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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2330302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573118

RESUMO

Background: Various coping strategies have been shown to alleviate the negative effects of trauma, yet the significance of prosocial behaviour in this realm has been notably underexplored. The present study explored the hypothesis that engaging in prosocial behaviour mitigates the impacts of trauma by promoting a sense of competence and relatedness, post-traumatic growth (PTG), and reconstruction of meaning.Methods: Three consecutive studies were conducted with college students to compare differences in consequence of prosocial behaviours between a trauma group and a control group. Study 1 (N = 96) used self-reported experiences of traumatic vs non-traumatic events; Study 2 (N = 43) used exposure vs. no exposure to video of an earthquake; Study 3 (N = 20) used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a prosocial-themed intervention vs. no intervention. Outcomes in all studies were assessed by self-report questionnaires.Results: Trauma damaged participants' sense of competence and meaningfulness. Prosocial behaviour relieved the impact of trauma on meaning, specifically manifested in the individuals' sense of meaningfulness and their search for meaning. Group interventions with a prosocial theme (based on effect size results) reduced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and enhanced PTG in victims. The promoting effect on PTG persisted a month later, and its enhancing effect on meaning manifested with a delay.Conclusion: Prosocial behaviour can potentially serve as a beneficial strategy for individuals coping with trauma because it helps enhance meaning and promotes PTG in victims. This conclusion is supported by laboratory experiments and a tentative small-scale intervention study, which provide an innovative perspective for future trauma interventions.


Prosocial behaviour can potentially serve as a beneficial strategy for individuals coping with trauma.Prosocial behaviour relieved the impact of trauma on meaning.Prosocial-themed intervention reduced PTSD and enhanced PTG in victims (based on effect size results).


Assuntos
Terremotos , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Humanos , Altruísmo , 60670 , Dor
2.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577983

RESUMO

The growth and success of many bacteria appear to rely on a stunning range of cooperative behaviours. But what is cooperation and how is it studied?


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Evolução Biológica , Bactérias/genética
3.
Psychol Sci ; 35(4): 390-404, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477861

RESUMO

Charities often use incentives to increase prosocial action. However, charities sometimes downplay these incentives in their messaging (pilot study), possibly to avoid demotivating donors. We challenge this strategy, examining whether increasing the salience of incentives for prosocial action can in fact motivate charitable behavior. Three controlled experiments (N = 2,203 adults) and a field study with an alumni-donation campaign (N = 22,468 adults) found that more (vs. less) salient incentives are more effective at increasing prosocial behavior when prosocial motivation is low (vs. high). This is because more (vs. less) salient incentives increase relative consideration of self-interest (vs. other-regarding) benefits, which is a stronger driver of behavior at low (vs. high) levels of prosocial motivation. By identifying that prosocial motivation moderates the effect of incentive salience on charitable behavior, and by detailing the underlying mechanism, we advance theory and practice on incentive salience, motivation, and charitable giving.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Motivação , Adulto , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Instituições de Caridade , Doadores de Tecidos
4.
J Neurosci ; 44(15)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467433

RESUMO

Prosocial behavior is crucial for the smooth functioning of the society. Yet, individuals differ vastly in the propensity to behave prosocially. Here, we try to explain these individual differences under normal sleep conditions without any experimental modulation of sleep. Using a portable high-density EEG, we measured the sleep data in 54 healthy adults (28 females) during a normal night's sleep at the participants' homes. To capture prosocial preferences, participants played an incentivized public goods game in which they faced real monetary consequences. The whole-brain analyses showed that a higher relative slow-wave activity (SWA, an indicator of sleep depth) in a cluster of electrodes over the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) was associated with increased prosocial preferences. Source localization and current source density analyses further support these findings. Recent sleep deprivation studies imply that sleeping enough makes us more prosocial; the present findings suggest that it is not only sleep duration, but particularly sufficient sleep depth in the TPJ that is positively related to prosociality. Because the TPJ plays a central role in social cognitive functions, we speculate that sleep depth in the TPJ, as reflected by relative SWA, might serve as a dispositional indicator of social cognition ability, which is reflected in prosocial preferences. These findings contribute to the emerging framework explaining the link between sleep and prosocial behavior by shedding light on the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Encéfalo , Cognição , Altruísmo
5.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 25(1): 2330751, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501973

