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1.
Plant Sci ; 344: 112108, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705480

RESUMO

Ureides, the degraded products of purine catabolism in Arabidopsis, have been shown to act as antioxidant and nitrogen sources. Herein we elucidate purine degraded metabolites as a carbon source using the Arabidopsis Atxdh1, Ataln, and Ataah knockout (KO) mutants vis-à-vis wild-type (WT) plants. Plants were grown under short-day conditions on agar plates containing half-strength MS medium with or without 1% sucrose. Notably, the absence of sucrose led to diminished biomass accumulation in both shoot and root tissues of the Atxdh1, Ataln, and Ataah mutants, while no such effect was observed in WT plants. Moreover, the application of sucrose resulted in a reduction of purine degradation metabolite levels, specifically xanthine and allantoin, predominantly within the roots of WT plants. Remarkably, an increase in proteins associated with the purine degradation pathway was observed in WT plants in the presence of sucrose. Lower glyoxylate levels in the roots but not in the shoot of the Atxdh1 mutant in comparison to WT, were observed under sucrose limitation, and improved by sucrose application in root, indicating that purine degradation provided glyoxylate in the root. Furthermore, the deficit of purine-degraded metabolites in the roots of mutants subjected to carbon starvation was partially mitigated through allantoin application. Collectively, these findings signify that under conditions of sucrose limitation and short-day growth, purines are primarily remobilized within the root system to augment the availability of ureides, serving as an additional carbon (as well as nitrogen) source to support plant growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Carbono , Raízes de Plantas , Sacarose , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alantoína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Purinas/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glioxilatos/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542069

RESUMO

Rosmarinic acid is a well-known natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, and it is one of the polyphenolic compounds found in comfrey plants. Comfrey root also contains allantoin, which helps with new skin regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the healing and skin regeneration process of skin wounds in Wistar rats using creams based on comfrey extract and to correlate the results with active compounds in the extract. The obtained results showed that comfrey root is rich in bioactive compounds, including allantoin, salvianolic acid, and rosmarinic acid, which are known for their great free radical scavenging activity, and the high antioxidant activity of the extract may be mainly due to these compounds. The obtained extract has an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus (1530.76/382.69), Escherichia coli (6123.01/6123.01), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6123.01/6123.01). The macroscopic evaluation and the histological analysis of the skin defects 14 days after the intervention showed faster healing and complete healing in the skin excisions treated with oil-in-water cream with 20% extract of comfrey as the active ingredient.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Confrei , Ratos , Animais , Alantoína/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3693, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355732

RESUMO

Rapid and accurate identification of the bacteria responsible for sepsis is paramount for effective patient care. Molecular diagnostic methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), encounter challenges in sepsis due to inhibitory compounds in the blood, necessitating their removal for precise analysis. In this study we present an innovative approach that utilizes vancomycin (Van) and allantoin (Al)-conjugated polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the rapid and automated enrichment of bacteria and their DNA extraction from blood without inducing clumping and aggregation of blood. Al/Van-PDA-MNPs, facilitated by IMS, eliminate the need for preliminary sample treatments, providing a swift and efficient method for bacterial concentration and DNA extraction within an hour. Employing Al/Van-PDA-MNPs within an automated framework has markedly improved our ability to pre-concentrate various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria directly from blood samples. This advancement has effectively reduced the detection threshold to 102 colony-forming unit/mL by both PCR and quantitative PCR. The method's expedited processing time, combined with its precision, positions it as a feasible diagnostic tool for diverse healthcare settings, ranging from small clinics to large hospitals. Furthermore, the innovative application of nanoparticles for DNA extraction holds promising potential for advancing sepsis diagnostics, enabling earlier interventions and improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Indóis , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Polímeros , Sepse , Humanos , Vancomicina , Alantoína , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Bactérias/genética
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130280, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378120

