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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1366970, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628587

RESUMO

Background: The first phase of the GAIL study ("Girls treated with an Aromatase Inhibitor and Leuprorelin," ISRCTN11469487) has shown that the combination of anastrozole and leuprorelin for 24 months is safe and effective in improving the predicted adult height (PAH) in girls with early puberty and compromised growth prediction by +1.21 standard deviation score (SDS; +7.51 cm) compared to inhibition of puberty alone, +0.31 SDS (+1.92 cm). Objectives and hypotheses: In the second phase of the GAIL study, we assessed the adult height (AH)/near-adult height (NAH) at the end of the first phase and, in addition, the efficacy of anastrozole monotherapy thereafter in further improving NAH. Methods: We measured the AH (age 16.5 years)/NAH [bone age (BA), 15 years] of the 40 girls included, divided into two matched groups: group A (20 girls on anastrozole + leuprorelin) and group B (20 girls on leuprorelin alone). Group A was further randomized into two subgroups: A1 and A2. Group A1 (n = 10), after completion of the combined therapy, received anastrozole 1 mg/day as monotherapy until BA 14 years, with a 6-month follow-up. Group A2 (n = 10) and group B (n = 20), who received only the combined treatment and leuprorelin alone, respectively, were recalled for evaluation of AH/NAH. Results: AH or NAH exceeded the PAH at the completion of the 2-year initial phase of the GAIL study in all groups, but the results were statistically significant only in group A1: NAH-PAH group A1, +3.85 cm (+0.62 SDS, p = 0.01); group A2, +1.6 cm (+0.26 SDS, p = 0.26); and group B, +1.7 cm (+0.3 SDS, p = 0.08). The gain in group A1 was significantly greater than that in group A2 (p = 0.04) and in group B (p = 0.03). Anastrozole was determined to be safe even as monotherapy in Group A1. Conclusions: In early-maturing girls with compromised growth potential, the combined treatment with leuprorelin and anastrozole for 2 years or until the age of 11 years resulted in a total gain in height of +9.7 cm when continuing anastrozole monotherapy until the attainment of NAH, as opposed to +7.4 cm if they do not continue with the anastrozole monotherapy and +3.6 cm when treated with leuprorelin alone. Thus, the combined intervention ends at the shortest distance from the target height if continued with anastrozole monotherapy until BA 14 years.