RESUMO

HIV community peer navigators and treatment officers are important sources of information and guidance for people living with HIV. We conducted an anonymous online survey with members of the treatment outreach network of the Australian National Association of People Living with HIV. The survey explored understandings and acceptance of HIV cure research and was disseminated before and following an interactive workshop on HIV cure. We demonstrated an improvement in understandings of HIV cure science and increased willingness to participate in interventional clinical trials after the workshop. Concerns around interrupting HIV treatment and detrimental impacts on health were identified as barriers to participation. Altruism was a motivator to enrol in HIV cure trials, along with endorsement from a trusted member of community.


Assuntos
Besouros , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Animais , Austrália , Altruísmo , Grupo Associado , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 16, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435470

RESUMO

Despite the commendable progress made in addressing global health challenges and threats such as child mortality, HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis, many global health organizations still exhibit a Global North supremacy attitude, evidenced by their choice of leaders and executors of global health initiatives in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While efforts by the Global North to support global health practice in LMICs have led to economic development and advancement in locally led research, current global health practices tend to focus solely on intervention outcomes, often neglecting important systemic factors such as intellectual property ownership, sustainability, diversification of leadership roles, and national capacity development. This has resulted in the implementation of practices and systems informed by high-income countries (HICs) to the detriment of knowledge systems in LMICs, as they are deprived of the opportunity to generate local solutions for local problems. From their unique position as international global health fellows located in different African countries and receiving graduate education from a HIC institution, the authors of this viewpoint article assess how HIC institutions can better support LMICs. The authors propose several strategies for achieving equitable global health practices; 1) allocating funding to improve academic and research infrastructures in LMICs; 2) encouraging effective partnerships and collaborations with Global South scientists who have lived experiences in LMICs; 3) reviewing the trade-related aspects of intellectual property Rights (TRIPS) agreement; and 4) achieving equity in global health funding and education resources.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Saúde Global , Criança , Humanos , África , Altruísmo , Mortalidade da Criança
7.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(3): e22483, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482974

RESUMO

Parental supportive emotional expressivity could contribute to children's prosocial behaviors, and such an effect may differ for children with different levels of resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This study disentangled the stable differences across dyads (i.e., between-person effects) from the dynamic associations between parental expressivity and children's prosocial behaviors within dyads (i.e., within-person effects) and determined how resting RSA functioned as a susceptibility factor in such effects. The longitudinal design consisted of three measurements with a 1-year interval performed among 208 school-aged children (48.6% girls; Han nationality) and their parents (153 mothers and 55 fathers). The initial measurement was conducted when the children were 7 years old (Mage  = 7.13, SDage  = .33). Resting RSA was calculated at the first measurement; parents reported children's prosocial behaviors and parental expressivity at each of the three measurements. The results demonstrated significant between- and within-person effects of parental expressivity on children's prosocial behaviors and found a moderating role of children's resting RSA in the within-person effects. These findings suggest that children displayed more prosocial behaviors when parents showed more supportive expressivity both across and within dyads, and higher resting RSA operated as a differential susceptibility factor in the intraindividual fluctuations in parental expressivity.