RESUMO

Presently, the preference for chitosan (CS) and gum polysaccharides in biomedical applications including drug delivery and wound healing has been extensively documented. Despite this, the demerits of CS and gum polysaccharides such as poor mechanical properties, degradation rate, swelling, etc., limit their applications for designing biocomposite films for drug delivery. Therefore, the anticipated work aims to design a CS and neem gum polysaccharides (NGP) polyelectrolyte complex-based allantoin (AT)-loaded (CS/NGP-AT) biocomposite film for improved wound healing. In brief, CS, NGP, and CS/NGP-AT-based biocomposite films were prepared using the solvent-casting method, and in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo characterizations were performed to assess the performance of these biocomposite films compared to their counterparts. In this, diffractogram and thermogram analysis assured the conversion of crystalline AT into an amorphous form. The optimized CS/NGP/AT-3 formulation exhibited controlled water absorption, appropriate water uptake capacity, good water retention ability, excellent water vapor transmission rate, controlled degradation rate, enhanced mechanical properties, cell and blood biocompatibility, etc. Furthermore, it offered improved antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potential. The optimized film provided a modified release (88.3 ± 0.3 %) of AT from the film for up to 48 h. Wound healing experiments on rats and their histopathology studies confirmed a significantly higher rate of wound recovery within 14 days compared to the control and CS/NGP film, attributable to the combined effects of CS, NGP, and AT. In conclusion, the fabricated CS/NGP-based biocomposite film presents promising prospects as an excellent candidate for wound healing applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Ratos , Animais , Quitosana/química , Alantoína , Polieletrólitos , Fenômenos Químicos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
5.
Molecules ; 28(23)2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38067609

RESUMO

Streck tubes are commonly used to collect blood samples to preserve cell-free circulating DNA. They contain imidazolidinyl urea as a formaldehyde-releasing agent to stabilize cells. We investigated whether the released formaldehyde leads to crosslinking of intracellular proteins. Therefore, we employed a shotgun proteomics experiment on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were isolated from blood collected in Streck tubes, EDTA tubes, EDTA tubes containing formaldehyde, or EDTA tubes containing allantoin. The identified crosslinks were validated in parallel reaction monitoring LC/MS experiments. In total, we identified and validated 45 formaldehyde crosslinks in PBMCs from Streck tubes, which were also found in PBMCs from formaldehyde-treated blood, but not in EDTA- or allantoin-treated samples. Most were derived from cytoskeletal proteins and histones, indicating the ability of Streck tubes to fix cells. In addition, we confirm a previous observation that formaldehyde crosslinking of proteins induces a +24 Da mass shift more frequently than a +12 Da shift. The crosslinking capacity of Streck tubes needs to be considered when selecting blood-collection tubes for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics or metabolomic experiments.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Humanos , Ácido Edético/química , Alantoína
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(21)2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37958615

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of various enhancers on permeation through the skin and accumulation in the skin from acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive-based drug-in-adhesives matrix-type transdermal patches. Eleven patches, each containing a 5% enhancer of permeation, encompassing compounds such as salicylic acid, menthol, urea, glycolic acid, allantoin, oleic acid, Tween 80, linolenic acid, camphor, N-dodecylcaprolactam, and glycerin, were developed. Ibuprofen (IBU) was the model active substance, a widely-used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The results were compared to patches without enhancers and commercial preparations. The study aimed to assess the effect of enhancers on IBU permeability. The adhesive properties of the patches were characterised, and active substance permeability was tested. The findings revealed that patches with 5% allantoin exhibited the highest IBU permeability, approximately 2.8 times greater than patches without enhancers after 24 h. These patches present a potential alternative to commercial preparations, highlighting the significant impact of enhancers on transdermal drug delivery efficiency.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Ibuprofeno , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Alantoína/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Adesivos/metabolismo
7.
J Biomater Appl ; 38(5): 692-706, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905355

