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1.
Psychol Assess ; 36(6-7): 379-394, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829348

RESUMO

The onset of depressive episodes is preceded by changes in mean levels of affective experiences, which can be detected using the exponentially weighted moving average procedure on experience sampling method (ESM) data. Applying the exponentially weighted moving average procedure requires sufficient baseline data from the person under study in healthy times, which is needed to calculate a control limit for monitoring incoming ESM data. It is, however, not trivial to obtain sufficient baseline data from a single person. We therefore investigate whether historical ESM data from healthy individuals can help establish an adequate control limit for the person under study via multilevel modeling. Specifically, we focus on the case in which there is very little baseline data available of the person under study (i.e., up to 7 days). This multilevel approach is compared with the traditional, person-specific approach, where estimates are obtained using the person's available baseline data. Predictive performance in terms of Matthews correlation coefficient did not differ much between the approaches; however, the multilevel approach was more sensitive at detecting mean changes. This implies that for low-cost and nonharmful interventions, the multilevel approach may prove particularly beneficial. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Análise Multinível , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1476, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence is a human rights violation that often involves violence against women, which appears to be the most prevalent type of abuse. Intimate partner violence is a major global public health issue that includes physical, emotional, and sexual violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in Africa is high. The burden of intimate partner violence among reproductive-age women is high in Kenya. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to determine the associated factors of intimate partner violence among reproductive-age women at the individual and community level from the recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2022 data of Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya National Demographic and Health Survey data of 2022 was used for this study. The overall sample size for this study was 14,612, which focused on women aged 15 to 49 years who had ever been partnered and responded to the domestic violence module. Multilevel logistic regression models to determine the prevalence and associated factors at the individual and community level with intimate partner violence with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR). RESULT: The overall prevalence of intimate partner violence was 41.1% with a 95% CI (40.07%, 42.60. Male-headed households, poorest and middle wealth status, partner alcohol use, separated/widowed current marital status, and low education of women were statistically significantly associated with intimate partner violence at the individual level variables in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of intimate partner violence was high. Educating women, reducing partner alcohol use, and improving the economic status of women, were crucial in mitigating the burden of intimate partner violence. The intimate partners are supposed to respect the rights of women.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Análise Multinível , Humanos , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Sociodemográficos
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304982, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the dissemination of health information is one of the pillars of HIV prevention efforts in Ethiopia, a large segment of women in the country still lack adequate HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and behaviours. Despite many studies being conducted in Ethiopia, they mostly focus on the level of women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS, failing to examine composite index of knowledge, attitude, and behaviour (KAB) domains comprehensively. In addition, the previous studies overlooked individual and community-level, and spatial predictors. Hence, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, geographical variation (Hotspots), spatial predictors, and multilevel correlates of inadequate HIV/AIDS-Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour (HIV/AIDS-KAB) among Ethiopian women. METHODS: The study conducted using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, included 12,672 women of reproductive age group (15-49 years). A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling technique was used; a random selection of enumeration areas (clusters) followed by selecting households per cluster. Composite index of HIV/AIDS-KAB was assessed using 11 items encompassing HIV/AIDS prevention, transmission, and misconceptions. Spatial analysis was carried out using Arc-GIS version 10.7 and SaTScan version 9.6 statistical software. Spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I) was used to determine the non-randomness of the spatial variation in inadequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was performed, with the measure of association reported using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its corresponding 95% CI. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate HIV/AIDS-KAB among Ethiopian women was 48.9% (95% CI: 48.1, 49.8), with significant spatial variations across regions (global Moran's I = 0.64, p<0.001). Ten most likely significant SaTScan clusters were identified with a high proportion of women with inadequate KAB. Somali and most parts of Afar regions were identified as hot spots for women with inadequate HIV/AIDS-KAB. Higher odds of inadequate HIV/AIDS-KAB was observed among women living in the poorest wealth quintile (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.18), rural residents (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.22), having no formal education (AOR = 2.66; 95% CI: 2.04, 3.48), non-autonomous (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: (1.43, 2.28), never listen to radio (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI: (1.02, 2.39), never watched television (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.92), not having a mobile phone (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.88), and not visiting health facilities (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.72). CONCLUSION: The level of inadequate HIV/AIDS-KAB in Ethiopia was high, with significant spatial variation across regions, and Somali, and Afar regions contributed much to this high prevalence. Thus, the government should work on integrating HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts with existing reproductive health services, regular monitoring and evaluation, and collaboration and partnership to tackle this gap. Stakeholders in the health sector should strengthen their efforts to provide tailored health education, and information campaigns with an emphasis on women who lack formal education, live in rural areas, and poorest wealth quintile should be key measures to enhancing knowledge. enhanced effort is needed to increase women's autonomy to empower women to access HIV/AIDS information. The media agencies could prioritise the dissemination of culturally sensitive HIV/AIDS information to women of reproductive age. The identified hot spots with relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS should be targeted during resource allocation and interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Análise Espacial , Prevalência
