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1.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 436, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amanita verna is one of the most harmful wild fungi in China. Amanita verna poisoning occurs every year, and the mortality is as high as 50%. However, its clinical manifestations are complex and diverse. CASE PRESENTATION: In March 2019, three patients took a large amount of Amanita, and one of them received liver transplantation in Zhongshan hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. All patients had vomiting and diarrhea 8-12 h after eating wild mushrooms (Amanita). The patients were initially diagnosed with Amanita poisoning. One case (case 3) was complicated and diagnosed as mushroom poisoning (fatal Amanita), toxic hepatitis, acute liver failure, toxic encephalopathy, hemorrhagic colitis, toxic myocarditis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and pregnancy. The general clinical data of all patients were recorded, who received early treatment such as hemodialysis, artificial liver plasma exchange, hormone shock and anti-infection. One case (case 1) recovered smoothly after liver transplantation, and the indexes of liver, kidney, coagulation function and infection were improved. The other two cases died of intracerebral hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation is an effective method for the treatment of acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning and can improve the survival rate of patients with toxic liver failure.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Transplante de Fígado , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Amanita , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/complicações , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia , Gravidez
2.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 39(10): 787-788, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727664

RESUMO

Mushroom poisoning with amatoxins can cause liver dysfunction in patients, and death in severe cases. The amatoxins detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can help early clinical diagnosis. Three patients were identified as α-amatoxin containing mushroom poisoning by ELISA. The first symptoms of patients was gastrointestinal symptoms, and liver function damage occured later. One patient gave up treatment and died. After received supportive treatments such as adsorption of toxins, catharsis, fluid supplementation to promote toxin metabolism and liver protection, 2 patients were recovered and discharged.


Assuntos
Amanita , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670314

RESUMO

A 4-year-old, neutered male Husky-mix dog weighing 29.4 kg that reportedly ingested a mushroom most likely of the genus Amanita one day prior to presentation exhibited signs of diarrhea, vomitus, inappetence and progressively worsening lethargy. Clinical chemistry revealed hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, decreased prothrombin and thromboplastin time, as well as increased liver enzyme activities. Despite hospitalization and supportive therapy over a period of 3 days the dog's general condition worsened leading to euthanasia. The pathomorphological findings were characterized by hemorrhage in several organs, hemorrhagic ingesta, icterus, and marked hepatic cellular necrosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Falência Hepática Aguda , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Amanita , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/terapia , Falência Hepática Aguda/veterinária , Masculino , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/complicações , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/veterinária
4.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(11): 619-620, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465197

RESUMO

CME/Answers: Mushroom Poisoning in the Family Practice Abstract. In the general medical practice, it is not trivial to distinguish between banal intolerances after consumption of edible mushrooms and the initial symptoms of poisoning with potentially fatal outcome. Nevertheless, there are some criteria that can be used as clinical guidance: A latency of six hours or more between the consumption of gilled mushrooms that have not been checked by experts and the onset of mostly severe vomiting and diarrhea is indicative of poisoning with amatoxins, the toxins i.e. in death caps (Amanita phalloides). Although the therapeutic options are controversial, prompt antidotal treatment with silibinin has proven to be effective.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Amanita , Diarreia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(5): 33-39, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347993

RESUMO

Fresh basidiocarps of Amanita cinnamomescens and A. pakistanica were collected from Ayubia-Khanspur, Pakistan, during the 2018 monsoon season. Basidiocarps of A. cinnamomescens and A. pakistanica were evaluated for their mycochemicals, mineral composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The percentage yield of extracts ranged from 4.13% to 18.20%. The extracts contained noticeable total phenolic contents (0.043 ± 0.02 to 0.046 ± 0.01 mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (0.090 ± 0.004 to 0.0935 ± 0.003 mg/g) and good radical scavenging ability according to the ABTS assay (79.74% ± 0.03% to 85.34% ± 0.02%) and the DPPH radical assay (35.77% ± 0.01% to 44.77% ± 0.003%). In addition, the tested extracts showed substantial antimicrobial activity, which ranged from 10 ± 0.33 to 32.66 ± 0.33 mm. Both mushrooms were also analyzed for their mineral content (sodium, potassium, calcium, nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, and iron). It was concluded that A. cinnamomescens and A. pakistanica can be used as a potential source for formulation of dietary functional foods and pharmaceuticals with antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. To our knowledge, this is the first report on in vitro biological activities and mycochemical analysis of A. pakistanica and A. cinnamomescens from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Amanita , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/análise
6.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(10): 543-553, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344191