Assuntos
Leuprolida , Puberdade Precoce , Feminino , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Anastrozol/farmacologia , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Leuprolida/farmacologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Puberdade Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Puberdade , Estatura
2.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 7(4): e2028, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anastrozole is a selective aromatase inhibitor used for the treatment of postmenopausal hormone-sensitive breast cancer. The major side effects include osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, and musculoskeletal events, such as arthralgia and myalgia. Other adverse events are rare, including symptoms of acne, masculinization, and drug-induced liver injury, with the latter reported in a few cases only. CASE: Here, we report on a patient under anastrozole therapy who developed drug-induced liver injury as assessed by the updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method 5 weeks after a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of its kind involving anastrozole. Discontinuation of anastrozole resulted in a marked improvement of the alanine aminotransaminase, and aspartate aminotransaminase as well as normalized lactate dehydrogenase serum levels already seen after 26 days. Surprisingly, however, the cholestatic serum markers gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase showed a further rise, and took another 4 weeks to drop significantly. CONCLUSION: The presentation of this case is meant to alert physicians to a potential drug-induced liver injury following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients under anastrozole medication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Humanos , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 198, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effectiveness of anastrozole for breast cancer prevention has been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of anastrozole for the prevention of breast cancer in women with a high risk of breast cancer and to determine whether anastrozole for the primary prevention of breast cancer can improve the quality of life of women and save health-care resources. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was used to assess the costs and effects of anastrozole prevention versus no prevention among women with a high risk of breast cancer. The key parameters of probability were derived from the IBIS-II trial, and the cost and health outcome data were derived from published literature. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for the two strategies,One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In the base case, the incremental cost per QALY of anastrozole prevention was £125,705.38/QALY in the first 5 years compared with no prevention in the UK, above the threshold of WTP (£3,000/QALY),and in the 12-year period, the ICER was £8,313.45/QALY, less than WTP. For the US third-party payer, ICER was $134,232.13/QALY in the first 5 years and $8,843.30/QALY in the 12 years, both less than the WTP threshold ($150,000/QALY). CONCLUSION: In the UK and US, anastrozole may be a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. Moreover, the longer the cycle of the model, the higher the acceptability. The results of this study may provide a scientific reference for decision-making for clinicians, patients, and national medical and health care government departments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Reino Unido , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 242: 116032, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane and selective estrogen down-regulator (SERD) fulvestrant are used mostly to treat breast cancer estrogen receptor positive in post-menopausal women. These drugs are given either through the oral route or by intramuscular injection. They have shown great inter-individual variability with a risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Hence the importance of their therapeutic drug monitoring not only for exposure-efficacy but also exposure-toxicity. We describe here a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane and fulvestrant in human plasma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples were prepared by a single-step protein precipitation. The liquid chromatography system was paired with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantification were achieved in Multiple Reactions Monitoring mode and the electrospray ionization was in positive mode. RESULTS: The method demonstrated consistent analytical performance across various parameters, including linearity, specificity, sensitivity, matrix effect, upper and lower limits of quantification, extraction recovery, precision, accuracy, hemolysis effect, dilution integrity, and stability under different storage conditions, in accordance with established guidelines. The analysis time for each run was 4 min. Calibration curves exhibited linearity within the 1-100 ng/mL range, with correlation coefficients > 0.99 for the four analytes. Plasma concentrations from 42 patients were integrated into the selected calibration. Stability assessments indicated that the four drugs remained stable at - 20 °C for three months, 15 days under refrigeration, up to 7 days at room temperature, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. CONCLUSION: We have developed and validated this quantitative method for therapeutic drug monitoring of those four hormone therapy drugs:anastrozole, letrozole, fulvestrant and exemestane. This method can be also used for future clinical pharmacokinetics /pharmacodynamics studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , 60705 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Med Oncol ; 41(4): 81, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400892

RESUMO

Plectranthus amboinicus leaves were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oil (EO). Phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a diverse range of compounds in the EO, with p-cymen-4-ol (18.57%) emerging as the most predominant, followed by isocaryophyllene (12.18%). The in vitro antiproliferative activity of EO against breast cancer was assessed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The MTT assay results revealed that EO showed IC50 values of 42.25 µg/mL and 13.44 µg/mL in MCF-7 cells and 63.67 µg/mL and 26.58 µg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The in silico physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profiles of the EO constituents were within acceptable limits. Molecular docking was conducted to investigate the interactions between the constituents of the EO and protein Aromatase (PDB ID:3S79). Among the EO constituents, 4-tert-butyl-2-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)phenol (4BHP) exhibited the highest dock score of -6.580 kcal/mol when compared to the reference drug, Letrozole (-5.694 kcal/mol), but was slightly lesser than Anastrozole (-7.08 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulation studies (100 ns) of the 4BHP complex were performed to study its stability patterns. The RMSD and RMSF values of the 4BHP protein complex were found to be 2.03 Å and 4.46 Å, respectively. The binding free energy calculations revealed that 4BHP displayed the highest negative binding energy of -43 kcal/mol with aromatase protein, compared to Anastrozole (-40.59 kcal/mol) and Letrozole (-44.54 kcal/mol). However, further research is required to determine the safety, efficacy, and mechanism of action of the volatile oil. Taking into consideration the key findings of the present work, the development of a formulation of essential oil remains a challenging task and novel drug delivery systems may lead to site-specific and targeted delivery for the effective treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Óleos Voláteis , Plectranthus , Humanos , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Plectranthus/química , Plectranthus/metabolismo , Aromatase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Anastrozol/metabolismo , Letrozol/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
6.
JAMA Oncol ; 10(3): 362-371, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236590

