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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8788, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627456

RESUMO

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae remain the leading cause of pneumonia-related deaths in children < 5 years globally, and mutations in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 × have been identified as the major cause of resistance in the organism to beta-lactams. Thus, the development of new modulators with enhanced binding of PBP2x is highly encouraged. In this study, phenolics, due to their reported antibacterial activities, were screened against the active site of PBP2x using structure-based pharmacophore and molecular docking techniques, and the ability of the top-hit phenolics to inhibit the active and allosteric sites of PBP2x was refined through 120 ns molecular dynamic simulation. Except for gallocatechin gallate and lysidicichin, respectively, at the active and allosteric sites of PBP2x, the top-hit phenolics had higher negative binding free energy (ΔGbind) than amoxicillin [active site (- 19.23 kcal/mol), allosteric site (- 33.75 kcal/mol)]. Although silicristin had the best broad-spectrum effects at the active (- 38.41 kcal/mol) and allosteric (- 50.54 kcal/mol) sites of PBP2x, the high thermodynamic entropy (4.90 Å) of the resulting complex might suggest the need for its possible structural refinement for enhanced potency. Interestingly, silicristin had a predicted synthetic feasibility score of < 5 and quantum calculations using the DFT B3LYP/6-31G+ (dp) revealed that silicristin is less stable and more reactive than amoxicillin. These findings point to the possible benefits of the top-hit phenolics, and most especially silicristin, in the direct and synergistic treatment of infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Accordingly, silicristin is currently the subject of further confirmatory in vitro research.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Criança , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Resistência às Penicilinas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(10): 1280-1286, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596495

