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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1356095, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863830

RESUMO

Pathogenic and free-living Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and have been reported to cause keratitis and universally fatal encephalitis. Primary cutaneous acanthamoebiasis caused by Acanthamoeba is exceedingly rare and presents as isolated necrotic cutaneous lesions without involvement of the cornea or central nervous system. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis often occurs in immunocompromised patients and is likely overlooked or even misdiagnosed only by cutaneous biopsy tissue histopathological analysis. Here, we report a HIV-infected 63-year-old female with oral leukoplakia for 4 months and scattered large skin ulcers all over the body for 2 months. The cause of the cutaneous lesions was unclear through cutaneous specimens histopathological analysis, and subsequently Acanthamoeba were detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), which may be the cause of cutaneous lesions. Based on the mNGS results, a pathologist subsequently reviewed the previous pathological slides and found trophozoites of Acanthamoeba so that the cause was identified, and the skin ulcers improved significantly after treatment with multi-drug combination therapy. Acanthamoeba is also a host of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence of endosymbionts enhances the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba, and no other pathogens were reported in this case. mNGS is helpful for rapidly diagnosing the etiology of rare skin diseases and can indicate the presence or absence of commensal microorganisms.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Infecções por HIV , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Humanos , Feminino , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Amebíase/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acanthamoeba/genética , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pele/patologia , Pele/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(6): e0012274, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900784

RESUMO

The lack of disease models adequately resembling human tissue has hindered our understanding of amoebic brain infection. Three-dimensional structured organoids provide a microenvironment similar to human tissue. This study demonstrates the use of cerebral organoids to model a rare brain infection caused by the highly lethal amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris. Cerebral organoids were generated from human pluripotent stem cells and infected with clinically isolated B. mandrillaris trophozoites. Histological examination showed amoebic invasion and neuron damage following coculture with the trophozoites. The transcript profile suggested an alteration in neuron growth and a proinflammatory response. The release of intracellular proteins specific to neuronal bodies and astrocytes was detected at higher levels postinfection. The amoebicidal effect of the repurposed drug nitroxoline was examined using the human cerebral organoids. Overall, the use of human cerebral organoids was important for understanding the mechanism of amoeba pathogenicity, identify biomarkers for brain injury, and in the testing of a potential amoebicidal drug in a context similar to the human brain.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Encéfalo , Organoides , Humanos , Organoides/parasitologia , Balamuthia mandrillaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Amebíase/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/parasitologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 111(1): 48-50, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834082

RESUMO

Infections caused by free-living amoebae pose a significant public health threat owing to growing populations of immunocompromised hosts combined with diagnostic delays, treatment difficulties, and high case fatality rates. Nasopharyngeal infections caused by Acanthamoeba are rare and the optimal treatment is not well established. We report a case of Acanthamoeba rhinosinusitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with headaches and chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to multiple courses of antibiotics. A diagnosis of Acanthamoeba rhinosinusitis was established through broad-range polymerase chain reaction testing on sinus tissue. The patient had a favorable response to treatment, which included surgical debridement, cessation of immunosuppressants, and a three-drug regimen consisting of miltefosine, fluconazole, and sulfadiazine.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/complicações , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/parasitologia , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/genética , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Rinossinusite , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304112, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900829