RESUMO

CME: Mushroom Poisoning in the Family Practice Abstract. In the general medical practice, it is not trivial to distinguish between banal intolerances after consumption of edible mushrooms and the initial symptoms of poisoning with potentially fatal outcome. Nevertheless, there are some criteria that can be used as clinical guidance: A latency of six hours or more between the consumption of gilled mushrooms that have not been checked by experts and the onset of mostly severe vomiting and diarrhea is indicative of poisoning with amatoxins, the toxins i.e. in death caps (Amanita phalloides). Although the therapeutic options are controversial, prompt antidotal treatment with silibinin has proven to be effective.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Amanita , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia
7.
Se Pu ; 39(3): 338-345, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227315

RESUMO

Amanita peptide toxins are cyclic polypeptide mushroom toxins that can cause acute liver damage. The fatality rate associated with these toxins is very high. Monitoring the concentration of amanita peptide toxins in human urine can provide valuable information for early clinical diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a TurboFlow online clean-up-liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TF-LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of five amanita peptide toxins (α-amanitin, ß-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phallacidin, and phalloidin) in human urine. After pre-treatment with high-speed centrifugation, urine samples were analyzed using TF-LC-MS/MS. The main factors influencing purification efficiency, including the TF column, loading solution, eluting solution, transfer flow, and transfer time, were optimized in this study. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytes were purified using a TurboFlowTM Cyclone column (50 mm×0.5 mm) and separated on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm) using the mobile phases of methanol and 4 mmol/L aqueous ammonium acetate solution with gradient elution. The analytes were detected in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization. Matrix-matched external standard calibration was used for quantitation. The linear range of the method ranged from 1.0 µg/L to 50.0 µg/L for all five amanita peptide toxins, with correlation coefficients (r2) higher than 0.997. The limits of detection were 0.15-0.3 µg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.5-1.0 µg/L for the five amanita peptide toxins in urine. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries of amanita peptide toxins were 87.0%-108.6% and 86.8%-112.7%, respectively, at the spiked levels of 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 µg/L. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 14.5%. The method is accurate, rapid, sensitive, easy to operate, and can satisfy the requirements of public health emergency testing or clinical poisoning testing.


Assuntos
Amanita/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Micotoxinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Micotoxinas/urina
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 60145-60153, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152540

RESUMO

Both mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) occur in many mushroom species, but the morphological distribution of these elements during different developmental stages of the fruiting bodies is not known. Although Amanita muscaria can be consumed after suitable processing, they are often ignored by mushroom foragers, leaving an abundance for investigative study. Multiple specimens in each of six developmental stages (button to fully mature) were collected in excellent condition during a single morning from the same forested location and composited. With an average of 30 specimens per composite, and low temporal, spatial, and measurement uncertainty, the data are likely to be representative of the typical concentrations of Hg and Se for each developmental stage. Hg (range 0.58-0.74 mg kg-1 dry weight cap; 0.33 to 0.44 mg kg-1 dw stipe) and Se (range 8.3-11 mg kg-1 dw cap; 2.2 to 4.3 mg kg-1 dw stipe) levels were observed to vary during the developmental stages, and the variability may relate to the demands in growth. In common with some other species, the lower stipe concentrations may be consistent with nutrient/contant transport and support functions. Both Hg and Se levels were lowest during periods of maximum sporocarp growth. Selenium occurs at almost an order of magnitude greater levels than Hg. Due to its role in mitigating the effects of Hg toxicity, this property is of significance to those who consume the species either for nutritional, medicinal, or recreational purposes, although the losses of both these elements during processing are not known.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Selênio , Amanita , Carpóforos
9.
Chemistry ; 27(40): 10282-10292, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058032