RESUMO

Yu et al's study in the World Journal of Gastroenterology (2023) introduced a novel regimen of Vonoprazan-amoxicillin dual therapy combined with Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for the rescue therapy against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a pathogen responsible for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Vonoprazan is a potassium-competitive acid blocker renowned for its rapid and long-lasting acid suppression, which is minimally affected by mealtime. Compared to proton pump inhibitors, which bind irreversibly to cysteine residues in the H+/K+-ATPase pump, Vonoprazan competes with the K+ ions, prevents the ions from binding to the pump and blocks acid secretion. Concerns with increasing antibiotic resistance, effects on the gut microbiota, patient compliance, and side effects have led to the advent of a dual regimen for H. pylori. Previous studies suggested that S. boulardii plays a role in stabilizing the gut barrier which improves H. pylori eradication rate. With an acceptable safety profile, the dual-adjunct regimen was effective regardless of prior treatment failure and antibiotic resistance profile, thereby strengthening the applicability in clinical settings. Nonetheless, S. boulardii comes in various formulations and dosages, warranting further exploration into the optimal dosage for supplementation in rescue therapy. Additionally, larger, randomized, double-blinded controlled trials are warranted to confirm these promising results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pirróis , Saccharomyces boulardii , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , ATPase Trocadora de Hidrogênio-Potássio , Íons/farmacologia , Íons/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 432-435, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy and drug safety of Vonoprazan and Esomeprazole triple therapies in Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: The randomised clinical trial was conducted from December 2022 to January 2023 at the Department of Pharmacology, Army Medical College, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, in collaboration with the Gastroenterology Department of Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised patients found positive for Helicobacter pylori by stool antigen test. They were randomly distributed into two groups. The EAL group received twoweek triple therapy with Esomeprazole 20mgand Amoxicillin 1000mg twice daily with Levofloxacin 500mg once daily. The VAL group was prescribed one-week triple therapy with Vonoprazan 20mg and Amoxicillin 1000mg twice daily with Levofloxacin 500mg once daily. Eradication success was evaluated by stool antigen test 4 weeks after starting the treatment. Safety of the therapy was assessed by noting adverse effects at days 3 and 14 of the treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS 27. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients, there were 61(50%) in each of the 2 groups; 30(49.2%) males and 31(50.8%) females with mean age 38.40±12.25 years in group EAL, and 35(57.4%) males and 26(42.6%) females with mean age 40.98±12.13 years in VAL group. In the EAL group, 57(93.4%) patients were found to be free of Helicobacter pylori infection compared to 58(95%) in the VAL group. Nausea 14(23%), bitter taste 41(67.2%), abdominal pain 16(26.2%) and headache 20(32.8%) were the adverse effects that were significantly more common in the EAL group compared to the VAL group B. CONCLUSIONS: Vonoprazan-based triple therapy was found to be more effective with less reported adverse effects and potential benefits of better patient compliance due to shorter therapy duration. Clinical Trial Number: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials: IRCT20221207056738N1.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pirróis , Sulfonamidas , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Esomeprazol/uso terapêutico , Esomeprazol/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Irã (Geográfico) , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Resultado do Tratamento , Claritromicina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 1213-1223, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects over half the global population, causing gastrointestinal diseases like dyspepsia, gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcers, G-MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Eradicating H. pylori is crucial for treating and preventing these conditions. While conventional proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy is effective, there's growing interest in longer acid suppression therapies. Potassium competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) triple and dual therapy are new regimens for H. pylori eradication. Initially used in Asian populations, vonoprazan (VPZ) has been recently Food and Drug Administration-approved for H. pylori eradication. AIM: To assess the efficacy of regimens containing P-CABs in eradicating H. pylori infection. METHODS: This study, following PRISMA 2020 guidelines, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching MEDLINE and Scopus libraries for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or observational studies with the following command: [("Helicobacter pylori" OR "H pylori") AND ("Treatment" OR "Therapy" OR "Eradication") AND ("Vonaprazan" OR "Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker" OR "P-CAB" OR "PCAB" OR "Revaprazan" OR "Linaprazan" OR "Soraprazan" OR "Tegoprazan")]. Studies comparing the efficacy of P-CABs-based treatment to classical PPIs in eradicating H. pylori were included. Exclusion criteria included case reports, case series, unpublished trials, or conference abstracts. Data variables encompassed age, diagnosis method, sample sizes, study duration, intervention and control, and H. pylori eradication method were gathered by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed in R software, and forest plots were generated. RESULTS: A total of 256 references were initially retrieved through the search command. Ultimately, fifteen studies (7 RCTs, 7 retrospective observational studies, and 1 comparative unique study) were included, comparing P-CAB triple therapy to PPI triple therapy. The intention-to-treat analysis involved 8049 patients, with 4471 in the P-CAB intervention group and 3578 in the PPI control group across these studies. The analysis revealed a significant difference in H. pylori eradication between VPZ triple therapy and PPI triple therapy in both RCTs and observational studies [risk ratio (RR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.22, P < 0.0001] and (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.09-1.17, P < 0.0001], respectively. However, no significant difference was found between tegoprazan (TPZ) triple therapy and PPI triple therapy in both RCTs and observational studies (RR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.93-1.16, P = 0.5) and (RR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.97-1.10, P = 0.3), respectively. CONCLUSION: VPZ-based triple therapy outperformed conventional PPI-based triple therapy in eradicating H. pylori, positioning it as a highly effective first-line regimen. Additionally, TPZ-based triple therapy was non-inferior to classical PPI triple therapy.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Imidazóis , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/etiologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