RESUMO

In the present study, the allantoin and silver nanoparticle (Ag NPs) loaded poly caprolactone/gelatin (PCL/GEL) nanofibers produced using electrospinning technique and their cyto-compatibility and wound healing activity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The SEM imaging revealed diameters of 278.8 ± 10 and 240.6 ± 12 nm for PCL/GEL/Ag NPs and PCL/GEL/Ag NPs/allantoin scaffolds. The Ag NPs entrapment into scaffolds was evaluated by FTIR analysis and EDX mapping. Both scaffolds containing Ag NPs and Ag NPs/allantoin exhibited valuable wound healing activity in Wistar rat animal model. The profound granulation tissue formation, high collagen deposition in coordination with low level of edema and inflammatory cells in Ag NPs/allantoin loaded scaffolds resulted in complete and mature re-epithelialization in giving the healing score (12 out of 12) equal to positive control group to the wounds treated with these scaffolds. It was concluded that the Ag NPs/allantoin loaded scaffolds regarding to their good antibacterial activity and excellent wound healing activity could be introduced as new effective wound dressing materials.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanofibras , Ratos , Animais , Alantoína , Ratos Wistar , Prata , Antibacterianos , Poliésteres
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 4): 127051, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748589

RESUMO

The field of tissue engineering has recently emerged as one of the most promising approaches to address the limitations of conventional tissue replacements for severe injuries. This study introduces a chitosan-coated porous skin scaffold based on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and sodium alginate (SA) hydrogels, incorporating allantoin (AL) as an antibacterial agent. The NaCMC/SA hydrogel was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freeze-dried to obtain a three-dimensional porous structure. The coated and non-coated scaffolds underwent comprehensive evaluation and characterization through various in-vitro analyses, including SEM imaging, swelling, degradation, and mechanical assessments. Furthermore, the scaffolds were studied regarding their allantoin (AL) release profiles, antibacterial properties, cell viability, and cell adhesion. The in-vitro analyses revealed that adding a chitosan (CS) coating and allantoin (AL) to the NaCMC/SA hydrogel significantly improved the scaffolds' antibacterial properties and cell viability. It was observed that the NaCMC:SA ratio and ECH concentration influenced the swelling capacity, biodegradation, drug release profile, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Samples with higher NaCMC content exhibited enhanced swelling capacity, more controlled allantoin (AL) release, and improved mechanical strength. Furthermore, the in-vivo results demonstrated that the proposed skin scaffold exhibited satisfactory biocompatibility and supported cell viability during wound healing in Wistar rats, highlighting its potential for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Ratos , Animais , Quitosana/química , Alantoína , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Alginatos/química , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química
9.
Hum Genomics ; 17(1): 80, 2023 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641126

RESUMO

Over the last century, outbreaks and pandemics have occurred with disturbing regularity, necessitating advance preparation and large-scale, coordinated response. Here, we developed a machine learning predictive model of disease severity and length of hospitalization for COVID-19, which can be utilized as a platform for future unknown viral outbreaks. We combined untargeted metabolomics on plasma data obtained from COVID-19 patients (n = 111) during hospitalization and healthy controls (n = 342), clinical and comorbidity data (n = 508) to build this patient triage platform, which consists of three parts: (i) the clinical decision tree, which amongst other biomarkers showed that patients with increased eosinophils have worse disease prognosis and can serve as a new potential biomarker with high accuracy (AUC = 0.974), (ii) the estimation of patient hospitalization length with ± 5 days error (R2 = 0.9765) and (iii) the prediction of the disease severity and the need of patient transfer to the intensive care unit. We report a significant decrease in serotonin levels in patients who needed positive airway pressure oxygen and/or were intubated. Furthermore, 5-hydroxy tryptophan, allantoin, and glucuronic acid metabolites were increased in COVID-19 patients and collectively they can serve as biomarkers to predict disease progression. The ability to quickly identify which patients will develop life-threatening illness would allow the efficient allocation of medical resources and implementation of the most effective medical interventions. We would advocate that the same approach could be utilized in future viral outbreaks to help hospitals triage patients more effectively and improve patient outcomes while optimizing healthcare resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Triagem , Alantoína , Surtos de Doenças , Aprendizado de Máquina
10.
J Exp Bot ; 74(18): 5564-5590, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37478311