RESUMO

The development and application of functional feed ingredients represents a great opportunity to advance fish growth and health, boost the immune system, and induce physiological benefits beyond those provided by traditional feeds. In the present study, we looked at the feasibility of in vitro methods for screening the qualities of functional feed ingredients using the fish cell line RTgill-W1, which has never been used in fish nutrition, and the culture of Paramoeba perurans. Five functional feed ingredients (arginine, ß-glucan, vitamin C, and two phytogenic feed additives) were selected to investigate their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species production. Three of the selected ingredients (arginine and two phytogenic feed additives) were additionally tested to assess their potential amoebicidal activity. As these functional ingredients are the core of a commercially available feed (Protec Gill, Skretting AS), their beneficial effects were further assessed in a field trial in fish affected by complex gill disease. Here, the analyzed parameters included the evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological gill conditions, pathogen detections, and analyses of plasma parameters. RTgill-W1 cell line assays were a good tool for screening functional ingredients and provided information about the optimal ingredient concentration ranges, which can be helpful for adjusting the concentrations in future feed diets. Through the culture of P. perurans, the tested ingredients showed a clear amoebicidal activity, suggesting that their inclusions in dietary supplements could be a viable way to prevent microbial infections. A three-week period of feeding Protec Gill slowed the disease progression, by reducing the pathogen load and significantly improving gill tissue conditions, as revealed by histological evaluation. The use of diets containing selected functional ingredients may be a feasible strategy for preventing or mitigating the increasingly common gill diseases, particularly in cases of complex gill disease, as documented in this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Doenças dos Peixes , Brânquias , Salmo salar , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Brânquias/patologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Amebíase/parasitologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(6)2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871639

RESUMO

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp is a rare, near-fatal central nervous system infection. It is often seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we describe a survivor of this infection who was co-infected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. He presented to us with features of meningitis and a history of chronic cough. The chest X-ray was classical for pulmonary tuberculosis. Neuroimaging was suggestive of encephalitis; herpes simplex virus PCR was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Wet mounts revealed trophozoites of Acanthamoeba Currently, he is being treated with oral bedaquiline, levofloxacin, linezolid, clofazimine, cycloserine and pyridoxine for tuberculosis. He received intravenous amikacin and oral cotrimoxazole and fluconazole for Acanthamoeba infection for 1 month. The resolution was confirmed by repeating the CSF wet mount, culture and neuroimaging. He was then discharged with oral rifampicin, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole. He is currently under our close follow-up.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Tuberculose Meníngea , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/complicações , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Imunocompetência , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico
7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(6): 2063-2073, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757533

RESUMO

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and fulminant neurodegenerative disease caused by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Currently, there is a lack of standardized protocols for therapeutic action. In response to the critical need for effective therapeutic agents, we explored the Global Health Priority Box, a collection of 240 compounds provided by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV). From this pool, flucofuron emerged as a promising candidate, exhibiting high efficacy against trophozoites of both N. fowleri strains (ATCC 30808 IC50 : 2.58 ± 0.64 µM and ATCC 30215 IC50: 2.47 ± 0.38 µM), being even active against the resistant cyst stage (IC50: 0.88 ± 0.07 µM). Moreover, flucofuron induced diverse metabolic events that suggest the triggering of apoptotic cell death. This study highlights the potential of repurposing medications for treating challenging diseases, such as PAM.


Assuntos
Naegleria fowleri , Naegleria fowleri/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/parasitologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 262: 108774, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754618