5.
Helicobacter ; 29(2): e13060, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection is complex and associated with increased rates of therapeutic failure. This research aimed to characterize the H. pylori infection status, strain resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the predominant lesion pattern in the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with clinical suspicion of refractoriness to first- and second-line treatment who were diagnosed and treated in a health center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. METHODS: A total of 374 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and H. pylori infection were preselected and prescribed one of three triple therapy regimens for primary infection, as judged by the treating physician. Subsequently, 121 patients who returned to the follow-up visit with persistent symptoms after treatment were studied. RESULTS: All patients had H. pylori infection. Histopathological examination diagnosed chronic active gastritis in 91.7% of cases; premalignant lesions were observed in 15.8%. The three triple therapy schemes applied showed suboptimal efficacy (between 47.6% and 77.2%), with the best performance corresponding to the scheme consisting of a proton pump inhibitor + amoxicillin + levofloxacin. Bacterial strains showed very high phenotypic resistance to all five antimicrobials tested: clarithromycin, 82.9%; metronidazole, 69.7%; amoxicillin and levofloxacin, almost 50%; tetracycline, 38.2%. Concurrent resistance to clarithromycin-amoxicillin was 43.4%, to tetracycline-metronidazole 30.3%, to amoxicillin-levofloxacin 27.6%, and to clarithromycin-metronidazole 59.2%. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro testing revealed resistance to all five antibiotics, indicating that H. pylori exhibited resistance phenotypes to these antibiotics. Consequently, the effectiveness of triple treatments may be compromised, and further studies are needed to assess refractoriness in quadruple and concomitant therapies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Equador , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada
6.
Helicobacter ; 29(2): e13073, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection and its associated diseases represent a significant global health concern. Patients who cannot use amoxicillin pose a therapeutic challenge and necessitate alternative medications. Preliminary research indicates that cefuroxime demonstrates promising potential for eradicating H. pylori infection, and there is a lack of comprehensive review articles on the use of cefuroxime. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study conducts a thorough systematic literature review and synthesis. A comprehensive systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, and Wanfang Data up to January 13, 2024. The search strategy utilized the following keywords: (Cefuroxime) AND (Helicobacter pylori OR Helicobacter nemestrinae OR Campylobacter pylori OR Campylobacter pylori subsp. pylori OR Campylobacter pyloridis OR H. pylori OR Hp) for both English and Chinese language publications. Sixteen studies from five different countries or regions were included in final literature review. RESULTS: Analysis results indicate that H. pylori is sensitive to cefuroxime, with resistance rates similar to amoxicillin being relatively low. Regimens containing cefuroxime have shown favorable eradication rates, which were comparable to those of the regimens containing amoxicillin. Regarding safety, the incidence of adverse reactions in cefuroxime-containing eradication regimens was comparable to that of amoxicillin-containing regimens or other bismuth quadruple regimens, with no significant increase in allergic reactions in penicillin-allergic patients. Regarding compliance, studies consistently report high compliance rates for regimens containing cefuroxime. CONCLUSION: Cefuroxime can serve as an alternative to amoxicillin for the patients allergic to penicillin with satisfactory efficacies, safety, and compliance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Cefuroxima/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/efeitos adversos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 131, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the potential efficacy and safety of dual therapy and quadruple therapy with vonoprazan (VPZ) as well as the standard quadruple therapy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in Hainan province. METHODS: A single-centre, non-blinded, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted at the outpatient department of gastroenterology at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University from June 2022 to February 2023. 135 patients aged 18-75 years with Hp infection were enrolled and randomized into three different groups (group V1: VPZ 20 mg twice a day and amoxicillin 1.0 g three times a day for 14 days V2: vonoprazan 20 mg, amoxicillin capsules 1.0 g, furazolidone 0.1 g and bismuth potassiulm citrate 240 mg, twice daily for 14 days;; group V3: ilaprazole 5 mg, Amoxicillin 1.0 g, Furazolidone 100 mg, bismuth potassiulm citrate 240 mg, twice a day for 14 days). Four weeks after the end of treatment, Hp eradication was confirmed by rechecking 13C-urea breath test (UBT). RESULTS: The eradication efficacy of V1 and V3 was non-inferior to that of V2, which is consistent with the results obtained from the Kruskal-Wallis H test. The eradication rate by intentional analysis was 84.4% (38/45, 95%CI 73.4%-95.5%, P>0.05) for all the three groups. If analyzed by per-protocol, the eradication rates were 88.4% (38/43, 95%CI 78.4%-98.4%), 92.7% (38/41, 95%CI 84.4%-101.0%),88.4% (38/43,95%CI 78.4%-98.4%) in groups V1, V2 and V3, respectively, which did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of adverse effects was significantly lower in VPZ dual therapy compared to the other two treatment regimens (P < 0.05). VPZ dual therapy or quadruple therapy was also relatively less costly than standard quadruple therapy. CONCLUSION: VPZ dual therapy and quadruple therapy shows promise of not being worse than the standard quadruple therapy by a clinically relevant margin. More studies might be needed to definitively determine if the new therapy is equally effective or even superior.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pirróis , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Furazolidona/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Citratos
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7624, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561345