RESUMO

The ureides allantoin and allantoate serve as nitrogen (N) transport compounds in plants, and more recently, allantoin has been shown to play a role in signaling. In planta, tissue ureide levels are controlled by the activity of enzymes of the purine degradation pathway and by ureide transporters called ureide permeases (UPS). Little is known about the physiological function of UPS proteins in crop plants, and especially in monocotyledon species. Here, we identified 13 TaUPS genes in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. Phylogenetic and genome location analyses revealed a close relationship of wheat UPSs to orthologues in other grasses and a division into TaUPS1, TaUPS2.1, and TaUPS2.2 groups, each consisting of three homeologs, with a total of four tandem duplications. Expression, localization, and biochemical analyses resolved spatio-temporal expression patterns of TaUPS genes, transporter localization at the plasma membrane, and a role for TaUPS2.1 proteins in cellular import of ureides and phloem and seed loading. In addition, positive correlations between TaUPS1 and TaUPS2.1 transcripts and ureide levels were found. Together the data support that TaUPSs function in regulating ureide pools at source and sink, along with source-to-sink transport. Moreover, comparative studies between wheat cultivars grown at low and high N strengthened a role for TaUPS1 and TaUPS2.1 transporters in efficient N use and in controlling primary metabolism. Co-expression, protein-protein interaction, and haplotype analyses further support TaUPS involvement in N partitioning, N use efficiency, and domestication. Overall, this work provides a new understanding on UPS transporters in grasses as well as insights for breeding resilient wheat varieties with improved N use efficiency.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Alantoína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(14)2023 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37511051

RESUMO

Redox stress is involved in the aortic aneurysm pathogenesis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). We recently reported that allopurinol, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, blocked aortopathy in a MFS mouse model acting as an antioxidant without altering uric acid (UA) plasma levels. Hyperuricaemia is ambiguously associated with cardiovascular injuries as UA, having antioxidant or pro-oxidant properties depending on the concentration and accumulation site. We aimed to evaluate whether hyperuricaemia causes harm or relief in MFS aortopathy pathogenesis. Two-month-old male wild-type (WT) and MFS mice (Fbn1C1041G/+) were injected intraperitoneally for several weeks with potassium oxonate (PO), an inhibitor of uricase (an enzyme that catabolises UA to allantoin). Plasma UA and allantoin levels were measured via several techniques, aortic root diameter and cardiac parameters by ultrasonography, aortic wall structure by histopathology, and pNRF2 and 3-NT levels by immunofluorescence. PO induced a significant increase in UA in blood plasma both in WT and MFS mice, reaching a peak at three and four months of age but decaying at six months. Hyperuricaemic MFS mice showed no change in the characteristic aortic aneurysm progression or aortic wall disarray evidenced by large elastic laminae ruptures. There were no changes in cardiac parameters or the redox stress-induced nuclear translocation of pNRF2 in the aortic tunica media. Altogether, the results suggest that hyperuricaemia interferes neither with aortopathy nor cardiopathy in MFS mice.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Hiperuricemia , Síndrome de Marfan , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Síndrome de Marfan/patologia , Antioxidantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alantoína , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Aneurisma Aórtico/complicações
12.
Blood Press ; 32(1): 2237123, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37470459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and endothelial function, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic parameters, and to determine if uric acid levels provide additional insights beyond traditional factors like ageing and hypertension in volunteers with low cardiovascular risk factors. Serum uric acid is known for its antioxidant properties, but it may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 40 male participants, divided into three groups based on age and blood pressure status. Group 1 comprised younger participants, group 2 included older individuals without hypertension, and group 3 consisted of older patients with hypertension. The study assessed endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging and measured acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced hyperaemia. The heat microcirculatory response was also examined in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS synthase. The study evaluated oxidative stress and arterial stiffness by measuring allantoin, angiotensin II, Homocitrulline/Lysine, and Chloro-Tyrosine/Tyrosine ratios, as well as by performing non-invasive measurements of aortic augmentation indexes and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. RESULTS: The study found that uric acid levels did not differ significantly among the three groups. Augmentation indexes increased with ageing, but hypertension did not have an additional effect. Blood pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity differed among the groups, with the lowest values among younger participants and the highest values among older individuals with hypertension. Allantoin and angiotensin II levels did not differ among the groups. However, Homocitrulline/Lysine and Chloro-Tyrosine/Tyrosine ratios were significantly lower in young subjects. Correlation and multivariable analysis showed that uric acid had no effect on any of the studied parameters. Despite a strong association between ageing and systolic blood pressure with impaired endothelial function, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness, only ageing retained a significant effect in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: In healthy or hypertensive adults with normal renal function, serum uric acid appears to be a futile bystander in endothelial function, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness, in contrast to ageing, which reduces NO bioavailability. This study suggests that traditional factors such as ageing and hypertension should be the focus of clinical assessment and management of cardiovascular risk, rather than uric acid levels.