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba spp., are common free-living amoebae found in nature that can serve as reservoirs for certain microorganisms. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a newly emerged respiratory infection, and the investigation of parasitic infections remains an area of limited research. Given that Acanthamoeba can act as a host for various endosymbiotic microbial pathogens and its pathogenicity assay is not fully understood, this study aimed to identify Acanthamoeba and its bacterial and fungal endosymbionts in patients with chronic respiratory disorders and hospitalized COVID-19 patients in northern Iran. Additionally, a pathogenicity assay was conducted on Acanthamoeba isolates. Urine, nasopharyngeal swab, and respiratory specimens were collected from two groups, and each sample was cultured on 1.5% non-nutrient agar medium. The cultures were then incubated at room temperature and monitored daily for a period of two weeks. Eight Acanthamoeba isolates were identified, and PCR was performed to confirm the presence of amoebae and identify their endosymbionts. Four isolates were found to have bacterial endosymbionts, including Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter sp., while two isolates harbored fungal endosymbionts, including an uncultured fungus and Gloeotinia sp. In the pathogenicity assay, five isolates exhibited a higher degree of pathogenicity compared to the other three. This study provides significant insights into the comorbidity of acanthamoebiasis and COVID-19 on a global scale, and presents the first evidence of Gloeotinia sp. as a fungal endosymbiont. Nevertheless, further research is required to fully comprehend the symbiotic patterns and establish effective treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Simbiose , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Acanthamoeba/patogenicidade , Masculino , Feminino , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolamento & purificação , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/patogenicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Amebíase/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Idoso , Células Vero , Hospitalização , Chlorocebus aethiops
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(3): 407-419, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal infections are a significant health issue; antibiotics are essential in treating acute intestinal infections. However, evidence in the literature shows that the excessive use of antibiotics has created many threats to human health. This work aimed to study the impact of apple pectin in combination with antibiotics on treating patients with amebiasis and dysentery. METHODOLOGY: Patients suffering from acute intestinal diseases (amebiasis and dysentery) were treated with traditional antibiotic therapy and a new formula containing antibiotics with low and high methoxylated apple pectin in a randomized block design. Four clinical trials were performed at the Infection Disease Hospital from 1998 until 2013. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the antibiotic-pectin formulae (APF) significantly reduced the severity of acute intestinal infection diseases and allowed patients to recover faster than conventional treatment. APF reduced the patient's stay in the hospital by 3.0 ± 1.0 days. The clinical trial findings demonstrated that applying APF in intestinal infection diseases helped maintain a constant concentration of the antibiotic in the blood and accelerated the clinical recovery of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that using pectin with antibiotics could improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute infectious diseases. Research on elucidating the mechanisms of pectin digestion in the colon, polyphenol content, and its role in dysbiosis recovery, etc., is also considered.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Disenteria Amebiana , Disenteria , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Amebiana/tratamento farmacológico , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(1): 139-144, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443777

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba infection is associated with keratitis in humans; however, its association with keratitis in dogs remains unclear. To investigate this possibility, we collected 171 conjunctival swab samples from dogs with eye-related diseases (65 with keratitis and 106 without keratitis) at Chungbuk National University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Korea, from August 2021 to September 2022. Polymerase chain reaction identified 9 samples (5.3%) as Acanthamoeba positive; of these, 3 were from dogs with keratitis (4.6%) and 6 were from dogs without keratitis (5.7%). Our results indicated no significant association between Acanthamoeba infection and keratitis, season, sex, or age. All Acanthamoeba organisms found in this study had the genotype T4, according to 18S ribosomal RNA analysis. Acanthamoeba infection in dogs might have only a limited association with keratitis.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Amebíase , Ceratite , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Acanthamoeba/genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(4): 783-785, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526242

RESUMO

We describe 10 patients with nonkeratitis Acanthamoeba infection who reported performing nasal rinsing before becoming ill. All were immunocompromised, 7 had chronic sinusitis, and many used tap water for nasal rinsing. Immunocompromised persons should be educated about safe nasal rinsing to prevent free-living ameba infections.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Nariz , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido
13.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 163, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499865

RESUMO

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that causes meningoencephalitis in mammals. Over 200 cases of infection were reported worldwide, with a fatality rate of over 95%. A clear route of infection was unknown for a long time until a girl died of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in California, USA, in 2003 due to infection with B. mandrillaris detected in a potted plant. Since then, epidemiological studies were conducted worldwide to detect B. mandrillaris in soil and other environmental samples. We previously reported the isolation of B. mandrillaris from the soil in Japan; however, the existing B. mandrillaris culture method with BM3 medium and COS-7 cells was unsuccessful. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to conduct soil analysis to determine the growth conditions of B. mandrillaris. B. mandrillaris-positive soils were defined as soils from which B. mandrillaris was isolated and environmental DNA was PCR-positive. Soils inhabited by B. mandrillaris were alkaline, with high electrical conductivity and characteristics of nutrient-rich soils of loam and clay loam. The results of this study suggest a possible reason for the high prevalence of GAE caused by B. mandrillaris among individuals employed in agriculture-related occupations.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Amoeba , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Encefalite Infecciosa , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Balamuthia mandrillaris/genética , Solo , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
14.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 173, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536506