RESUMO

Importance: Adding fulvestrant to anastrozole (A+F) improved survival in postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-negative breast cancer. However, the combination has not been tested in early-stage disease. Objective: To determine whether neoadjuvant fulvestrant or A+F increases the rate of pathologic complete response or ypT1-2N0/N1mic/Ki67 2.7% or less residual disease (referred to as endocrine-sensitive disease) over anastrozole alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: A phase 3 randomized clinical trial assessing differences in clinical and correlative outcomes between each of the fulvestrant-containing arms and the anastrozole arm. Postmenopausal women with clinical stage II to III, ER-rich (Allred score 6-8 or >66%)/ERBB2-negative breast cancer were included. All analyses were based on data frozen on March 2, 2023. Interventions: Patients received anastrozole, fulvestrant, or a combination for 6 months preoperatively. Tumor Ki67 was assessed at week 4 and optionally at week 12, and if greater than 10% at either time point, the patient switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy or immediate surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the endocrine-sensitive disease rate (ESDR). A secondary outcome was the percentage change in Ki67 after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) (week 4 Ki67 suppression). Results: Between February 2014 and November 2018, 1362 female patients (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [8.2] years) were enrolled. Among the 1298 evaluable patients, ESDRs were 18.7% (95% CI, 15.1%-22.7%), 22.8% (95% CI, 18.9%-27.1%), and 20.5% (95% CI, 16.8%-24.6%) with anastrozole, fulvestrant, and A+F, respectively. Compared to anastrozole, neither fulvestrant-containing regimen significantly improved ESDR or week 4 Ki67 suppression. The rate of week 4 or week 12 Ki67 greater than 10% was 25.1%, 24.2%, and 15.7% with anastrozole, fulvestrant, and A+F, respectively. Pathologic complete response/residual cancer burden class I occurred in 8 of 167 patients and 17 of 167 patients, respectively (15.0%; 95% CI, 9.9%-21.3%), after switching to neoadjuvant chemotherapy due to week 4 or week 12 Ki67 greater than 10%. PAM50 subtyping derived from RNA sequencing of baseline biopsies available for 753 patients (58%) identified 394 luminal A, 304 luminal B, and 55 nonluminal tumors. A+F led to a greater week 4 Ki67 suppression than anastrozole alone in luminal B tumors (median [IQR], -90.4% [-95.2 to -81.9%] vs -76.7% [-89.0 to -55.6%]; P < .001), but not luminal A tumors. Thirty-six nonluminal tumors (65.5%) had a week 4 or week 12 Ki67 greater than 10%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, neither fulvestrant nor A+F significantly improved the 6-month ESDR over anastrozole in ER-rich/ERBB2-negative breast cancer. Aromatase inhibition remains the standard-of-care NET. Differential NET response by PAM50 subtype in exploratory analyses warrants further investigation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01953588.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fulvestranto , Antígeno Ki-67 , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa , Receptor ErbB-2 , Receptores de Estrogênio , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Climacteric ; 27(2): 215-216, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265057

RESUMO

Anastrazole has recently been approved for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women in the UK. When given to high-risk women anastrazole halves the risk of developing breast cancer but doesn't reduce the risk of breast cancer death and is associated with significant harms. Women need to be counselled about both the benefits and risks associated with anastrazole use to enable an informed treatment choice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Anastrozol , Pós-Menopausa , Mama
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 90(1): 350-353, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917870