Assuntos
Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Altruísmo , Pais/psicologia , Mães , Comportamento Infantil
8.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e48292, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technology-related research on people with dementia and their carers often aims to enable people to remain living at home for longer and prevent unnecessary hospital admissions. To develop person-centered, effective, and ethical research, patient and public involvement (PPI) is necessary, although it may be perceived as more difficult with this cohort. With recent and rapid expansions in health and care-related technology, this review explored how and with what impact collaborations between researchers and stakeholders such as people with dementia and their carers have taken place. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to describe approaches to PPI used to date in technology-related dementia research, along with the barriers and facilitators and impact of PPI in this area. METHODS: A scoping review of literature related to dementia, technology, and PPI was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL. Papers were screened for inclusion by 2 authors. Data were then extracted using a predesigned data extraction table by the same 2 authors. A third author supported the resolution of any conflicts at each stage. Barriers to and facilitators of undertaking PPI were then examined and themed. RESULTS: The search yielded 1694 papers, with 31 (1.83%) being analyzed after screening. Most (21/31, 68%) did not make clear distinctions between activities undertaken as PPI and those undertaken by research participants, and as such, their involvement did not fit easily into the National Institute for Health and Care Research definition of PPI. Most of this mixed involvement focused on reviewing or evaluating technology prototypes. A range of approaches were described, most typically using focus groups or co-design workshops. In total, 29% (9/31) described involvement at multiple stages throughout the research cycle, sometimes with evidence of sharing decision-making power. Some (23/31, 74%) commented on barriers to or facilitators of effective PPI. The challenges identified often regarded issues of working with people with significant cognitive impairments and pressures on time and resources. Where reported, the impact of PPI was largely reported as positive, including the experiences for patient and public partners, the impact on research quality, and the learning experience it provided for researchers. Only 4 (13%) papers used formal methods for evaluating impact. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers often involve people with dementia and other stakeholders in technology research. At present, involvement is often limited in scope despite aspirations for high levels of involvement and partnership working. Involving people with dementia, their carers, and other stakeholders can have a positive impact on research, patient and public partners, and researchers. Wider reporting of methods and facilitative strategies along with more formalized methods for recording and reporting on meaningful impact would be helpful so that all those involved-researchers, patients, and other stakeholders-can learn how we can best conduct research together.


Assuntos
Demência , Pacientes , Humanos , Academias e Institutos , Altruísmo , Tecnologia , Demência/terapia
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 244: 104200, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Creating a child-friendly social environment is an important component of promoting child-friendly city development. This study aims to explore the key indicators of friendly family, school and community social environments from the perspective of children's conduct problems and prosocial behaviors. METHOD: The sample included grade 3-5 students from one public elementary school in the urban areas and another public elementary school in the rural areas of a Chinese city pursuing a child-friendly philosophy. A total of 418 participants were included in this study. Data on conduct problems, prosocial behaviors and the social environment were collected. To effectively select important variables and eliminate estimation bias, this study used LASSO regression to identify key indicators predicting children's conduct problems and prosocial behavior, followed by linear regression coefficient estimation and significance testing. RESULTS: Creating a friendly family environment (ensuring family members' assistance with academic problems) and school environment (reducing cheating, fighting, and unfriendly teacher language) was associated with reduced conduct problems in children. Creating a positive family atmosphere (enhancing children's trust in family members), school environment (increasing parents' awareness of school affairs, reinforcing students' prosocial behavior, increasing extracurricular activity programs, and encouraging student engagement in academics) and community environment (respecting all children in the community) was associated with improving children's prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study transforms the multidimensional, complex child-friendly social environment evaluation indicator system into concise and specific measurement indicators, which can provide theoretical and practical implications for government decision-making in child-friendly city development through empirical research.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Meio Social , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Social
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6575, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503779