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1533, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviour (RSB), particularly multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) continues to be a major public health concern and has been linked to the increasing STIs, including HIV/AIDS in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), suggesting that there is an association between contextual factors and multiple sexual partnering. However, in South Africa, this association is not well established in recent literature. Hence, this study examined the contextual factors contributing to multiple sexual partnerships among young people in South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was extracted from the 2016 South Africa Demographics and Health Survey (2016 SADHS). A cross-sectional study of 3889 never-married young people. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as multilevel logistic regression were used to analyse the data on never-married young people aged 15 to 24 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that at the individual level, young males (61.7%) were significantly more likely than their female counterparts (56.1%) to engage in multiple sexual partners, although, the difference was not as significant as expected. At the community level clustering, the likelihood of exposure to multiple sexual partnerships significantly increased among females (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.25-1.73) but decreased among their male counterparts (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), in particular, family disruption, residential instability, and ethnic diversity led young people to engage in multiple sexual partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to intensify programmes aimed at considering appropriate policy options to reduce the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships. Adopting the implications of these findings is essential for a developmental strategy towards achieving the sustainable development goal of ending STIs among young people in South Africa.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 157, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In view of the increasing number of people with (multiple) chronic conditions, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) initiated the International Survey of People Living with Chronic Conditions (PaRIS survey), which aims to provide insight in patient-reported outcomes and experiences of chronic care provided by primary care practices to support policy development. The objective of this research note is to describe the structure of the data, collected in the PaRIS survey and how the data will be analysed in a multilevel approach for cross-country comparison. ANALYSIS PLAN: The data structure of the PaRIS survey represents three levels: countries/health systems, primary care practices and patients. Multilevel analysis is used because of its accuracy in estimating country-level outcomes, its flexibility in modelling relationships, and its opportunities in connecting to relevant policy questions. Country-level outcomes will be estimated to facilitate cross-country comparison and (future) within-country comparison over time. Characteristics of patients that potentially explain variation in patient-reported outcomes and experiences can be linked to primary care practice and country/health system characteristics. This makes it possible to address policy-relevant questions relating, e.g., to the impact of chronic care management on patients with a specific chronic condition.


Assuntos
Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Multinível , Análise de Dados
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 408, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of neonatal danger signs and immediate access to health care are two global efforts aimed at enhancing newborn and child survival by preventing 75% of neonatal deaths. Despite various small-scale studies on women's awareness of neonatal danger signs in Ethiopia, little is known about the level of receiving health information on those danger signs during the immediate postpartum period at the national level. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the level, and its determinants of the service uptake in Ethiopia. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), which took place from January to June 2016 and covered all administrative regions of Ethiopia. A weighted sample of 7,589.8 women was analyzed using STATA version 16. To account for data clustering, a multivariable multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the effects of each predictor on the outcome variable. Adjusted odds ratio with its corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to declare the statistical significance of the explanatory variables. RESULTS: The receipt of health information on neonatal danger signs during the immediate postpartum period was 10.70% [95% CI:10.01, 11.40]. Variables namely living in Metropolitans [AOR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.48, 2.88] and Large central [AOR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.38, 2.42] regions, being in the highest wealth quintile [AOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.84], being nulliparous [AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.87] and primiparous[AOR = 0.61;95% CI: 0.46, 0.79], getting adequate antenatal visits [AOR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.75, 3.33], institutional delivery [AOR = 5.91; 95% CI: 4.66, 7.53], and receipt of postnatal visits [AOR = 3.52; 95% CI: 2.84, 4.38] were identified as significant determinants of receiving health information on newborn danger signs. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that unacceptably low uptake of health information on newborn danger signs during the immediate postpartum period in Ethiopia. A concerted effort is needed from all stakeholders in the health sector to enhance the uptake of maternal health services (antenatal care, skilled delivery service, and postnatal care). Healthcare providers should pay special attention to nulliparous and primiparous women during and after delivery, and the government should also focus on women of peripheral regions, who make up a large portion of the low coverage.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1344089, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864011