RESUMO

A middle-aged Caucasian man living with HIV, clinically stable (viral load <20 copies/mL) on injectable antiretroviral cabotegravir plus rilpivirine every 2 months presented with a 6-month history of bilateral enlargement of the breasts associated with pain. His hormonal profile was normal, and no other underlying cause was identified. He was diagnosed with idiopathic gynecomastia. Tamoxifen is an anti-oestrogen recommended for gynecomastia and has been described in people living with HIV but can potentially induce the activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), reducing rilpivirine concentrations, which consequently may cause virological failure and resistance. This is the same for other antiretroviral agents majorly induced by CYP3A4. To date, there have been no reported cases of using anastrozole as a treatment for gynecomastia in people living with HIV or of its co-administration with antiretroviral. We describe the use of an aromatase inhibitor instead of tamoxifen in a person living with HIV, diagnosed with gynecomastia.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Ginecomastia , Infecções por HIV , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Ginecomastia/induzido quimicamente , Ginecomastia/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Rilpivirina/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 61(3): 1627-1642, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37740866

RESUMO

Anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, induces painful musculoskeletal symptoms, which affect patients' quality of life and lead to therapy discontinuation. Efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms involved in these painful symptoms to manage them better. In this context, we explored the role of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a potential transducer of several nociceptive mechanisms, in anastrozole-induced musculoskeletal pain in mice. Besides, we evaluated the possible sensibilization of TRPV4 by signalling pathways downstream, PLC, PKC and PKCε from kinin B2 (B2R) and B1 (B1R) receptors activation in anastrozole-induced pain. Anastrozole caused mechanical allodynia and muscle strength loss in mice. HC067047, TRPV4 antagonist, reduced the anastrozole-induced mechanical allodynia and muscle strength loss. In animals previously treated with anastrozole, the local administration of sub-nociceptive doses of the TRPV4 (4α-PDD or hypotonic solution), B2R (Bradykinin) or B1R (DABk) agonists enhanced the anastrozole-induced pain behaviours. The sensitizing effects induced by local injection of the TRPV4, B2R and B1R agonists in animals previously treated with anastrozole were reduced by pre-treatment with TRPV4 antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of PLC, PKC or PKCε attenuated the mechanical allodynia and muscle strength loss induced by TRPV4, B2R and B1R agonists. The generation of painful conditions caused by anastrozole depends on direct TRPV4 activation or indirect, e.g., PLC, PKC and PKCε pathways downstream from B2R and B1R activation. Thus, the TRPV4 channels act as sensors of extracellular and intracellular changes, making them potential therapeutic targets for alleviating pain related to aromatase inhibitors use, such as anastrozole.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Anastrozol , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Qualidade de Vida , Receptor B1 da Bradicinina/metabolismo , Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Bradicinina/farmacologia
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 25(1): 108-116, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of breast cancer is associated with high serum concentrations of oestradiol and testosterone in postmenopausal women, but little is known about how these hormones affect response to endocrine therapy for breast cancer prevention or treatment. We aimed to assess the effects of serum oestradiol and testosterone concentrations on the efficacy of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women at high risk. METHODS: In this case-control study we used data from the IBIS-II prevention trial, a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial in postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years at high risk of breast cancer, conducted in 153 breast cancer treatment centres across 18 countries. In the trial, women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive anastrozole (1 mg/day, orally) or placebo daily for 5 years. In this pre-planned case-control study, the primary analysis was the effect of the baseline oestradiol to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) ratio (oestradiol-SHBG ratio) on the development of all breast cancers, including ductal carcinoma in situ (the primary endpoint in the trial). Cases were participants in whom breast cancer was reported after trial entry and until the cutoff on Oct 22, 2019, and who had valid blood samples and no use of hormone replacement therapy within 3 months of trial entry or during the trial. For each case, two controls without breast cancer were selected at random, matched on treatment group, age (within 2 years), and follow-up time (at least that of the matching case). For each treatment group, we applied a multinominal logistic regression likelihood-ratio trend test to assess what change in the proportion of cases was associated with a one-quartile change in hormone ratio. Controls were used only to determine quartile cutoffs. Profile likelihood 95% CIs were used to indicate the precision of estimates. A secondary analysis also investigated the effect of the baseline testosterone-SHBG ratio on breast cancer development. We also assessed relative benefit of anastrozole versus placebo (calculated as 1 - the ratio of breast cancer cases in the anastrozole group to cases in the placebo group). The trial was registered with ISRCTN (number ISRCTN31488319) and completed recruitment on Jan 31, 2012, but long-term follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: 3864 women were recruited into the