RESUMO

Free riders, who benefit from collective efforts to mitigate climate change but do not actively contribute, play a key role in shaping behavioral climate action. Using a sample of 2096 registered American voters, we explore the discrepancy between two groups of free riders: cynics, who recognize the significance of environmental issues but do not adopt sustainable behaviors, and doubters, who neither recognize the significance nor engage in such actions. Through statistical analyses, we show these two groups are different. Doubters are predominantly male, younger, with lower income and education, exhibit stronger conspiracy beliefs, lower altruism, and limited environmental knowledge, are more likely to have voted for Trump and lean towards conservative ideology. Cynics are younger, religious, higher in socioeconomic status, environmentally informed, liberal-leaning, and less likely to support Trump. Our research provides insights on who could be most effectively persuaded to make climate-sensitive lifestyle changes and provides recommendations to prompt involvement in individual sustainability behaviors. Our findings suggest that for doubters, incentivizing sustainability through positive incentives, such as financial rewards, may be particularly effective. Conversely, for cynics, we argue that engaging them in more community-driven and social influence initiatives could effectively translate their passive beliefs into active participation.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Motivação , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Renda , Classe Social , Mudança Climática
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 353, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prosocial behavior has been shown to be protective against burnout. Yet, we know little about prosocial behavior in medical students. We wanted to know what are chinese medical students' understanding of prosocial behavior and which factors influence their participation in it? METHODS: We undertook a grounded theory study, following Corbin & Strauss. We used convenience sampling and conducted semi-structured individual interviews. We analyzed data using open, axial, and selective coding techniques. Next, we grouped data into concepts. We noticed these concepts aligned with three existing social theories, so we developed our theory in concert with these: the Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Determination Theory, and Social Support Theory. RESULTS: Twenty-eight medical students participated in this study. Medical students hold especial views on the roles of medical physicians, and most of these views align with students' core values, including the value of prosocial behavior. Students are intrinsically motivated to engage in prosocial behaviors that align with their core values. Personal values, personality traits, perceived self-competence, career motivation, environmental factors, and family influences are the core factors influencing medically positive prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a focus on prosocial behavior instead of altruistic behavior in medical education. We anticipate that promoting prosocial behavior through medical curricula will reduce moral distress and burnout among medical students.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Altruísmo , Teoria Fundamentada , Motivação , China
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(3): e1011862, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427626

RESUMO

Social reputations provide a powerful mechanism to stimulate human cooperation, but observing individual reputations can be cognitively costly. To ease this burden, people may rely on proxies such as stereotypes, or generalized reputations assigned to groups. Such stereotypes are less accurate than individual reputations, and so they could disrupt the positive feedback between altruistic behavior and social standing, undermining cooperation. How do stereotypes impact cooperation by indirect reciprocity? We develop a theoretical model of group-structured populations in which individuals are assigned either individual reputations based on their own actions or stereotyped reputations based on their groups' behavior. We find that using stereotypes can produce either more or less cooperation than using individual reputations, depending on how widely reputations are shared. Deleterious outcomes can arise when individuals adapt their propensity to stereotype. Stereotyping behavior can spread and can be difficult to displace, even when it compromises collective cooperation and even though it makes a population vulnerable to invasion by defectors. We discuss the implications of our results for the prevalence of stereotyping and for reputation-based cooperation in structured populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Modelos Psicológicos , Humanos , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Massa
14.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 5, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429436

RESUMO

Humans and many other animal species act in ways that benefit others. Such prosocial behaviour has been studied extensively across a range of disciplines over the last decades, but findings to date have led to conflicting conclusions about prosociality across and even within species. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the proximate regulation of prosocial behaviour in humans, non-human primates and potentially other animals. We build on psychological definitions of prosociality and spell out three key features that need to be in place for behaviour to count as prosocial: benefitting others, intentionality, and voluntariness. We then apply this framework to review observational and experimental studies on sharing behaviour and targeted helping in human children and non-human primates. We show that behaviours that are usually subsumed under the same terminology (e.g. helping) can differ substantially across and within species and that some of them do not fulfil our criteria for prosociality. Our framework allows for precise mapping of prosocial behaviours when retrospectively evaluating studies and offers guidelines for future comparative work.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Animais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Primatas
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300868, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526990

RESUMO

Attempts by charities to motivate giving tend to focus on potential donors' altruistic tendencies. However, prior research suggests that approximately 50% of individuals are to some extent motivated by warm glow, the satisfaction received from the act of giving. The satisfaction derives from looking good to themselves (self-image) and/or to others (social image). We conduct an online experiment on MTurk participants (n = 960) with a more realistic simulation of being watched to determine the importance of self- and social image to warm-glow giving. We find evidence that suggests that social image concerns do not increase the likelihood that someone will give but they do increase the amount given; average giving is significantly higher in the treatments when feelings of being watched are stimulated. Our results suggest that charities looking to increase their donor bases might effectively do so by focusing on self-image concerns. Charities wishing to increase the amount donated might effectively do so by focusing on the social image concerns of the donor.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Instituições de Caridade , Humanos , Autoimagem
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7095, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528008

