g-1 dw, and lower than the method detection limit to 30 ng·g-1 dw, respectively. Compound- and species-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs was observed in the feathers of different waterbird species, suggesting that different PFAS types can be monitored through the selection of different species. Moreover, the concentrations of most PFCAs (except perfluorobutyric acid), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were significantly positively correlated with δ15N (p < 0.05), while the concentrations of HFPOs, Cl-PFESAs, and OBS had significant positive correlations with δ13C. This indicates that the bioaccumulation of legacy and emerging PFASs in waterbird feathers is affected by their trophic level, feeding habits, and foraging area.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Lagos , Bioacumulação , Plumas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos , China , Éteres , Éter , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
16.
Se Pu ; 42(2): 194-202, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374600

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been extensively used as synthetic fluorine-containing compounds in various consumer products, including surfactants, cookware, lubricants, clothing, and food packaging, since the 1950s. Evidence has shown that PFASs cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal thyroid hormone homeostasis, which is crucial for fetal growth and neurobehavioral development in children aged 2-9 years. However, no epidemiological data on the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral development are available. In this study, we explored the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral development based on the Ezhou cohort study. Blood samples (10 mL) were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy (28-36 weeks) at the Ezhou maternal and child health hospital. The blood specimens were centrifuged at 4000 r/min for 15 min immediately after collection, separated, stored at -80 ℃. The samples were analyzed for seven PFASs, namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). The PFASs were separated using a C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) at an oven temperature of 40 ℃, injection volume of 10 µL, and flow rate of 0.4 mL/min via gradient elution with methanol and ammonium acetate aqueous solution. The instrument was operated in negative electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The correlation coefficients (r2), limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), and spiked recoveries of the seven PFASs were 0.993-0.999, 0.006-0.020 ng/mL, 0.020-0.066 ng/mL, and 84.6%-116.8%, respectively. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to evaluate newborn cognitive development 72 h after birth; this tool consisted of five clusters, including behavior (six items), passive muscle tone (four items), active muscle tone (four items), primitive reflexes (three items), and general assessment (three items). Each item was rated on a three-point scale (0, 1, or 2), with the 20 items having a maximum score of 40. A total of 379 mother-newborn pairs were included in the analysis. The PFASs with the highest exposure levels was PFOA, with median levels of 19.4 ng/mL. Linear regression models were used to test the effects of ln-converted PFAS levels in newborns. After adjusting for confounding factors, the linear regression model showed that PFOS exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased active muscle tone(ß(95% CI): 0.36(-0.64, 0.08)) and general assessment(ß(95% CI): 0.34(-0.61, 0.07)) in all newborns. Furthermore, PFNA exposure was associated with decreased passive muscle tone(ß(95% CI): 0.38(-0.74, 0.01)) and total NBNA(ß(95% CI): 0.37(-0.68, 0.06)). PFDA exposure was associated with decreased behavior(ß(95% CI): 0.28(-0.54, 0.01)), while PFHxS exposure was associated with elevated total NBNA(ß(95% CI): 0.27(0.05-0.48)). Gender stratification analysis showed that PFOS exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased active muscle tone(ß(95% CI): 0.54(-0.73, 0.35)) and general assessment(ß(95% CI): 0.50(-0.88, 0.13)), PFNA exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased passive muscle tone(ß(95% CI): 0.67(-1.2, 0.14)) and total NBNA(ß(95% CI): 0.45(-0.91, 0.01)), PFDA exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased behavior(ß(95% CI): 0.44(-0.71, 0.17)), PFHxS exposure was associated with elevated total NBNA(ß(95% CI): 0.41(0.02-0.80)) in male newborns, and PFOA exposure was associated with decreased general assessment(ß(95% CI): -0.27(-0.51, 0.02)), and PFDA exposure was associated with elevated behavior(ß(95% CI): 0.46(0.40-0.52)) in female newborns. The proposed method separates and detects various PFASs without the need for cumbersome pretreatment processes, and has the advantages of low LODs, satisfactory recoveries, and accurate precision. Thus, it allows for the simultaneous analysis of trace PFASs in microserum samples from pregnant women. Our results also showed that prenatal PFAS exposure can lead to neurobehavioral disorders in offspring, with male newborns showing greater sensitivity than female newborns.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Ácidos Decanoicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos , Fluorocarbonos , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos de Coortes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Placenta , Alcanossulfonatos
17.
Water Res ; 252: 121146, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306753