RESUMO

Alpha-amanitin, an extremely toxic bicyclic octapeptide extracted from the death-cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides, is a highly selective allosteric inhibitor of RNA polymerase II. Following on growing interest in using this toxin as a payload in antibody-drug conjugates, herein we report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several new derivatives of this toxin to probe the role of the trans-hydroxyproline (Hyp), which is known to be critical for toxicity. This structure activity relationship (SAR) study represents the first of its kind to use various Hyp-analogs to alter the conformational and H-bonding properties of Hyp in amanitin.


Assuntos
Alfa-Amanitina , Imunoconjugados , Amanita , Hidroxiprolina
10.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 28, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the main goals of ethnomycological studies has been understanding the role of wild edible mushrooms (WEM) in diverse cultures. To accomplish such a purpose, the local knowledge of WEM and their cultural importance have been evaluated and compared using qualitative and quantitative methods. However, few studies have documented these aspects in non-edible mushrooms, because they are considered to be in a category of residual cultural importance. To make up for this lack of investigation, this paper analyzes the traditional knowledge of non-edible mushrooms to understand their cultural role and break it down to its components. The analysis of this topic shows how this knowledge represents a good strategy to prevent mushroom intoxications in humans. METHODS: This study was carried out in two communities residing in La Malintzi National Park, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Mushroom species indicated as non-edible were collected during 13 ethnomycological expeditions and seven requests. To get an insight into the local knowledge about these mushrooms, we used ethnographic techniques, 91 free listings and 81 semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: In total, we collected 178 specimens of wild mushrooms recognized as non-edible by locals, which corresponded to 103 species belonging to 45 genera. People who participated in the study had a vast and deep understanding of non-edible mushrooms. For them, the most important species were Amanita muscaria, Neoboletus aff. erythropus, Xerocomellus chrysenteron, and Suillus tomentosus. Two uses were the most mentioned by respondents: as an insecticide and for medicinal purposes. Of note, however, is that A. muscaria was reported as edible years ago. To avoid possible intoxication, all non-edible mushrooms were included in the general category of "poisonous mushrooms." Non-edible species are seen as a cosmogonic counterpart ("twins") of the edible species that they resemble. We obtained 101 specific recognition criteria, useful only when comparing paired species: edible vs non-edible. The most culturally important non-edible groups were differentiated by clear and precise characteristics, which were reflected in the nomenclature and allowed their classification into specific ethnotaxa. CONCLUSIONS: We found that non-used resources can be the object of a deep traditional knowledge and have a vast cultural importance. In the case of wild non-edible mushrooms in particular: the species are named; they are the subject of vast traditional knowledge which is based on their edible/non-edible duality; this knowledge is widespread but has limited consensus, there is little lexical retention; and this knowledge is vital to avoid fatal intoxications. In consequence, both deadly species and species that share similarities with the most important edible mushrooms have a high cultural importance.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Conhecimento , Amanita , Basidiomycota , Humanos , México
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 346: 1-6, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872745

RESUMO

Amanitin poisonings are among the most life-threatening mushroom poisonings, and are mainly caused by the genus Amanita. Hepatotoxicity is the hallmark of amanitins, powerful toxins contained in these mushrooms, and can require liver transplant. Among amatoxins, α-amanitin is the most studied. However, the hypothesis of a possible metabolism of amanitins is still controversial in this pathophysiology. Therefore, there is a need of clarification using cutting-edge tools allowing metabolism study. Molecular network has emerged as powerful tool allowing metabolism study through organization and representation of untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data in a graphical form. The aim of this study is to investigate amanitin metabolism using molecular networking. In vivo (four positive amanitin urine samples) and in vitro (differentiated HepaRG cells supernatant incubated with α-amanitin 2 µM for 24 h) samples were extracted and analyzed by LC-HRMS/MS using a Q Exactive™ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Using molecular networking on both in vitro and in vivo, we have demonstrated that α-amanitin does not undergo metabolism in human. Thus, we provide solid evidence that a possible production of amanitin metabolites cannot be involved in its toxicity pathways. These findings can help to settle the debate on amanitin metabolism and toxicity.