RESUMO

Emotions, long deemed a distinctly human characteristic, guide a repertoire of behaviors, e.g., promoting risk-aversion under negative emotional states or generosity under positive ones. The question of whether Artificial Intelligence (AI) can possess emotions remains elusive, chiefly due to the absence of an operationalized consensus on what constitutes 'emotion' within AI. Adopting a pragmatic approach, this study investigated the response patterns of AI chatbots-specifically, large language models (LLMs)-to various emotional primes. We engaged AI chatbots as one would human participants, presenting scenarios designed to elicit positive, negative, or neutral emotional states. Multiple accounts of OpenAI's ChatGPT Plus were then tasked with responding to inquiries concerning investment decisions and prosocial behaviors. Our analysis revealed that ChatGPT-4 bots, when primed with positive, negative, or neutral emotions, exhibited distinct response patterns in both risk-taking and prosocial decisions, a phenomenon less evident in the ChatGPT-3.5 iterations. This observation suggests an enhanced capacity for modulating responses based on emotional cues in more advanced LLMs. While these findings do not suggest the presence of emotions in AI, they underline the feasibility of swaying AI responses by leveraging emotional indicators.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Software , Afeto
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6128, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480802

RESUMO

The stronger people hold self-enhancing (that is, egoistic or hedonic) values, the less they tend agree with pro-environmental efforts. An exploratory (N = 901) and a confirmatory study (N = 404) examined the effectiveness of pro-environmental messages matched to individuals' values. Findings indicate that strong endorsement of self-transcendent (that is, altruistic or biospheric) values is associated with unspecific endorsement of pro-environmental messages, while individuals endorsing self-enhancement values respond positively only to value-matched appeals.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Mudança Climática , Humanos
19.
Theor Popul Biol ; 156: 131-147, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387802

RESUMO

Altruism and spite are costly to the actor, making their evolution unlikely without specific mechanisms. Nonetheless, both altruistic and spiteful behaviors are present in individuals, which suggests the existence of an underlying mechanism that drives their evolution. If altruistic individuals are more likely to be recipients of altruism than non-altruistic individuals, then altruism can be favored by natural selection. Similarly, if spiteful individuals are less likely to be recipients of spite than non-spiteful individuals, then spite can be favored by natural selection. Spite is altruism's evil twin, ugly sister of altruism, or a shady relative of altruism. In some mechanisms, such as repeated interactions, if altruism is favored by natural selection, then spite is also favored by natural selection. However, there has been limited investigation into whether both behaviors evolve to the same extent. In this study, we focus on the mechanism by which individuals choose to keep or stop the interaction according to the opponent's behavior. Using the evolutionary game theory, we investigate the evolution of altruism and spite under this mechanism. Our model revealed that the evolution of spite is less likely than the evolution of altruism.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Teoria do Jogo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2313925121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386710

RESUMO

We administer a Turing test to AI chatbots. We examine how chatbots behave in a suite of classic behavioral games that are designed to elicit characteristics such as trust, fairness, risk-aversion, cooperation, etc., as well as how they respond to a traditional Big-5 psychological survey that measures personality traits. ChatGPT-4 exhibits behavioral and personality traits that are statistically indistinguishable from a random human from tens of thousands of human subjects from more than 50 countries. Chatbots also modify their behavior based on previous experience and contexts "as if" they were learning from the interactions and change their behavior in response to different framings of the same strategic situation. Their behaviors are often distinct from average and modal human behaviors, in which case they tend to behave on the more altruistic and cooperative end of the distribution. We estimate that they act as if they are maximizing an average of their own and partner's payoffs.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Comportamento , Humanos , Altruísmo , Confiança
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