RESUMO

Nearly all per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) biotransformation studies reported to date have been limited to laboratory-scale batch reactors. The fate and transport of PFAS in systems that more closely represent field conditions, i.e., in saturated porous media under flowing conditions, remain largely unexplored. This study investigated the biotransformation of 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), a representative PFAS of widespread environmental occurrence, in one-dimensional water-saturated flow-through columns packed with soil obtained from a PFAS-contaminated site. The 305-day column experiments demonstrated that 6:2 FTS biotransformation was rate-limited, where a decrease in pore-water velocity from 3.7 to 2.4 cm/day, resulted in a 21.7-26.1 % decrease in effluent concentrations of 6:2 FTS and higher yields (1.0-1.4 mol% vs. 0.3 mol%) of late-stage biotransformation products (C4C7 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates). Flow interruptions (2 and 7 days) were found to enhance 6:2 FTS biotransformation during the 6-7 pore volumes following flow resumption. Model-fitted 6:2 FTS column biotransformation rates (0.039-0.041 cmw3/gs/d) were ∼3.5 times smaller than those observed in microcosms (0.137 cmw3/gs/d). Additionally, during column experiments, planktonic microbial communities remained relatively stable, whereas the composition of the attached microbial communities shifted along the flow path, which may have been attributed to oxygen availability and the toxicity of 6:2 FTS and associated biotransformation products. Genus Pseudomonas dominated in planktonic microbial communities, while in the attached microbial communities, Rhodococcus decreased and Pelotomaculum increased along the flow path, suggesting their potential involvement in early- and late-stage 6:2 FTS biotransformation, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the importance of incorporating realistic environmental conditions into experimental systems to obtain a more representative assessment of in-situ PFAS biotransformation.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Biotransformação , Alcanossulfonatos/metabolismo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 397: 130500, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423487

RESUMO

This study investigates the behaviors and effects of F-53B, an alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes. Results showed that the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) reached 83.8 % at a F-53B concentration of 0.5 mg·L-1, while NRE decreased to 66.9 % with 5 mg·L-1 of F-53B. The defluorination rates of 17.8 % (0.5 mg·L-1) and 9.3 % (5 mg·L-1) were observed, respectively, suggesting the occurrence of F-53B degradation. The relative abundance of Ca. Kuenenia decreased from 26.1 % to 16.2 % with the F-53B concentration increasing from 0.5 mg·L-1 to 5 mg·L-1. Meanwhile, Denitratisoma was selectively enriched with a relative abundance of 40.7 % at an F-53B concentration of 0.5 mg·L-1. Ca. Kuenenia could reduce reactive oxygen species induced by F-53B to maintain the balance of oxidative stress. This study gains insight into the behaviors and metabolic mechanisms of F-53B in anammox consortia, suggesting the feasibility of anammox processes for industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Oxidação Anaeróbia da Amônia , Éter , Animais , Éter/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Alcanossulfonatos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Reatores Biológicos
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(10): 4737-4750, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408453