RESUMO

It is known that titanium (Ti) implant surfaces exhibit poor antibacterial properties and osteogenesis. In this study, chitosan particles loaded with aspirin, amoxicillin or aspirin + amoxicillin were synthesized and coated onto implant surfaces. In addition to analysing the surface characteristics of the modified Ti surfaces, the effects of the modified Ti surfaces on the adhesion and viability of rat bone marrow-derived stem cells (rBMSCs) were evaluated. The metabolic activities of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) biofilms on the modified Ti surfaces were also measured in vitro. Moreover, S. aureus was tested for its antibacterial effect by coating it in vivo. Using water as the droplet medium, the contact angles of the modified Ti surfaces increased from 44.12 ± 1.75° to 58.37 ± 4.15°. In comparison to those of the other groups tested, significant increases in rBMSC adhesion and proliferation were observed in the presence of aspirin + amoxicillin-loaded microspheres, whereas a significant reduction in the metabolic level of biofilms was observed in the presence of aspirin + amoxicillin-loaded microspheres both in vitro and in vivo. Aspirin and amoxicillin could be used in combination to coat implant surfaces to mitigate bacterial activities and promote osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Quitosana , Indóis , Polímeros , Ratos , Animais , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Osteogênese , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia
10.
Int Tinnitus J ; 27(2): 211-216, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507637

RESUMO

Dental caries are mainly occur owing to the presence and activity of bacterial agents. The present study was done to assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains isolated from the cases of dental caries. Fifty patients with approved dental carries were included in the study. Sampling from the site of dental caries was done using the sterile swab. Swabs were transferred to laboratory and subjected to microbial culture. Species identification of bacteria was done using biochemical test. Bacterial isolates were subjected to disk diffusion to assess their antimicrobial resistance. S. aureus (40%) harboured the highest rate of contamination, while S. oralis (16%) and E. aerogenes (10%) harbored the lowest. S. aureus and S. mutans (6%) harbored the highest distribution amongst the cases of mix infections, while S. aureus and S. oralis (2%) harbnored the lowest. S. aureus strains harbored the highest rate of resistance toward tetracycline (90%), penicillin (75%), ampicillin (75%), amoxicillin (60%), and erythromycin (60%). E. coli strains harbored the highest rate of resistance toward tetracycline (90%), gentamicin (80%), ampicillin (70%), and erythromycin (70%). S. mutans strains harbored the highest rate of resistance toward tetracycline (93.33%), ampicillin (86.66%), penicillin (80%), amoxicillin (80%), and erythromycin (80%). S. oralis strains harbored the highest rate of resistance toward tetracycline (100%), ampicillin (75%), penicillin (62.50%), and amoxicillin (62.50%). E. aerogenes strains harbored the highest rate of resistance toward tetracycline (80%), gentamicin (80%), and ampicillin (80%). S. aureus bacteria isolated from dental caries harbored the highest rate of MDR. Distribution of resistance against more than 3 antimicrobial agents amongst the S. aureus, E. coli, S. mutans, S. oralis, and E. aerogenes bacteria isolated from the cases of dental caries was 90%, 60%, 80%, 62.50%, and 80%, respectively. Application of disk diffuin can help practitioners to reduce the rate of resistance in bacteria responsible for dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus , Prevalência , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Eritromicina , Amoxicilina , Tetraciclina , Penicilinas , Gentamicinas
11.
Int J Pharm ; 655: 123993, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484862