trial between Feb 2, 2003, and Jan 31, 2012, and randomly assigned to receive anastrozole (n=1920) or placebo (n=1944). Median follow-up time was 131 months (IQR 106-156), during which 85 (4·4%) cases of breast cancer in the anastrozole group and 165 (8·5%) in the placebo group were identified. No data on gender, race, or ethnicity were collected. After exclusions, the case-control study included 212 participants from the anastrozole group (72 cases, 140 controls) and 416 from the placebo group (142 cases, 274 controls). A trend of increasing breast cancer risk with increasing oestradiol-SHBG ratio was found in the placebo group (trend per quartile 1·25 [95% CI 1·08 to 1·45], p=0·0033), but not in the anastrozole group (1·06 [0·86 to 1·30], p=0·60). A weaker effect was seen for the testosterone-SHBG ratio in the placebo group (trend 1·21 [1·05 to 1·41], p=0·011), but again not in the anastrozole group (trend 1·18 [0·96 to 1·46], p=0·11). A relative benefit of anastrozole was seen in quartile 2 (0·55 [95% CI 0·13 to 0·78]), quartile 3 (0·54 [0·22 to 0·74], and quartile 4 (0·56 [0·23 to 0·76]) of oestradiol-SHBG ratio, but not in quartile 1 (0·18 [-0·60 to 0·59]). INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that serum hormones should be measured more routinely and integrated into risk management decisions. Measuring serum hormone concentrations is inexpensive and might help clinicians differentiate which women will benefit most from an aromatase inhibitor. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and DaCosta Fund.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Anastrozol , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Inibidores da Aromatase , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pós-Menopausa , Nitrilas , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Testosterona
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(23): 11643-11652, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38095411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with breast cancer and positive hormone receptors, aromatase inhibitors are effective in reducing the risk of recurrences and are active in progressing the disease in this setting. On the other hand, fatigue and painful musculoskeletal side effects can significantly reduce treatment compliance. With no further treatment options to control these symptoms, non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as oxygen-ozone therapy, may play a role in managing rheumatologic symptomatology inasmuch. We have previously reported evidence on the effectiveness of oxygen-ozone in the treatment of pain and fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia patients and in oncological patients as well. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we reported 6 cases of patients (mean age 64 yrs, all Caucasian females) with breast cancer upon treatment with anastrozole (Arimidex®), suffering from musculoskeletal pain, weakness and fatigue, and therefore treated with oxygen-ozone major autohemotherapy according to the Italian Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy (SIOOT) protocol. Pain was measured with a 10-item Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and fatigue with a 7-item Fatigue Scoring Scale (FSS). RESULTS: A reduction of at least 66% of pain (from 9.43 ±0.54 SD to 2.36 ±1.32 SD, p<0.001) and 66.26% of fatigue were obtained for all the cases. Pain and fatigue disappeared within one month from ozone therapy, and a healthy painless state lasted for many months following the oxygen-ozone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The oxygen-ozone therapy is a sound opportunity for breast cancer patients to reduce anti-aromatase-induced pain, fatigue, and musculoskeletal symptoms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dor Musculoesquelética , Ozônio , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico
12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 7(6)2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with an adverse prognosis and reduced efficacy of endocrine therapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). This study determines the prognostic and predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) on the disease-free survival (DFS) of postmenopausal HR+ BC patients. METHODS: Patients were identified from the DATA study (NCT00301457), a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of 6 vs 3 years of anastrozole after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with HR+ BC. Patients were classified as normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). The primary endpoint was DFS, evaluated from randomization (prognostic analyses) or 3 years after randomization onwards (predictive analyses; aDFS) using multivariable Cox regression analyses. P-values were 2-sided. RESULTS: This study included 678 normal weight, 712 overweight, and 391 obese patients. After a median follow-up of 13.1 years, overweight and obesity were identified as negative prognostic factors for DFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97 to 1.38 and HR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.54, respectively). The adverse prognostic effect of BMI was observed in women aged younger than 60 years, but not in women aged 60 years or older (P-interaction = .009). The effect of extended anastrozole on aDFS was similar in normal weight (HR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.35), overweight (HR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.98), and obese patients (HR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.36) (P-interaction = .24). CONCLUSION: In this study among 1781 HR+ BC patients, overweight and obesity were adverse prognostic factors for DFS. BMI did not impact the efficacy of extended anastrozole.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Prognóstico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Obesidade/complicações
14.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 68: e220524, 2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988665