RESUMO

Landfills are the final stage of urban wastes containing perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs in the landfill leachate may contaminate the surrounding groundwater. As major environmental pollutants, emerging PFASs have raised global concern. Besides the widely reported legacy PFASs, the distribution and potential toxic effects of numerous emerging PFASs remain unclear, and unknown PFASs still need discovery and characterization. This study proposed a comprehensive method for PFAS screening in leachate samples using suspect and nontarget analysis. A total of 48 PFASs from 10 classes were identified; nine novel PFASs including eight chloroperfluoropolyether carboxylates (Cl-PFPECAs) and bistriflimide (HNTf2) were reported for the first time in the leachate, where Cl-PFPECA-3,1 and Cl-PFPECA-2,2 were first reported in environmental media. Optimized molecular docking models were established for prioritizing the PFASs with potential activity against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and estrogen receptor α. Our results indicated that several emerging PFASs of N-methyl perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido acetic acids (N-MeFASAAs), n:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (n:3 FTCA), and n:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (n:2 FTSA) have potential health risks that cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Alcanossulfonatos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise
20.
Cancer Med ; 13(3): e6812, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38239047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been shown that tumor microenvironment (TME) hydroxyapatite (HAP) is typically associated with many malignancies and plays a role in tumor progression and growth. Additionally, acidosis in the TME has been reported to play a key role in selecting for a more aggressive tumor phenotype, drug resistance and desensitization to immunotherapy for many types of cancers. TME-HAP is an attractive target for tumor detection and treatment development since HAP is generally absent from normal soft tissue. We provide strong evidence that dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HAP) within the tumor microenvironment (TME-HAP) using a novel therapeutic can be used to kill cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo with minimal adverse effects. METHODS: We developed an injectable cation exchange nano particulate sulfonated polystyrene solution (NSPS) that we engineered to dissolve TME-HAP, inducing localized acute alkalosis and inhibition of tumor growth and glucose metabolism. This was evaluated in cell culture using 4T1, MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells, MCF10 normal breast cells, and H292 lung cancer cells, and in vivo using orthotopic mouse models of cancer that contained detectable microenvironment HAP including breast (MMTV-Neu, 4T1, and MDA-MB-231), prostate (PC3) and colon (HCA7) cancer using 18 F-NaF for HAP and 18 F-FDG for glucose metabolism with PET imaging. On the other hand, H292 lung tumor cells that lacked detectable microenvironment HAP and MCF10a normal breast cells that do not produce HAP served as negative controls. Tumor microenvironment pH levels following injection of NSPS were evaluated via Chemical Exchange Saturation (CEST) MRI and via ex vivo methods. RESULTS: Within 24 h of adding the small concentration of 1X of NSPS (~7 µM), we observed significant tumor cell death (~ 10%, p < 0.05) in 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cell cultures that contain HAP but ⟨2% in H292 and MCF10a cells that lack detectable HAP and in controls. Using CEST MRI, we found extracellular pH (pHe) in the 4T1 breast tumors, located in the mammary fat pad, to increase by nearly 10% from baseline before gradually receding back to baseline during the first hour post NSPS administration. in the tumors that contained TME-HAP in mouse models, MMTV-Neu, 4T1, and MDA-MB-231, PC3, and HCA7, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in 18 F-Na Fuptake post NSPS treatment as expected; 18 F- uptake in the tumor = 3.8 ± 0.5 %ID/g (percent of the injected dose per gram) at baseline compared to 1.8 ±0.5 %ID/g following one-time treatment with 100 mg/kg NSPS. Of similar importance, is that 18 F-FDG uptake in the tumors was reduced by more than 75% compared to baseline within 24 h of treatment with one-time NSPS which persisted for at least one week. Additionally, tumor growth was significantly slower (p < 0.05) in the mice treated with one-time NSPS. Toxicity showed no evidence of any adverse effects, a finding attributed to the absence of HAP in normal soft tissue and to our therapeutic NSPS having limited penetration to access HAP within skeletal bone. CONCLUSION: Dissolution of TME-HAP using our novel NSPS has the potential to provide a new treatment paradigm to enhance the management of cancer patients with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Imunoterapia , Alcanossulfonatos , Glucose , Hidroxiapatitas , Microambiente Tumoral
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