RESUMO

Amoxicillin, doxycycline, and clindamycin are among the commonly used antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. However, dosage forms of antibiotics for pediatric patients may not be as readily available as the formulations for adult patients. As such, it is anticipated that during a public health emergency, special instruction may need to be provided on home preparation and administration procedures to dose pediatric patients using available stockpiles of oral tablet and capsule dosage forms. Mixing crushed tablets or capsule contents with soft- or liquid- foods is one of the most common home preparation procedures. To gain knowledge for safe and effective use of prepared drug product instead of the intended intact dosage form, the impact of manipulation of the dosage form was studied. Capsule opening, capsule content assay and uniformity, dissolution, homogeneity, and stability studies of drug mixed with various liquid and soft foods were carried out using intact capsules of amoxicillin, doxycycline, and clindamycin. Higher recovery of capsule contents was achieved when using hands or knives to open capsules compared to using scissors. The capsules of all three antibiotic products contained the labeled amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The peanut butter-drug mixtures failed both United States Pharmacopeia (USP) assay and dissolution criteria because the peanut butter significantly affected the solubility of the drugs, and hence it was omitted from further study. All drug-food mixtures of the three antibiotic products and 15 selected foods exhibited fast dissolution (e.g., >80 % in 60 min) in the tested medium, except for the amoxicillin-chocolate pudding mixture. Three household containers (cups, plates, and bowls) and four mixing times (0.5 min, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min) were found to be suitable for preparation of homogeneous mixtures of the antibiotics and foods. For practical purposes, 1 to 2 min mixing time is sufficient to produce homogeneous mixtures. The results of this study provided product quality data on the interactions between the antibiotics and the foods and can potentially support future development of home preparation instructions of antibiotics for pediatric patients or patients with swallowing difficulties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Clindamicina , Doxiciclina , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Comprimidos , Amoxicilina , Solubilidade , Cápsulas
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 24315-24328, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441740

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the laboratory-made catalyst Ni2P-ZrO2 (NPZ) in the degradation of an antibiotic in an aqueous suspension when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. The degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) was predicted using time series forecasting through the ensemble gradient boosting model. The degradation experiments were conducted utilizing two distinct photocatalyst compositions of Nickel phosphide-zirconium dioxide (NPZ) in the proportions of 1:9 and 2:8. The most effective experimental results were obtained using a natural pH, a catalyst concentration of 0.20 g/L and reaction duration of 0.5 h after testing the different catalysts. Experimental data were used for training, validating and confirming time series predictions. The use of ensemble technique highly affected the experimental findings. The model's performance was quite satisfactory in terms of correlation coefficient (94.00%), normalized mean square error (0.01) and mean square root error (0.0911) which significantly contributed to the model's accuracy. All input variables, such as pH, catalyst dose and irradiation time, had a significant impact on the degrading efficacy. The study has demonstrated that time series forecasting can be used for predicting the degradation process precisely.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zircônio , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Amoxicilina/química , Catálise
13.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(4): 2519-2532, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530961

RESUMO

A fascinating problem in the fields of nanoscience and nanobiotechnology has recently emerged, and to tackle this, the production of metal oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts offers numerous benefits over traditional physicochemical methods. In the present investigation, ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated from Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (BR) leaves extract with various transition metal (TM) dopants (Ni, Mn, and Co). Plant leaves extract containing metal nitrate solutions were utilized as a precursor to synthesize the pristine and TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Structural, functional, optical, and surface properties of the fabricated samples were studied by using physicochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements. The organic pollutants tetracycline (TC), ampicillin (AMP), and amoxicillin (AMX) were used in the photocatalytic degradation assessment of the fabricated samples. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation, the fabricated nanoparticles wurtzite crystal structure was verified. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis verified the existence of functional groups in the fabricated nanoparticles. The migration of electrons from the deep donor level and zinc interstitial to the Zn-defect and O-defect is related to the emission peaks seen at 468, 480, 534, and 450 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Co-ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated potent and excellent photocatalytic degradation performance for TC (91.09%), AMP (87.97%), and AMX (92.42%) antibiotics within 210, 180, and 150 min of visible light irradiation. Co-ZnO nanoparticles also demonstrated strong antimicrobial performance against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Bacillus subtilis. Further investigation of in vitro cytotoxic potential against the A549 cell line (IC50 = 24 ± 0.5 µg/mL) utilizing MTT assay and the free radical scavenging performance of Co-ZnO nanoparticles estimated by DPPH assay utilizing l-ascorbic acid as a reference was also performed. Anti-inflammatory potential is also reviewed by comparing it with the standard drug Diclofenac, and the maximum activity was obtained for Ni-ZnO nanoparticles (IC50 = 72.4 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Bauhinia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Bauhinia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Amoxicilina , Tetraciclina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 399: 130623, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518876