RESUMO

Objective: This research aimed to evaluate retrospectively the effect of anastrozole on height gain and sex hormone levels in pubertal boys receiving growth hormone (GH). Materials and methods: Pubertal boys who received both GH and anastrozole (GH+A) were one-to-one matched with boys who received only GH (GH-Only) for chronological and bone age, pubertal stage and height before the GH initiation, treatment duration and midparental height. Anthropometric measurements throughout treatment and adult heights were compared between the groups. Sex hormone levels were evaluated longitudinally in the GH+A group. Results: Forty-eight cases (24 in each group) were included. There was no statistical difference in adult height between the GH+A and GH-Only (p = 0.071). However, when the analysis was limited to those receiving anastrozole for at least 2 years, mean adult height was higher in the GH+A than in the GH-Only group (173.1 ± 6.2/169.8 ± 5.6 cm, p = 0.044). Despite similar growth rates between the two groups, bone age advancement was slower in the GH+A than in the GH-Only in a mean anastrozole treatment period of 1.59 years (1.37 ± 0.80/1.81 ± 0.98 years, p = 0.001). The greatest increase for FSH, LH, total and free testosterone and decrease for estradiol levels were observed in the third month after anastrozole was started, albeit remaining within the normal ranges according to the actual pubertal stages. Conclusion: Using anastrozole with GH for at least 2 years decelerates the bone age advancement resulting in adult height gain with no abnormality in sex hormone levels. These results suggest anastrozole can be used as an additional treatment to GH for further height gain in pubertal boys.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Anastrozol/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Testosterona , Estatura , Puberdade
15.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 31(1): 29-31, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843087

RESUMO

Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated, mucocutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome that can occur as a result of various medications, including a wide range of antineoplastic and hormonal drugs. Anastrozole, a nonselective aromatase inhibitor used in breast cancer management has been associated with different cutaneous side effects, of which EM is rarely seen and usually in a minor or major form with typical target lesions. This is a short report of a patient who developed a rare cutaneous side effect after the use of aromatase inhibitor anastrozole - segmental erythema multiforme in cancer-affected area. Cutaneous adverse effects limited to cancer-affected breast are extremely rare but should be considered in everyday dermatological practice. We find this case instructive not only because of the rarity of the segmental EM, but also because, contrary to classical teaching, drug eruption due to anastrozole occurred months, not days after the initiation of therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Erupção por Droga , Eritema Multiforme , Humanos , Feminino , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Eritema Multiforme/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Erupção por Droga/etiologia
16.
Microsc Microanal ; 29(3): 1205-1219, 2023 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37749673