Plain Language SummaryOur study aimed to investigate the potential role of serum uric acid in endothelial function, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness in healthy and hypertensive adults with normal renal function. We enrolled 40 males, divided into three groups based on age and blood pressure status, and assessed several parameters related to endothelial function, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness.Our findings suggest that serum uric acid does not play a significant role in these parameters in healthy or hypertensive adults with normal renal function. Instead, ageing appears to be the primary factor contributing to impaired endothelial function, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness.This study adds to the growing body of literature on the potential role of uric acid in cardiovascular risk and highlights the importance of considering age as a key factor in understanding endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness. Uric acid level should not be systematically determined in patients with low cardiovascular risk profile in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Úrico , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Lisina , Alantoína , Angiotensina II , Microcirculação , Pressão Sanguínea , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 458: 131920, 2023 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37413799

RESUMO

Allantoin is a nitrogen metabolite with significant potential to mediate plant defense responses under salinity. However, the impact of allantoin on ions homeostasis and ROS metabolism has yet to be established in plants under Cr toxicity. In the current study, chromium (Cr) notably diminished growth, photosynthetic pigments, and nutrient acquisition in two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Anaj-2017). Plants subjected to Cr toxicity displayed excessive Cr accumulation. Chromium produced substantial oxidative stress reflected as higher levels of O2•, H2O2, MDA, methylglyoxal (MG) and lipoxygenase activity. Plants manifested marginally raised antioxidant enzyme activities due to Cr stress. Further, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels diminished with a concurrent rise in oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG). Plants exhibited a considerable abridge in GSH:GSSG due to Cr toxicity. Allantoin (200 and 300 mg L1) subsided metal phytotoxic effects by strengthening the activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidant compounds. Plants administered allantoin displayed a considerable rise in endogenous H2S and nitric oxide (NO) levels that, in turn, lessened oxidative injury in Cr-stressed plants. Allantoin diminished membrane damage and improved nutrient acquisition under Cr stress. Allantoin markedly regulated the uptake and distribution of Cr in wheat plants, abridging the degree of metal phytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cromo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Alantoína , Metabolismo Secundário , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Homeostase , Nutrientes
14.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37175385