RESUMO

Livestock manure often contains various pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate how adding amoxicillin (AMX), Cu, and both AMX and Cu (ACu) affected humification during composting and the microbial mechanisms involved. The cellulose degradation rates were 16.96%, 10.86%, and 9.01% lower, the humic acid contents were 18.71%, 12.89%, and 16.78% lower, and the humification degrees were 24.72%, 24.16%, and 15.73% lower for the AMX, Cu, and ACu treatments, respectively, than the control. Adding AMX and Cu separately or together inhibited humic acid formation and decreased the degree of humification, but the degree of humification was decreased less by ACu than by AMX or Cu separately. The ACu treatment decreased the number of core bacteria involved in humic acid formation and decreased carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism during the maturing period, and thereby delayed humic acid formation and humification. The results support composting manure containing AMX and Cu.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas , Animais , Bovinos , Amoxicilina , Solo , Cobre , Esterco
15.
Clin Immunol ; 262: 110166, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amoxicillin (AX) and clavulanic acid (CLV) are the betalactam antibiotics (BLs) most used to treat bacterial infections, although they can trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IDHRs). The maturation analysis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and their capacity to induce proliferative response of lymphocytes are useful to test the sensitisation to a drug, although without optimal sensitivity. Nevertheless, this can be improved using directly isolated DCs such as myeloid DCs (mDCs). METHODS: mDCs and moDCs were obtained from 28 allergic patients (AP), 14 to AX, 14 to CLV and from 10 healthy controls (HC). The expression of CCR7, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 was analysed after stimulation with both BLs. We measured the capacity of these pre-primed DCs to induce drug-specific activation of different lymphocyte subpopulations, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+Th1, and CD4+Th2, by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Higher expression of CCR7, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 was observed on mDCs compared to moDCs from AP after stimulating with the culprit BL. Similarly, mDCs induced higher proliferative response, mainly of CD4+Th2 cells, compared to moDCs, reaching up to 67% of positive results with AX, whereas of only 25% with CLV. CONCLUSIONS: mDCs from selective AP efficiently recognise the culprit drug which trigger the IDHR. mDCs also trigger proliferation of lymphocytes, mainly those with a Th2 cytokine pattern, although these responses depend on the nature of the drug, mimicking the patient's reaction.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Amoxicilina/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Ácido Clavulânico/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40 , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(5): 545-553, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy is crucial for preventing the development of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. An increase in resistance against antibiotics used in the eradication of Hp is remarkable. This meta-analysis aims to examine the resistance rates of Hp strains isolated in Turkey over the last 20 years against clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MTZ), levofloxacin (LVX), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) antibiotics. BASIC METHODS: Literature search was carried out in electronic databases, by searching articles published in Turkish and English with the keywords ' helicobacter pylori ' or 'Hp' and 'antibiotic resistance' and 'Turkey'. That meta-analysis was carried out using random-effect model. First, the 20-year period data between 2002 and 2021 in Turkey were planned to be analyzed. As a second stage, the period between 2002 and 2011 was classified as Group 1, and the period between 2012 and 2021 as Group 2 for analysis, with the objective of revealing the 10-year temporal variation in antibiotic resistance rates. MAIN RESULTS: In gastric biopsy specimens, 34 data from 29 studies were included in the analysis. Between 2002-2021, CLR resistance rate was 30.9% (95% CI: 25.9-36.2) in 2615 Hp strains. Specifically, in Group 1, the CLR resistance rate was 31% in 1912 strains, and in Group 2, it was 30.7% in 703 strains. The MTZ resistance rate was found to be 31.9% (95% CI: 19.8-45.4) in 789 strains, with rates of 21.5% in Group 1 and 46.6% in Group 2. The overall LVX resistance rate was 25.6%, with rates of 26.9% in Group 1 and 24.8% in Group 2. The 20-year TET resistance rate was 0.8%, with 1.50% in Group 1 and 0.2% in Group 2. The overall AMX resistance rate was 2.9%, 3.8% between 2002-2011, and 1.4% between 2012-2021. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSION: Hp strains in Turkey exhibit high resistance rates due to frequent use of CLR, MTZ, and LVX antibiotics. However, a significant decrease has been observed in TET and AMX resistance to Hp in the last 10 years. Considering the CLR resistance rate surpasses 20%, we suggest reconsidering the use of conventional triple drug therapy as a first-line treatment. Instead, we recommend bismuth-containing quadruple therapy or sequential therapies (without bismuth) for first-line treatment, given the lower rates of TET and AMX resistance. Regimens containing a combination of AMX, CLR, and MTZ should be given priority in second-line therapy. Finally, in centers offering culture and antibiogram opportunities, regulating the Hp eradication treatment based on the antibiogram results is obviously more appropriate.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Bismuto/farmacologia , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Turquia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Open Vet J ; 14(2): 604-616, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549569