RESUMO

Globally, breast cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed and common cause of death among women. Aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrozole, are one of the first-line therapies used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women; however, thromboembolic complications are common. Thus, this study investigated the combined effects of anastrozole and antiplatelet therapies, aspirin and clopidogrel, on breast cancer cytotoxicity and survival in vitro. Breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) were treated with varying Cmax concentrations of anastrozole and/or antiplatelet therapies for 24 h. A wound-healing scratch assay was used to measure migration and the WST-1 assay for cellular proliferation. An autophagy/cytotoxicity dual staining kit was used to assay cell death and survival. Changes in cell morphology were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed with Statistica software. Our findings showed that sub-phenotypic differences exist between the luminal-A breast cancer cell lines, with T47D cells being more aggressive than MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation and migration responded in a dose-dependent manner for the different treatment groups. Notably, anastrozole combined with aspirin and clopidogrel mediated higher levels of cell survival than each agent individually, with autophagy levels being significantly increased in comparison to that induced with antiplatelet therapy alone.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Anastrozol , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/farmacologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 30(13): 8404-8411, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37777685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic disparities in outcomes after treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine breast cancer outcomes by race and ethnicity in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-35 clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The NSABP B-35 trial randomized postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive DCIS treated with breast-conserving therapy to 5 years of tamoxifen or anastrozole. In total, 3104 women were enrolled between 2003 and 2006. For this analysis, patients without complete self-reported race and ethnicity or with immediate trial dropout were excluded. Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted Cox-proportional hazards models were used for analyses. RESULTS: Of the 3061 women included, 2614 (85.4%) were non-Hispanic white (NHW), 255 (8.3%) were non-Hispanic Black (NHB), 95 (3.1%) were Hispanic, and 96 (3.1%) were Asian or Pacific Islander (API). Endocrine therapy assignment and duration were well balanced between racial and ethnic groups. Median follow-up was 9 years; unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves did not show any racial differences in disease events. Adjusted Cox-proportional hazards models found API (versus NHW) race to be associated with higher local recurrence [hazard ratio (HzR) 2.45, p = 0.035] and NHB race to be associated with higher distant recurrence (HzR 5.03, p = 0.020) and breast cancer mortality (HzR 3.83, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar locoregional treatments and standard endocrine therapy in a clinical trial population, racial and ethnic disparities exist in long-term outcomes for hormone-receptor-positive DCIS. These findings suggest that factors outside of access and treatment may impact DCIS outcomes by race and ethnicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Feminino , Humanos , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Anastrozol/uso terapêutico , Etnicidade
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 16(11): 631-639, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37756580