RESUMO

Soybeans are commonly known as a valuable source of biologically active compounds including isoflavones as well as allantoin and alpha-hydroxy acids. Since these compounds exhibit skin therapeutic effects, they are widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The presented paper shows the optimization of three solvent systems (ethanol, water, and 1,3-propanediol) to increase the extraction efficiency of isoflavones (daidzin, genistin, 6″-O-malonyldaidzin, 6″-O-malonylglycitin, 6″-O-malonylgenistin), allantoin, and alpha-hydroxy acids (citric acid, malic acid) from soybean leaves. A simplex centroid mixture design for three solvents with interior points was applied for the experimental plan creation. Based on the obtained results of metabolite extraction yield in relation to solvent composition, polynomial regression models were developed. All models were significant, with predicted R-squared values between 0.77 and 0.99, while in all cases the model's lack of fit was not significant. The optimal mixture composition enabling the maximization of extraction efficiency was as follows: 32.9% ethanol, 53.9% water, and 13.3% propanediol (v/v/v). Such a mixture composition provided the extraction of 99%, 91%, 100%, 92%, 99%, 70%, 92%, and 69% of daidzin, genistin, 6″-O-malonyldaidzin, 6″-O-malonylglycitin, 6″-O-malonylgenistin, allantoin, citric acid, and malic acid, respectively. The solvent mixture composition developed provides a good extraction efficiency of the metabolites from soybean leaves and high antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Glycine max , Isoflavonas , Glycine max/metabolismo , Alantoína , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Malatos , Solventes , Etanol , Água , Ácido Cítrico
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 112(3): 143-160, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37184674

RESUMO

Soil salinity stress is one of the major bottlenecks for crop production. Although, allantoin is known to be involved in nitrogen metabolism in plants, yet several reports in recent time indicate its involvement in various abiotic stress responses including salinity stress. However, the detail mechanism of allantoin involvement in salinity stress tolerance in plants is not studied well. Moreover, we demonstrated the role of exogenous application of allantoin as well as increased concentration of endogenous allantoin in rendering salinity tolerance in rice and Arabidopsis respectively, via., induction of abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis pathways. Exogenous application of allantoin (10 µM) provides  salt-tolerance to salt-sensitive rice genotype (IR-29). Transcriptomic data after exogenous supplementation of allantoin under salinity stress showed induction of ABA (OsNCED1) and BR (Oscytochrome P450) biosynthesis genes in IR-29. Further, the key gene of allantoin biosynthesis pathway i.e., urate oxidase of the halophytic species Oryza coarctata was also found to induce ABA and BR biosynthesis genes when over-expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. Thus, indicating that ABA and BR biosynthesis pathways were involved in allantoin mediated salinity tolerance in both rice and Arabidopsis. Additionally, it has been found that several physio-chemical parameters such as biomass, Na+/K+ ratio, MDA, soluble sugar, proline, allantoin and chlorophyll contents were also associated with the allantoin-mediated salinity tolerance in urate oxidase overexpressed lines of Arabidopsis. These findings depicted the functional conservation of allantoin for salinity tolerance in both plant clades.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Alantoína/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Urato Oxidase/genética , Urato Oxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Salinidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7345, 2023 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37147430

RESUMO

Allantoin is a good source of ammonium for many organisms, and in Escherichia coli it is utilized under anaerobic conditions. We provide evidence that allantoinase (AllB) is allosterically activated by direct binding of the allantoin catabolic enzyme, glycerate 2-kinase (GlxK) in the presence of glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is known to be an effector of the AllR repressor which regulates the allantoin utilization operons in E. coli. AllB has low affinity for allantoin, but its activation by GlxK leads to increased affinity for its substrate. We also show that the predicted allantoin transporter YbbW (re-named AllW) has allantoin specificity and the protein-protein interaction with AllB. Our results show that the AllB-dependent allantoin degradative pathway is subject to previously unrecognized regulatory mechanisms involving direct protein-protein interactions.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Escherichia coli , Alantoína/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Glioxilatos/metabolismo
17.
Turk Neurosurg ; 33(3): 437-446, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37222011