RESUMO

Background: Despite the Ethiopian government included the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) in the national expanded program for immunization in 2011, only 56% of children aged 12-23 months received the full dose of PCV. Despite some studies on PCV uptake in Ethiopia, there was a dearth of information on the geographical distribution and multilevel factors of incomplete PCV uptake. Hence, this study aimed to identify the spatial variations and predictors of incomplete PCV uptake among children aged 12-35 months in Ethiopia. Methods: The study was based on an in-depth analysis of 2016 Ethiopia Demographic Health Survey data, using a weighted sample of 3,340 women having children aged 12-35 months. Arc-GIS version 10.7 and SaTScan version 9.6 statistical software were used for the spatial analysis. To explore spatial variation and locate spatial clusters of incomplete PCV, the Global Moran's I statistic and Bernoulli-based spatial scan (SaTScan) analysis were carried out, respectively. A multilevel mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression was done by STATA version 16. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its corresponding 95% CI was used as a measure of association, and variables with a p < 0.05 were deemed as significant determinants of incomplete PCV. Results: The overall prevalence of incomplete PCV in Ethiopia was found to be 54.0% (95% CI: 52.31, 55.69), with significant spatial variation across regions (Moran's I = 0.509, p < 0.001) and nine most likely significant SaTScan clusters. The vast majority of Somali, southeast Afar, and eastern Gambela regions were statistically significant hot spots for incomplete PCV. Lacking ANC visits (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.91, 4.00), not getting pre-birth Tetanus injections (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.74), home birth (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.34), not having a mobile phone (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.93), and residing in a peripheral region (AOR = 4.63; 95% CI: 2.34, 9.15) were identified as statistically significant predictors of incomplete PCV. Conclusion: The level of incomplete PCV uptake was found to be high in Ethiopia with a significant spatial variation across regions. Hence, the federal and regional governments should collaborate with NGOs to improve vaccination coverage and design strategies to trace those children with incomplete PCV in peripheral regions. Policymakers and maternal and child health program planners should work together to boost access to maternal health services like antenatal care and skilled delivery services to increase immunization coverage.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Análise Espacial , Vacinas Conjugadas , Humanos , Etiópia , Lactente , Feminino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
8.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04085, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721673

RESUMO

Background: Postnatal care (PNC) utilisation within 24 hours of delivery is a critical component of health care services for mothers and newborns. While substantial geographic variations in various health outcomes have been documented in India, there remains a lack of understanding regarding PNC utilisation and underlying factors accounting for these geographic variations. In this study, we aimed to partition and explain the variation in PNC utilisation across multiple geographic levels in India. Methods: Using India's 5th National Family Health Survey (2019-21), we conducted four-level logistic regression analyses to partition the total geographic variation in PNC utilisation by state, district, and cluster levels, and to quantify how much of theses variations are explained by a set of 12 demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy-related factors. We also conducted analyses stratified by selected states/union territories. Results: Among 149 622 mother-newborn pairs, 82.29% of mothers and 84.92% of newborns were reported to have received PNC within 24 hours of delivery. In the null model, more than half (56.64%) of the total geographic variation in mother's PNC utilisation was attributed to clusters, followed by 26.06% to states/union territories, and 17.30% to districts. Almost 30% of the between-state variation in mother's PNC utilisation was explained by the demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy-related factors (i.e. state level variance reduced from 0.486 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.238, 0.735) to 0.320 (95% CI = 0.152, 0.488)). We observed consistent results for newborn's PNC utilisation. State-specific analyses showed substantial geographic variation attributed to clusters across all selected states/union territories. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the consistently large cluster variation in PNC utilisation that remains unexplained by compositional effects. Future studies should explore contextual drivers of cluster variation in PNC utilisation to inform and design interventions aimed to improve maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Humanos , Índia , Feminino , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 453, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea poses a significant threat to the lives of children in The Gambia, accounting for approximately 9% of all deaths among children under the age of five. Addressing and reducing child mortality from diarrhea diseases is crucial for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, specifically target 3.2, which aims to eliminate preventable deaths in newborns and children under the age of five by 2030. Thus, this research aims to assess the prevalence and contextual factors associated with diarrhea among under-five children in The Gambia. METHODS: This research employed secondary data from the 2019/20 Gambia Demographic Health Survey (GDHS). The study initially involved 8,362 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Of these, 6,929 women with children under five were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed using STATA with cross-tabulation and model fitting. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to accommodate the hierarchical structure of the demographic health survey data. The model comparison parameters were BIC, AIC, deviance, and LLR. Variables with a p-value less than 0.05 were selected for multivariable analysis. The statistical significance of the factors was determined using an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of diarrhea in under-five children was 53.2% in males and 46.8% in females. In the final model, Kerewan (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.33-0.98) and Basse (aOR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.35-0.98) have significantly lower odds of childhood diarrhea compared to Banjul, female children show slightly lower, yet significant, odds of diarrhea compared to males (aOR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.86-0.98), deliveries at government health centers are associated with higher odds of childhood diarrhea compared to home births (aOR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.01-1.52). Mothers with post-secondary education had significantly lower odds of having children with diarrhea than those without any education (aOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.99) after controlling for confounders. CONCLUSION: The study findings indicate that several factors significantly impact the risk of childhood diarrhea in The Gambia. These factors include region of residence, sex of the child, place of delivery, and education level of the mother. The study suggests that existing interventions aimed at improving child health outcomes in the country should take into consideration these influential factors. Addressing these modifiable factors can enhance the effectiveness of interventions and promote better health outcomes for children in Gambia.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Humanos , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Multinível
10.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1253, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (HIV PrEP) may help reduce the rate of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aimed to assess women's knowledge and attitudes toward PrEP, a crucial component of HIV prevention, using nationwide data. It is the first study of its kind conducted in five SSA countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Tanzania. The primary objective was to examine women's knowledge and attitudes toward PrEP for the prevention of HIV infection, as well as to explore individual- and community-level factors associated with it. METHODS: The current study utilized the 2021/22 demographic and health survey datasets from five African nations, namely Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania. The analysis was performed using Stata 17. A weighted sample of 77,052 women of reproductive age participated in the survey. Univariate and multivariable multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to assess parameters related to knowledge and attitudes toward PrEP in these countries. In both the univariate regression and the final model, the significance of variables was determined using P values of ≤ 0.2 and < 0.05. RESULTS: Overall, only about 13.88 (95% CI: 13.64,14.12) of women had knowledge and attitudes toward HIV PrEP. The highest (34.29%) and lowest (5.61%) values were observed for Kenya and Tanzania respectively. Higher rates of knowledge, and attitude toward HIV PrEP among women were independently associated with age 25-34 years old (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI:1.41,1.64), and 35-49 years old (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI:1.43,1.69), primary education level (AOR = 1.79,95% CI:1.65,1.95), and secondary/higher education level (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.67,3.20), richer (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI:1.02,1.27), and richest (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.06,1.37), employed women (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI:1.65,1.99), had media exposure (AOR = 1.49,95% CI:1.40,1.59),knowledge of modern contraception (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.94,3.43), had at least one ANC visit (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI:1.47,2.69), gave birth at health institutions (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02,1.37), ever had given birth (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.41,1.66), female household heads (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI:1.17,1.31), rural women (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76,0.89). Similarly, women from communities with high ANC coverage (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.61,2.11), high community mass media exposure (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.39,1.88), and high community wealth level (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.30,1.68), and women from the high illiteracy rate community (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61,0.82) showed statistically significant associations with the outcome variable in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one-seventh of women exhibited knowledge of and positive attitudes toward HIV PrEP. All stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS prevention and control have recognized the significance of the factors mentioned above. Enhancing maternal health services, such as promoting institutional delivery, contraception, antenatal care (ANC), and women's empowerment, alongside harnessing the power of media and embracing these transformative changes, will contribute to a greater understanding of and more favorable attitudes toward HIV PrEP within the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Análise Multinível , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , África Subsaariana , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