RESUMO

Balamuthia mandrillaris is the causative agent of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal infection affecting the central nervous system. The amoeba is isolated from diverse environmental sources and can cause severe infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Given the limited understanding of B. mandrillaris, our research aimed to explore its protein profile, identifying potential immunogens crucial for early granulomatous amoebic encephalitis diagnosis. Cultures of B. mandrillaris and other amoebas were grown under axenic conditions, and total amoebic extracts were obtained. Proteomic analyses, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were performed. A 50-kDa band showed a robust recognition of antibodies from immunized BALB/c mice; peptides contained in this band were matched with elongation factor-1 alpha, which emerged as a putative key immunogen. Besides, lectin blotting revealed the presence of glycoproteins in B. mandrillaris, and confocal microscopy demonstrated the focal distribution of the 50-kDa band throughout trophozoites. Cumulatively, these observations suggest the participation of the 50-kDa band in adhesion and recognition mechanisms. Thus, these collective findings demonstrate some protein characteristics of B. mandrillaris, opening avenues for understanding its pathogenicity and developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Amoeba , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Encefalite Infecciosa , Animais , Camundongos , Proteômica , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 119: 105570, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE), caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris, is a rare and life-threatening infectious disease with no specific and effective treatments available. The diagnosis of BAE at an early stage is difficult because of the non-specific clinical manifestations and neuroimaging. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old male patient, who had no previous history of skin lesions, presented to the emergency department with an acute headache, walking difficulties, and disturbance of consciousness. The patient underwent a series of examinations, including regular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies and magnetic resonance imaging, and tuberculous meningoencephalitis was suspected. Despite being treated with anti-TB drugs, no clinical improvement was observed in the patient. Following corticosteroid therapy, the patient developed a rapid deterioration in consciousness with dilated pupils. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) revealed an unexpected central nervous system (CNS) amoebic infection, and the patient died soon after the confirmed diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the application of mNGS for the diagnosis of patients with suspected encephalitis or meningitis, especially those caused by rare opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Encefalite , Encefalite Infecciosa , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encefalite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/patologia , Balamuthia mandrillaris/genética , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
16.
Phytomedicine ; 125: 155389, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause human infections such as granulomatous amebic encephalitis and acanthamoeba keratitis. However, no specific drug to treat the diseases has been developed. Therefore, the discovery or development of novel drugs for treating Acanthamoeba infections is urgently needed. The anti-protozoan activity of (‒)-epicatechin (EC) has been reported, suggesting it is an attractive anti-protozoal drug candidate. In this study, the amoebicidal activity of EC against A. castellanii was assessed and its mechanism of action was unveiled. METHODS: The amoebicidal activity of EC against A. castellanii trophozoites and the cytotoxicity of EC in HCE-2 and C6 cells were determined with cell viability assay. The underlying amoebicidal mechanism of EC against A. castellanii was analyzed by the apoptosis/necrosis assay, TUNEL assay, mitochondrial dysfunction assay, caspase-3 assay, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The cysticidal activity of EC was also investigated. RESULTS: EC revealed amoebicidal activity against A. castellanii trophozoites with an IC50 of 37.01 ± 3.96 µM, but was not cytotoxic to HCE-2 or C6 cells. EC induced apoptotic events such as increases in DNA fragmentation and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in A. castellanii. EC also caused mitochondrial dysfunction in the amoebae, as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reductions in ATP production. Caspase-3 activity, autophagosome formation, and the expression levels of autophagy-related genes were also increased in EC-treated amoebae. EC led to the partial death of cysts and the inhibition of excystation. CONCLUSION: EC revealed promising amoebicidal activity against A. castellanii trophozoites via programmed cell death events. EC could be a candidate drug or supplemental compound for treating Acanthamoeba infections.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amebíase , Amebicidas , Catequina , Dieldrin/análogos & derivados , Doenças Mitocondriais , Animais , Humanos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Amebicidas/uso terapêutico , Caspase 3 , Catequina/farmacologia , Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Trofozoítos , Apoptose , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373822