RESUMO

Background: An increasing number of drugs are used each year in the treatment of small pets (cats and dogs), including medicines (cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) used in human therapy. Aim: The purpose of this study was to isolate and explore the antibiotic resistance of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Ci trobacter, Enterobacter) from cats and dogs, and to isolate resistance genes in the microorganisms. Methods: In 2021, 808 samples of biological material from small domestic animals were collected in veterinary clinics in Kostanay. From these, 210 microorganisms were isolated and identified. Results: A large majority of the strains sampled belonged to E. coli-149 (70.9%), Enterobacter-11 (5.2%), Klebsiella-28 (13.3%), Proteus-12 (5.7%) and 10 Citrobacter isolates (4.8%). In all isolates identified, antibiotic resistance/sensitivity was determined by disc-diffusion method to ampicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, levomycetin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, cefoperazone, cefpodoxime, streptomycin, kanamycin, doxycycline, gemifloxacin, nalidixic acid, furazolidone, furadonine, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that the greatest number of Enterobacteriaceae were sensitive to the action of meropenem, which belongs to the group of beta-lactam antibiotics; resistance was demonstrated against tetracycline, doxycycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefpodoxime. The most common genes encoding antimicrobial resistance were as follows: BlaTEM and OXA in 41 and 28 isolates, respectively, encoding resistance to beta-lactams; StrA and StrB in 45 and 48 isolates encoding aminoglycosides; and tetA and tetB in 43 and 28 isolates encoding tetracyclines. Obtained data demonstrate that uncontrolled and frequent use of beta-lactam and tetracycline antibacterials, in cats and dogs, results in the spread of genotypic resistance among micro-organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Enterobacteriaceae , Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Escherichia coli , Tetraciclina , Doxiciclina , Prevalência , Cazaquistão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , beta-Lactamas , Ofloxacino , Ampicilina , Amoxicilina
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(10): e37476, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457567

RESUMO

Vonoprazan, a novel acid suppressant and the first potassium-competitive acid blocker, has the potential to enhance the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori due to its robust acid-suppressing capacity. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vonoprazan-based dual therapy (vonoprazan-amoxicillin, VA) with vonoprazan-based bismuth quadruple therapy (VBQT) as a first-line treatment for H pylori infection. This retrospective single-center non-inferiority study was conducted in China. Treatment-naive H pylori-positive patients aged 18 to 80 received one of the 2 treatment regimens at our center. The VA group received vonoprazan 20 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1000 mg 3 times daily for 14 days, whereas the VBQT group received vonoprazan 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg twice daily for 14 days. The eradication rate was evaluated 4 to 6 weeks after treatment using the carbon-13/14 urea breath test. Propensity score matching was used to analyze eradication rates, adverse events (AEs), and patient compliance between the 2 groups. Initially, 501 patients were included, and after propensity score analysis, 156 patients were selected for the study. Intention-to-treat analysis showed eradication rates of 87.2% (95% CI, 79.8-94.6%) for the VA group and 79.5% (95% CI, 70.5-88.4%) for the VBQT group (P = .195). Per-protocol analysis demonstrated rates of 94.4% (95% CI, 89.2-99.7%) for the VA group and 96.8% (95% CI, 92.4-100%) for the VBQT group (P = .507). Non-inferiority was confirmed between the 2 groups, with P values < .025. The VA group showed a lower rate of AEs (10.3% vs 17.9%, P = .250) compared to the VBQT group. There were no significant differences in patient compliance between the 2 groups. In treatment-naive patients with H pylori infection, both the 14-day VA and VBQT regimens demonstrated comparable efficacy, with excellent eradication rates. Moreover, due to reduced antibiotic usage, lower rate of AEs, and lower costs, VA dual therapy should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pirróis , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/etiologia , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pontuação de Propensão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Antibacterianos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Chemosphere ; 353: 141542, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428535