11.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082356, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the time to first birth and its predictors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationwide secondary data analysis using mini Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2019. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. Among 9012 women of age 15-49 years, 8885 completed the interview yielding a response rate of 99%. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURED: Time to first birth was determined. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the time to first birth. The lognormal inverse Gaussian shared frailty model was used to model the data at a 95% CI. CI and adjusted time ratio (ATR) were reported as effect size. Statistical significance was declared at p-value<0.05. RESULTS: The overall median time to give first birth was 18 years (IQR: 15, 21). Age 20-29 (ATR=1.08; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.12), Age>29 years (ATR=1.08; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11), northern regions (ATR=1.06; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.08), rural residence (ATR=0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.98), never using contraceptive methods (ATR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.96 to 0.99), sex of household head (ATR=1.01; 95% CI, 1 to 1.03), poorest wealth index (ATR=1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06) and richest wealth index (ATR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.1) were the significant predictors of time to first birth among reproductive-age women. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, women often gave birth to their first child at a younger age than what is recommended. Explicitly, women aged 20-29 and over 29, living in the northern region, leading a household as females, and belonging to the poorest or wealthiest wealth index tended to have a slightly delayed first childbirth. On the other hand, women in rural areas and those who had never used contraception were more likely to have an early first birth. The findings indicated the necessity of implementing targeted measures for rural Ethiopian women, especially those lacking knowledge about contraception.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 96, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to control vaccine-preventable diseases, saving millions of lives annually. However, the coverage of basic vaccines recommended by the WHO in Africa was only 75%, which fell short of the goal of 90% by 2015. To formulate effective policies and implementation programs to reduce incomplete vaccination rates, it is important to conduct a study to determine the factors contributing to incomplete immunization among children aged 12-23 months. METHODS: The study was conducted in 16 sub-Saharan African countries, using data extracted from the latest DHS data. It was a community-based cross-sectional survey that used two-stage stratified probability sampling sample designs. The vaccination coverage was assessed using vaccination cards and mother recalls. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the extent of incomplete immunization and the individual and community-level factors associated with partial immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Variables with a p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant predictors of incomplete immunization. RESULT: A total of 35, 193 weighted samples were used to determine the pooled prevalence of partial immunization. The pooled prevalence of incomplete immunization was 36.06%. In the final model factors significantly associated were: being uneducated mother(AOR:1.75;95%CI:1.48,2.05), being an unemployed mother (AOR:1.16;95%CI:1.09,1.23), no history of family planning utilization (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.61, 1.84), non-antenatal care (AOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.58, 2.04), non-postnatal care (AOR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.17, 1.35), rural residence(AOR:1.50;95%CI:1.37,1.63), home delivery (AOR: 2.04; 95%CI:1.89, 2.21), having children more than five (AOR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.17), and non-utilization of health insurance (AOR: 1.74; 95%CI: 1.48, 2.05). CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of incomplete immunization was found to be high in this investigation. Based on the findings of the study we recommended that policymakers and stakeholders prioritize enhancing prenatal and postnatal care, contraception, and reducing home birth rates to minimize the rate of incomplete immunization.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal , Humanos , Lactente , África Subsaariana , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 322, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common public health problem and the third leading cause of death in the world among children under the age of five years. An estimated 2 billion cases and 1.9 million deaths are recorded among children under the age of five years every year. It causes body fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance. Even though, early initiation of recommended homemade fluid is a simple and effective approach to prevent diarrhea-related complications and mortality of children, recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea is still low in sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea and associated factors among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries. METHOD: The most recent Demographic and Health Survey dataset of 21 sub-Saharan African countries from 2015 to 2022 was used for data analysis. A total of 33,341 participants were included in this study as a weighted sample. Associated factors were determined using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Significant factors in the multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model were declared significant at p-values < 0.05. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (CI) were used to interpret the results. RESULT: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea among children under five in sub-Saharan African countries was 19.08% (95% CI = 18.66, 19.51), which ranged from 4.34% in Burundi to 72.53% in South Africa. In the multivariable analysis, being an educated mother/caregiver (primary and secondary level) (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) and (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.1.47), the primary and secondary level of fathers education (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.71) and (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.1.68), having antenatal care follow-up (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33), having multiple children (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28), and being an urban dweller (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27) were factors associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization. CONCLUSION: The overall recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea was low. Individual and community-level variables were associated with recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, special consideration should be given to rural dwellers and caregivers who have three and below children. Furthermore, better to strengthen the antenatal care service, mother/caregiver education, and father's education to enhance recommended homemade fluid utilization for the treatment of diarrhea.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hidratação , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Hidratação/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Modelos Logísticos , Recém-Nascido