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of mimivirus as a potential therapeutic and prophylactic tool against Acanthamoeba castellanii, the etiological agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a progressive corneal infection, that is commonly associated with the use of contact lenses and can lead to blindness if not properly treated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mimivirus particles were tested in different multiplicity of infection, along with commercial multipurpose contact lenses' solutions, aiming to assess their ability to prevent encystment and excystment of A. castellanii. Solutions were evaluated for their amoebicidal potential and cytotoxicity in MDCK cells, as well as their effectiveness in preventing A. castellanii damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Results indicated that mimivirus was able to inhibit the formation of A. castellanii cysts, even in the presence of Neff encystment solution. Mimivirus also showed greater effectiveness in controlling A. castellanii excystment compared to commercial solutions. Additionally, mimivirus solution was more effective in preventing damage caused by A. castellanii, presented greater amoebicidal activity, and were less cytotoxic to MDCK cells than commercial MPS. CONCLUSIONS: Mimivirus demonstrates a greater ability to inhibit A. castellanii encystment and excystment compared to commercial multipurpose contact lens solutions. Additionally, mimivirus is less toxic to MDCK cells than those commercial solutions. New studies utilizing in vivo models will be crucial for confirming safety and efficacy parameters.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Vírus Gigantes , Animais , Cães , Biotecnologia
19.
Drug Discov Ther ; 18(1): 10-15, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355121

RESUMO

A fluorescence immunochromatography (FIC) kit was developed recently using fluorescent silica nanoparticles coated with a recombinant C-terminal fragment of the surface lectin intermediate subunit (C-Igl) of Entamoeba histolytica to establish rapid serodiagnosis of amebiasis. We further evaluated the system using serum samples from 52 Thai patients with amebiasis. Of the patients, 50 (96%) tested positive using FIC. The samples were also tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with C-Igl as the antigen. Two samples were negative on ELISA but positive on FIC. The correlation coefficient between the fluorescence intensity using FIC and the optical density value using ELISA was 0.5390, indicating a moderate correlation between the two tests. Serum samples from 20 patients with malaria and 22 patients with Clostridioides difficile infection were also tested using FIC. The false-positive rates were 4/20 (20%) and 1/22 (4%) in patients with malaria and C. difficile infection, respectively. Combining the data from the present study with our previous study, the sensitivity and specificity of FIC were determined to be 98.5% and 95.2%, respectively. The results of the 50 samples were studied using a fluorescence scope and a fluorescence intensity reader, and the findings were compared. Disagreements were found in only two samples showing near-borderline fluorescence intensity, indicating that the use of scope was adequate for judging the results. These results demonstrate that FIC is a simple and rapid test for the serodiagnosis of amebiasis.


Assuntos
Amebíase , Clostridioides difficile , Entamebíase , Malária , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Dióxido de Silício , Tailândia , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 176-183, feb. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559668

RESUMO

Las enfermedades causadas por amebas de vida libre son infecciones oportunistas que pueden tener un curso fatal. Pueden producir afecciones diseminadas graves con compromiso del sistema nervioso central, como la encefalitis amebiana granulomatosa. Esta infección es cada vez más frecuente en América Latina, aunque se reconocen tardíamente debido a la similitud con otras patologías o porque es inusual incluirla en el diagnóstico diferencial. Comunicamos un caso fatal de una encefalitis amebiana granulomatosa por Balamuthia mandrillaris en una niña de 10 años. Destacamos la gravedad de la afectación cerebral y la falta de esquemas antimicrobianos validados para su tratamiento. Hoy en el mundo esta infección es considerada una enfermedad emergente, influenciada por el cambio climático, lo que llama a estar atentos a su presencia.


Diseases caused by free-living amoebae are opportunistic infections that can have a fatal course. They can cause very serious disseminated conditions with involvement of the central nervous system such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. This infection has become more common in Latin America, although its recognition is late due to the similarity with other pathological conditions or because it is unusual to include it in the differential diagnosis. We report a fatal case of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Balamuthia mandrillaris in a 10-year-old girl. We highlight the severity of the brain involvement and the lack of validated schemes for its treatment. Today in the world this infection is considered an emerging disease, influenced by climate change, which calls for being attentive to its presence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Encefalite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Amebíase/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Balamuthia mandrillaris/isolamento & purificação , Balamuthia mandrillaris/genética , Encefalite Infecciosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Amebíase/diagnóstico por imagem
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