RESUMO

The escalating global concern regarding antibiotic pollution necessitates the development of advanced water treatment strategies. This study presents an innovative approach through the fabrication and evaluation of a Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane adorned with GO-TiO2 nanocomposites. The objective is to enhance the removal efficiency of various antibiotics, addressing the challenge of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in water systems. The nanocomposite membranes, synthesized via the phase inversion method, incorporate hydrophilic agents, specifically GO-TiO2 nanocomposites and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The resultant membranes underwent comprehensive characterization employing AFM, EDS, tensile strength testing, water contact angle measurements, and FESEM to elucidate their properties. Analysis revealed a substantial improvement in the hydrophilicity of the modified membranes attributed to the presence of hydroxyl groups within the GO-TiO2 structure. AFM images demonstrated an augmentation in surface roughness with increasing nanocomposite content. FESEM images unveiled structural modifications, leading to enhanced porosity and augmented water flux. The pure water flux elevated from 0.980 L/m2.h-1 for unmodified membranes to approximately 6.85 L/m2.h-1 for membranes modified with 2 wt% nanocomposites. Membrane performance analysis indicated a direct correlation between nanocomposite content and antibiotic removal efficiency, ranging from 66.52% to 89.81% with 4 wt% nanocomposite content. Furthermore, the nanocomposite-modified membrane exhibited heightened resistance to fouling. The efficacy of the membrane extended to displaying potent antibacterial properties against microbial strains, including S. aureus, E. coli, and Candida. This study underscores the immense potential of GO-TiO2 decorated PES membranes as a sustainable and efficient solution for mitigating antibiotic contamination in water systems. The utilization of nanocomposite membranes emerges as a promising technique to combat the presence of EOC pollutants, particularly antibiotics, in water bodies, thus addressing a critical environmental concern.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Polímeros , Povidona , Sulfonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina , Amoxicilina , Ciprofloxacina , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Nanocompostos/química , Membranas Artificiais
20.
Anal Biochem ; 689: 115501, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453048

RESUMO

Vonoprazan and amoxicillin are pharmacological combinations that demonstrate synergistic effects in treating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a global public health concern associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Four spectrophotometric methods were developed, including two univariate techniques (Fourier self-deconvolution and ratio difference) and two multivariate chemometric approaches (partial least squares and principal component regression). These methods provide innovative solutions for effectively resolving and accurately quantifying the overlapping spectra of vonoprazan and amoxicillin. The concentration ranges covered were 3-60 µg ml-1 for vonoprazan and 5-140 µg ml-1 for amoxicillin. To assess the environmental sustainability of the methodologies, various measures such as the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI), National Environmental Method Index (NEMI), Analytical GREEnness Calculator, and Analytical Eco-scale, as well as RGB12 and hexagon toll were implemented. The validation of the developed techniques was carried out in compliance with ICH standards. The present study is highly significant because it is the first time that the mixture has been determined using the current approaches. The comparative analysis demonstrated no significant difference in terms of accuracy and precision compared to reference HPLC method (p = 0.05). The established spectrophotometric methods offer a straightforward, rapid, and cost-effective alternative to complex analytical techniques for determining the vonoprazan and amoxicillin mixture. They show potential for routine analysis in research laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Infecções por Helicobacter , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pirróis
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