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302143, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), within the first hour of birth, is crucial for promoting exclusive breastfeeding and establishing optimal nursing practices. However, global EIBF rates remain low, with even lower rates observed in Africa. Despite existing research gaps, this study aims to determine the prevalence of EIBF and identify maternal and child-related factors associated with its practice in West Africa. METHODS: This study utilized West African Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 13 countries, including 146,964 children's records. To assess model fit, likelihood test and deviance were used. Similarly, intraclass correlation coefficient, median odds ratio, and proportional change in variance were employed for random effect. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify individual- and community-level factors influencing EIBF due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Variables with p-values ≤0.2 in the binary model and <0.05 in the final analysis were considered significantly associated with EIBF. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of EIBF in West African nations was 50.60% (95% CI; 50.34-50.85%). The highest prevalence rate was observed in Serra Leone (75.33%) and the lowest prevalence was found in Senegal (33.94%). In the multilevel multiple logistic regression model, maternal education (AOR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.03,1.16), marital status AOR = 1.07, 95% CI, 1.01,1.13), birth weight (AOR = 0.91, CI 0.86,0.96), birth orders (AOR = 1.09, CI 1.03,1.16), and (AOR = 1.11, CI 1.03,1.19), place of residence (AOR = 1.14, CI 1.07,1.21), and mode of delivery type (AOR = 0.26, CI 0.24,0.29) were significantly correlated with EIBF in West Africa. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of EIBF in West Africa was found to be low. The study emphasizes the need for targeted behavioral change communication programs to address timely breastfeeding initiation, specifically targeting mothers and child characteristics. Factors such as education, delivery mode, marital status, birth weight, birth order, and place of residence were significantly associated with EIBF. Special attention should be given to improving EIBF rates among women undergoing caesarean sections, infants with low birth weight, and primiparous mothers, along with structural improvements in the healthcare sector in West Africa.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Análise Multinível , Humanos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Adolescente , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303680, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the decrease in the global under-five mortality rate, the highest rates of mortality are reported in sub-Saharan Africa. More than one-third of all deaths among under-five children are either from lower respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, or malaria. Poor treatment-seeking behavior for fever among mothers of under-five children is a big concern in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the pooled prevalence of prompt treatment of fever and its associated factors among under-five children in the region using nationally representative data is not known. Therefore, the findings of this study will inform policymakers and program managers who work on child health to design interventions to improve the timely and appropriate treatment of fever among under-five children. METHODS: Data from the recent demographic and health surveys of 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2006 and 2022 were used. A total weighted sample of 71,503 living children aged under five years with a fever was included in the study. Data extracted from DHS data sets were cleaned, recorded, and analyzed using STATA/SE version 14.0 statistical software. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with the outcome variable. Intra-class correlation coefficient, likelihood ratio test, median odds ratio, and deviance (-2LLR) values were used for model comparison and fitness. Finally, variables with a p-value <0.05 and an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval were declared statistically significant. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of prompt treatment of fever among under-five children in sub-Saharan African countries was 26.11% (95% CI: 25.79%, 26.44%). Factors like maternal education [AOR = 1.18; 95% CI (1.13, 1.25)], maternal working status [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI (1.27, 1.41)], media exposure [AOR = 1.05; 95% CI (1.01, 1.10)], household wealth index [AOR = 1.13; 95% CI (1.06, 1.19)], distance to a health facility [AOR = 1.18; 95% CI (1.13, 1.23)], healthcare decisions [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI (1.01, 1.77)], visited healthcare facility last 12 months [AOR = 1.45; 95% CI (1.38, 1.52)], antenatal care attendance [AOR = 1.79; 95% CI (1.61, 1.99)], place of delivery [AOR = 1.55; 95% CI (1.47, 1.63)], and community-level antenatal care utilization [AOR = 1.08; 95% CI (1.02,1.14)] were significantly associated with prompt treatment of fever among under-five children. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of prompt treatment of fever among under-five children in sub-Saharan African countries was low. Educated women, working mothers, having media exposure, rich household wealth status, perceiving distance to a health facility was not a big problem, making healthcare decisions with husband or partner, visiting healthcare facility in the last 12 months, antenatal care attendance, health facility delivery, and high community-level antenatal care utilization increase the odds of prompt treatment of fever. Therefore, women's empowerment, information dissemination through mass media, maintaining regular visits to healthcare facilities, and strengthening health facility delivery and antenatal care services are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Febre , Análise Multinível , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300750, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is essential health care and medical support provided to pregnant women, with the aim of promoting optimal health for both the mother and the developing baby. Pregnant women should initiate ANC within the first trimester of pregnancy to access a wide range of crucial services. Early initiation of ANC significantly reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet many women in Sub-Saharan Africa delay its initiation. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and determinants of delayed ANC initiation in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS). The study involved women of reproductive age who had given birth within the five years prior to the survey and had attended ANC for their most recent child. A total weighted sample of 2,895 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, we employed a multi-level logistic regression model to examine both individual and community level factors associated with delayed ANC initiation. The findings of the regressions were presented with odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and p-values. All the statistical analysis were performed using STATA-14 software. RESULTS: This study showed that 62.3% (95% CI: 60.5, 64.1) of pregnant women in Ethiopia delayed ANC initiation. Participants, on average, began their ANC at 4 months gestational age. Women with no education (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.0), poorest wealth status (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8), from the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP) region (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3), and those who gave birth at home (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7) were more likely to delay ANC initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of delayed ANC initiation in Ethiopia was high. Enhancing mothers' education, empowering them through economic initiatives, improving their health-seeking behavior towards facility delivery, and universally reinforcing standardized ANC, along with collaborating with the existing local community structure to disseminate health information, are recommended measures to reduce delayed ANC initiation.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303803, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern contraceptive utilization is the most effective intervention to tackle unintended pregnancy and thereby reduce abortion and improve maternal, child, and newborn health. However, multilevel factors related to low modern contraceptive utilization and the robust analysis required for decision-making were scarce in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the individual and community-level predictors of modern contraceptive utilization among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We utilized data from a cross-sectional 2019 Performance Monitoring for Action Ethiopia survey. The survey employed a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select households for inclusion. In Stata version 16.0, the data underwent cleaning, aggregation, and survey weighting, following which a descriptive analysis was performed utilizing the "svy" command. Subsequently, the primary analysis was executed using R software version 4.1.3. We fitted a two-level mixed effects logistic regression model on 6,117 reproductive-age women nested within 265 enumeration areas (clusters). The fixed effect models were fitted. The measures of variation were explained by intra-cluster correlation, median odds ratio, and proportional change in variance. The shrinkage factor was calculated to estimate the effects of cluster variables using the Interval odds ratio and proportion opposed odds ratio. Finally, the independent variables with a significance level of (P<0.05) and their corresponding Adjusted Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were described for the explanatory factors in the final model. RESULTS: In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization was only 37.% (34.3 to 39.8). Women who attained primary, secondary, and above secondary levels of education were more likely to report modern contraceptive utilization with AOR of 1.47, 1.73, and 1.58, respectively. Divorced/widowed women were less likely to report modern contraceptive utilization (AOR:0.18, 95% CI 0.13,0.23) compared to never-married women. Discussions between women and healthcare providers at the health facility about family planning were positively associated with modern contraceptive utilization (AOR:1.84, 95% CI: 1.52, 2.23). Community-level factors have a significant influence on modern contraceptive utilization, which is attributed to 21.9% of the total variance in the odds of using modern contraceptives (ICC = 0.219). Clusters with a higher proportion of agrarian (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI 1.5, 3.44), clusters with higher literacy (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI 1.09, 1.94), clusters with empowered women and girls about FP (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI 1.11, 1.93) and clusters with high supportive attitudes and norms toward FP (AOR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.04, 1.81) had better modern contraceptive utilization than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, understanding the factors related to modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age requires consideration of both individual and community characteristics. Hence, to enhance family planning intervention programs, it is essential to focus on the empowerment of women and girls, foster supportive attitudes towards family planning within communities, collaborate with education authorities to enhance overall community literacy, pay special attention to pastoralist communities, and ensure that reproductive-age women as a whole are targeted rather than solely focusing on married women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Análise Multinível , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Anticoncepcionais
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e00992023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747758

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the association between the school context and the occurrence of multiple partners among adolescents, considering individual variables (age, gender, Bolsa Família, LGB, early sexual initiation and use of alcohol or drugs in the last sex). Cross-sectional study with multilevel analysis carried out in 2018 with adolescent students from Olinda, Brazil. The variable (multiple partners) was collected based on the 'Youth Risk Behavior Survey' questionnaire. School context variables were time in school (regular school vs. full/semi-full school) and the Social Vulnerability Index of the school district. Of 2,500 participants, 1,044 were analyzed for being sexually active and most had two or more partners (63.89%). Regular school students were more likely (OR 1.47, CI 1.10-1.97) to have multiple sexual partners compared to those in full-day schools/half-day schools. However, no association was found in relation to the SVI of the schools' neighborhoods (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). More time spent at school was associated with fewer chances of multiple sexual partners, while studying in schools located in highly vulnerable neighborhoods was not associated with the occurrence of multiple sexual partners among adolescents.