RESUMO

Predicting an individual's risk of treatment discontinuation is critical for the implementation of precision chemoprevention. We developed partly conditional survival models to predict discontinuation of tamoxifen or anastrozole using patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ enrolled in the NSABP B-35 clinical trial. In a secondary analysis of the NSABP B-35 clinical trial PRO data, we proposed two models for treatment discontinuation within each treatment arm (anastrozole or tamoxifen treated patients) using partly conditional Cox-type models with time-dependent covariates. A 70/30 split of the sample was used for the training and validation datasets. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated using calibration and discrimination measures based on the Brier score and AUC from time-dependent ROC curves. The predictive models stratified high-risk versus low-risk early discontinuation at a 6-month horizon. For anastrozole-treated patients, predictive factors included baseline body mass index (BMI) and longitudinal patient-reported symptoms such as insomnia, joint pain, hot flashes, headaches, gynecologic symptoms, and vaginal discharge, all collected up to 12 months [Brier score, 0.039; AUC, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57-0.95]. As for tamoxifen-treated patients, predictive factors included baseline BMI, and time-dependent covariates: cognitive problems, feelings of happiness, calmness, weight problems, and pain (Brier score, 0.032; AUC, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.91). A real-time calculator based on these models was developed in Shiny to create a web-based application with a future goal to aid healthcare professionals in decision-making. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: The dynamic prediction provided by partly conditional models offers valuable insights into the treatment discontinuation risks using PRO data collected over time from clinical trial participants. This tool may benefit healthcare professionals in identifying patients at high risk of premature treatment discontinuation and support interventions to prevent potential discontinuation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Anastrozol , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
19.
Breast ; 72: 103580, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest synergistic activity with the combination of programmed death-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 blockade in oestrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) breast cancer. The noncomparative phase 1b/2 CheckMate 7A8 study (NCT04075604) evaluated neoadjuvant treatment with nivolumab, palbociclib, and anastrozole in patients with ER+/HER2- breast cancer. Here, we report outcomes from the safety run-in phase. METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed, untreated ER+/HER2- breast cancer, primary tumour ≥2 cm, ECOG performance status ≤1, and eligible for post-treatment surgery received nivolumab 480 mg intravenously every 4 weeks, palbociclib 125 mg or 100 mg orally once daily for 3 weeks per cycle, and anastrozole 1 mg orally once daily for five 4-week cycles, or until disease progression. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within 4 weeks of treatment initiation. RESULTS: At safety data review, 21 patients were treated (palbociclib 125-mg group: n = 9; palbociclib 100-mg group: n = 12). DLTs were reported in 2 (22.2%) and 0 patients in the palbociclib 125-mg and 100-mg groups, respectively. Across both groups, 9 patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity (grade 3/4 hepatic adverse events [n = 6], grade 3 febrile neutropaenia [n = 1], grade 1 pneumonitis [n = 1], and grade 3 rash and grade 2 immune-mediated pneumonitis [n = 1]). Consequently, the study was closed early. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant treatment with nivolumab, palbociclib, and anastrozole showed a high incidence of grade 3/4 hepatotoxicity and treatment discontinuation, indicating that this combination should not be further pursued for treatment of primary ER+/HER2- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Anastrozol , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Nivolumabe , Pneumonia , Receptor ErbB-2 , Receptores de Estrogênio
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 24(9): 1029-1041, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of more potent selective oestrogen receptor antagonists and degraders (SERDs) that can be orally administered could help to address the limitations of current endocrine therapies. We report the primary and final analyses of the coopERA Breast Cancer study, designed to test whether giredestrant, a highly potent, non-steroidal, oral SERD, would show a stronger anti-proliferative effect than anastrozole after 2 weeks for oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, untreated early breast cancer. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 study, postmenopausal women were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older; had clinical T stage (cT)1c to cT4a-c (≥1·5 cm within cT1c) oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, untreated early breast cancer; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1; and baseline Ki67 score of at least 5%. The study was conducted at 59 hospital or clinic sites in 11 countries globally. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to giredestrant 30 mg oral daily or anastrozole 1 mg oral daily on days 1-14 (window-of-opportunity phase) via an interactive web-based system with permuted-block randomisation with block size of four. Randomisation was stratified by cT stage, baseline Ki67 score, and progesterone receptor status. A 16-week neoadjuvant phase comprised the same regimen plus palbociclib 125 mg oral daily on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle, for four cycles. The primary endpoint was geometric mean relative Ki67 score change from baseline to week 2 in patients with complete central Ki67 scores at baseline and week 2 (window-of-opportunity phase). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04436744) and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Sept 4, 2020, and June 22, 2021, 221 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the giredestrant plus palbociclib group (n=112; median age 62·0 years [IQR 57·0-68·5]) or anastrozole plus palbociclib group (n=109; median age 62·0 [57·0-67·0] years). 15 (7%) of 221 patients were Asian, three (1%) were Black or African American, 194 (88%) were White, and nine (4%) were unknown races. At data cutoff for the primary analysis (July 19, 2021), the geometric mean relative reduction of Ki67 from baseline to week 2 was -75% (95% CI -80 to -70) with giredestrant and -67% (-73 to -59) with anastrozole (p=0·043), meeting the primary endpoint. At the final analysis (data cutoff Nov 24, 2021), the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (29 [26%] of 112 in the giredestrant plus palbociclib group vs 29 [27%] of 109 in the anastrozole plus palbociclib group) and decreased neutrophil count (17 [15%] vs 16 [15%]). Serious adverse events occurred in five (4%) patients in the giredestrant plus palbociclib group and in two (2%) patients in the anastrozole plus palbociclib group. There were no treatment-related deaths. One patient died due to an adverse event in the giredestrant plus palbociclib group (myocardial infarction). INTERPRETATION: Giredestrant offers encouraging anti-proliferative and anti-tumour activity and was well tolerated, both as a single agent and in combination with palbociclib. Results justify further investigation in ongoing trials. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anastrozol , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Antígeno Ki-67
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