Assuntos
Alfa-Amanitina/metabolismo , Alfa-Amanitina/química , Alfa-Amanitina/urina , Amanita/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/urina
12.
Med Mycol ; 59(9): 890-900, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891700

RESUMO

Food poisoning caused by toxic mushrooms, such as species in the Amanita genus, occurs frequently around the world. To properly treat these patients, it is important to rapidly and accurately identify the causal species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry is a rapid technique that has been used in medical laboratories for the past three decades to identify bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi.Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Tof MS) is a rapid method used for the past three decades to identify microorganisms. In this study, we created and internally validated a MALDI-Tof MS reference database comprising 15 Amanita species frequently encountered in France, and we challenged this database with 38 Amanita specimens from four French locations, using a free online application for MALDI-ToF spectra identifications.Assessment of the database showed that mass spectra can be obtained by analyzing any portion of a carpophore and that all portions enabled identification of the carpophore at the species level. Most carpophores were correctly identified using our database, with the exception of specimens from the Vaginatae section. Decay tests also demonstrated that decayed portions (like those found in the kitchen garbage can) of Amanita phalloides mushrooms could be properly identified using MALDI-ToF MS.Our findings provide important insight for toxicology laboratories that often rely on DNA sequencing to identify meal leftovers implicated in food poisoning. In future developments, this technique could also be used to detect counterfeit mushrooms by including other genera in the reference database. LAY SUMMARY: MALDI-ToF MS is a powerful identification tool for microorganisms. We demonstrate that the technique can be applied to Amanita specimens. This will prevent food intoxications as a rapid and definite identification can be obtained, and it can also be used for food remnants.


Assuntos
Amanita/classificação , Amanita/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , França
13.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(2): 192-197, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676852

RESUMO

Mushroom poisoning is a common health problem that can be seen seasonally and geographically. Most mushroom poisoning requiring treatment worldwide is due to Amanita phalloides. Although liver failure and kidney injury are frequent, poisoning can also lead to more serious clinical situations, such as shock, pancreatitis, encephalopathic coma, cardiac failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and may cause death. In addition, when standard treatment approaches fail, extracorporeal treatment methods are often used. We report 2 cases in which hemodialysis with medium cut-off membrane was performed. We observed an improvement in liver and kidney function in both of our cases. The first case recovered, but the second case proved fatal owing to Acinetobacter sepsis, despite an improvement in renal function. Medium cut-off membrane hemodialysis may be an alternative option in the treatment of Amanita phalloides poisoning.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Transplante de Fígado , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Amanita , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(27): 36193-36204, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687630

RESUMO

Wild edible mushrooms are very popular for both their flavors and nutritional values. However, some mushroom species can be harmful to human health as they accumulate some elements in excessive amounts. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Se, and Zn of some wild edible (Agaricus arvensis, A. bitorquis, A. sylvaticus, Amanita vaginata, Armillaria mellea, Clavariadelphus pistillaris, Clitocybe nebularis, Clitopilus prunulus, Hygrophorus marzuolus, H. russula, Lactarius volemus, Lycoperdon molle, and Macrolepiota mastoidea) and non-edible mushroom species (A. citrina, Auricularia mesenterica, Chanterellus melanoxeros, Chondrostereum purpureum, Clathrus ruber, L. controversus, L. helvus, and L. zonarius) collected from Belgrad forest (Istanbul, Turkey). Daily intakes of element (DIE) and health risk index (HRI) values of the edible mushroom species were also calculated. The concentrations of the elements in question were determined to be in the ranges of 9.7-556.8, 2.5-2226.7, 0.06-2.52, 0.03-13.17, 3.74-100.19, 13.3-507.4, 2635.0-28614.0, 493.0-2412.0, 6.97-3150.73, 0.29-13.26, 0.38-3.67, and 9.1-293.8 mg/kg, respectively. The Cd concentration of H. russula (DIE: 1.08, HRI: 1.08), Cr concentration of C. nebularis (DIE: 5.64, HRI: 1.88), and the Cu concentration of M. mastoidea (DIE: 42.94, HRI: 1.07) were above the reference values. The results showed that the long-term consumption of H. russula, C. nebularis, and M. mastoidea collected from Belgrad forest can have a negative impact on human health. Therefore, it was concluded that the element concentrations of edible wild mushrooms in this region should be examined periodically.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricus , Amanita , Armillaria , Basidiomycota , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Turquia
15.
Chemistry ; 27(31): 8100-8104, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769637