O estudo investiga a associação entre o contexto escolar e a ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros entre adolescentes, considerando as variáveis individuais. Estudo transversal com análise multinível, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2018 com estudantes de 14 a 19 anos. A variável desfecho (múltiplos parceiros sexuais) foi coletada com base no questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). As variáveis do contexto escolar foram tempo na escola (escola regular vs escola integral/semi-integral) e índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS) do bairro onde a escola está localizada. De 2.500 participantes, 1.044 foram analisados por serem sexualmente ativos. A maioria dos adolescentes (63,89%) teve dois ou mais parceiros. Estudantes de escola regular (mínimo de 4h diárias) tiveram mais chances (OR 1.47, IC 1.10-1.97) de terem múltiplos parceiros sexuais quando comparados àqueles de escola integral/semi-integral (mínimo de 7h diárias). Porém, não houve associação em relação ao IVS dos bairros das escolas (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). Maior tempo na escola esteve associado a menor chance de múltiplos parceiros sexuais, enquanto estudar em escolas localizadas em bairro de alta vulnerabilidade não esteve associado à ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros sexuais entre adolescentes.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303071, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood stunting is a global public health concern, associated with both short and long-term consequences, including high child morbidity and mortality, poor development and learning capacity, increased vulnerability for infectious and non-infectious disease. The prevalence of stunting varies significantly throughout Ethiopian regions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the geographical variation in predictors of stunting among children under the age of five in Ethiopia using 2019 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. METHOD: The current analysis was based on data from the 2019 mini Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A total of 5,490 children under the age of five were included in the weighted sample. Descriptive and inferential analysis was done using STATA 17. For the spatial analysis, ArcGIS 10.7 were used. Spatial regression was used to identify the variables associated with stunting hotspots, and adjusted R2 and Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were used to compare the models. As the prevalence of stunting was over 10%, a multilevel robust Poisson regression was conducted. In the bivariable analysis, variables having a p-value < 0.2 were considered for the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable multilevel robust Poisson regression analysis, the adjusted prevalence ratio with the 95% confidence interval is presented to show the statistical significance and strength of the association. RESULT: The prevalence of stunting was 33.58% (95%CI: 32.34%, 34.84%) with a clustered geographic pattern (Moran's I = 0.40, p<0.001). significant hotspot areas of stunting were identified in the west and south Afar, Tigray, Amhara and east SNNPR regions. In the local model, no maternal education, poverty, child age 6-23 months and male headed household were predictors associated with spatial variation of stunting among under five children in Ethiopia. In the multivariable multilevel robust Poisson regression the prevalence of stunting among children whose mother's age is >40 (APR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55, 0.99). Children whose mother had secondary (APR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.60, 0.91) and higher (APR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44, 0.84) educational status, household wealth status (APR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76, 0.99), child aged 6-23 months (APR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.53, 2.28) were all significantly associated with stunting. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, under-five children suffering from stunting have been found to exhibit a spatially clustered pattern. Maternal education, wealth index, birth interval and child age were determining factors of spatial variation of stunting. As a result, a detailed map of stunting hotspots and determinants among children under the age of five aid program planners and decision-makers in designing targeted public health measures.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Regressão Espacial , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Prevalência , Distribuição de Poisson , Análise Multinível , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Geografia
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 350: 116898, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705077

RESUMO

Intersectional Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy (MAIHDA) has been welcomed as a new gold standard for quantitative evaluation of intersectional inequalities, and it is being rapidly adopted across the health and social sciences. In their commentary "What does the MAIHDA method explain?", Wilkes and Karimi (2024) raise methodological concerns with this approach, leading them to advocate for the continued use of conventional single-level linear regression models with fixed-effects interaction parameters for quantitative intersectional analysis. In this response, we systematically address these concerns, and ultimately find them to be unfounded, arising from a series of subtle but important misunderstandings of the MAIHDA approach and literature. Since readers new to MAIHDA may share confusion on these points, we take this opportunity to provide clarifications. Our response is organized around four important clarifications: (1) At what level are the additive main effect variables defined in intersectional MAIHDA models? (2) Do MAIHDA models have problems with collinearity? (3) Why does the Variance Partitioning Coefficient (VPC) tend to be small, and the Proportional Change in Variance (PCV) tend to be large in MAIHDA? and (4) What are the goals of MAIHDA analysis?


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
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