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of Contractubex® (Cx) on peripheral nerve regeneration and scar formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A surgical procedure involving sciatic nerve incision in 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by epineural suturing was performed. In weeks 4 and 12 following surgery, macroscopic, histological, functional, and electromyographic examinations of the sciatic nerve were conducted. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the Cx group and the control group in terms of sciatic function index (SFI) and distal latency results at week 4 (p > 0.05). However, significant improvements in the Cx group were observed in SFI amplitudes and nerve action potentials at week 12 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Significant improvements were found in the amplitudes of nerve action potentials in the treatment group after weeks 4 and 12 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Macroscopically and histopathologically, epidural fibrosis decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). For both measurement times, the treatment group had significantly higher numbers of axons (week 4, p < 0.05; week 12, p < 0.001), and the treatment group had better results regarding its axon area (weeks 4 and 12, p < 0.001) and myelin thickness (weeks 4 and 12, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cx, which is applied topically in peripheral nerve injury, affects axonal regeneration and axonal maturation positively and reduces the functional loss.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Nervo Isquiático , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cicatriz
18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 33(5): 662-667, 2023 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37248205

RESUMO

Allantoin is an abundant component of yams and has been known as a skin protectant due to its pharmacological activities. In previous methods for allantoin determination using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the separation was unsatisfactory. We herein developed a 1H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method for quantification of allantoin in the flesh and peel of yams. The method was carried out based on the relative ratio of signals integration of allantoin to a certain amount of the internal standard dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) and validated in terms of specificity, linearity (range 62.5-2000 µg/ml), sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) 4.63 and 14.03 µg/ml, respectively), precision (RSD% 0.02-0.26), and recovery (86.35-92.11%). The method was then applied for the evaluation of allantoin in flesh and peel extracts of four different yams cultivated in Korea.


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Dioscorea/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Alantoína/análise , Alantoína/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Limite de Detecção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37108540

RESUMO

This work describes a liquid allantoin-enriched pectin hydrogel with hydrophilic behavior that is supported by the presence of functional groups related to healing efficacy. A topical study shows the effect of the hydrogel application on surgically induced skin wound healing in a rat model. Contact angle measurements confirm hydrophilic behavior (11.37°), while Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates the presence of functional groups related to the healing effectiveness (carboxylic acid and amine groups). Allantoin is distributed on the surface and inside the amorphous pectin hydrogel surrounded by a heterogeneous distribution of pores. This promotes wound drying with better interaction between the hydrogel and cells involved in the wound healing process. An experimental study with female Wistar rats indicates that the hydrogel improves wound contraction, reducing around 71.43% of the total healing time and reaching total wound closure in 15 days.


Assuntos
Alantoína , Hidrogéis , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Hidrogéis/química , Alantoína/farmacologia , Pele , Pectinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
20.
Yi Chuan ; 45(4): 341-353, 2023 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37077167

RESUMO

Fracture healing is a rigorous and orderly process with multiple steps that are mediated by multiple cells. During this process, osteoclast-mediated bone remodeling plays a critical role, and its abnormal activity leads not only to fracture susceptibility but also to impaired fracture healing. However, few studies have focused on impaired healing caused by osteoclast defects, and clinical drugs for this type of impaired fracture healing are still lacking. The cell types and regulatory pathways in the zebrafish skeletal system are highly similar to those of mammals, making the zebrafish skeletal system being widely used for skeletal-related studies. To study the process of fracture healing disorders caused by osteoclast defects and discover potential therapeutic drugs, we established an in vivo osteoclast-deficient fracture model using a previously generated fms gene mutant zebrafish (fmsj4e1). The results showed that reduced functional osteoclasts could affect fracture repair in the early stages of fracture. Then we applied an in vitro scale culture system to screen for osteoclast-activating drugs. We found the small molecule compound allantoin (ALL) being able to activate osteoclasts. Subsequently, we verified the activation role of ALL on osteoclasts and the promotion of fracture repair in an in vivo fmsj4e1 fracture defect model. Finally, by examining the osteoclastogenesis and maturation process, we found that ALL may promote osteoclast maturation by regulating RANKL/OPG, thus promoting fmsj4e1 fracture healing. Our study provides a potential new approach for the future improvement of fracture healing disorders caused by osteoclast defects.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Consolidação da Fratura , Alantoína/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Mamíferos
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