RESUMO

The four non-canonical nucleotides in the human genome 5-methyl-, 5-hydroxymethyl-, 5-formyl- and 5-carboxydeoxycytidine (mdC, hmdC, fdC and cadC) form a second layer of epigenetic information that contributes to the regulation of gene expression. Formation of the oxidized nucleotides hmdC, fdC and cadC requires oxidation of mdC by ten-eleven translocation (Tet) enzymes that require oxygen, Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate as cosubstrates. Although these oxidized forms of mdC are widespread in mammalian genomes, experimental evidence for their presence in fungi and plants is ambiguous. This vagueness is caused by the fact that these oxidized mdC derivatives are also formed as oxidative lesions, resulting in unclear basal levels that are likely to have no epigenetic function. Here, we report the xdC levels in the fungus Amanita muscaria in comparison to murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs), HEK cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to obtain information about the basal levels of hmdC, fdC and cadC as DNA lesions in the genome.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Estresse Oxidativo , 5-Metilcitosina , Amanita , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução
16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(9): 843-845, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605821

RESUMO

Context: Amanita phalloides related toxicity from amatoxins can result in acute liver and multi-organ failure and is responsible for 90% of all mushroom poisoning death. However, more evidence is needed in regards to different management strategies.Case details: We present two cases of amanita mushroom ingestion who were treated with intravenous rifampicin.Discussion: Further study is needed to establish the efficacy and role of rifampicin in amatoxin related mushroom poisoning.


Assuntos
Amanita , Amanitinas/toxicidade , Antitoxinas/administração & dosagem , Antitoxinas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/tratamento farmacológico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(3): 414-427, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course, treatment, and outcome of 5 dogs following ingestion of toxic Amanita spp. mushrooms containing amatoxins using an adapted version of the Santa Cruz protocol developed for people. CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Five dogs were presented with clinical signs compatible with amanitin toxicity with witnessed ingestion noted in 3 of 5 dogs. Clinical findings included acute onset vomiting and diarrhea, lethargy, and hepatopathy including signs of fulminant hepatic failure (increased liver enzyme activities, hyperbilirubinemia, prolonged clotting times, and hypoglycemia were noted among these cases). Urine toxicological screening confirmed the presence of Amanita toxins in 4 cases with expert mycologist speciation in the fifth. Core interventions included percutaneous biliary drainage, use of octreotide, and early nil per os orders. All dogs survived to discharge with this treatment strategy. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This case series describes the use of a modified version of the Santa Cruz protocol to address amatoxin-induced fulminant hepatic failure in dogs. The protocol was safe, well tolerated, and all patients made a full clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Amanita , Amanitinas/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática Aguda/veterinária , Masculino
20.
Mycologia ; 113(1): 168-190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175671

RESUMO

Four epitypes and three new species of Amanita (Amanitaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) are described from Guineo-Congolian rainforests of Cameroon. Amanita echinulata, A. fulvopulverulenta, A. robusta, and A. bingensis are epitypified based on collections that are the first since the species were described nearly a century ago. Morphological features of the epitypes are described and enumerated. Amanita minima, Amanita luteolamellata, and A. goossensfontanae are described as new and added to the known macromycota of tropical Africa. Habit, habitat, and known distribution are provided for each species. Sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus are provided for types and other collections of all taxa, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis across the genus Amanita corroborates morphology-based infrageneric placement for each.


Assuntos
Amanita , Classificação , Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Amanita/classificação , Amanita/genética , Amanita/isolamento & purificação , Camarões , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Ecossistema , Genes Fúngicos , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida
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