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1.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 71(4): 291-297, abril 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232124

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Los bloqueos continuos de los nervios periféricos son de uso común para el manejo del dolor. Sin embargo, la incidencia de desplazamiento o migración del catéter es dudosa, pudiendo ser infraestimada y no denunciarse. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el posicionamiento del extremo del catéter supraescapular antes y después de la manipulación rutinaria y simulada mediante fisioterapia de hombro en un modelo cadavérico anatómico.MétodoSe colocaron 8 catéteres para bloqueo continuo y ecoguiado del nervio supraescapular en cadáveres frescos criopreservados. La tomografía computarizada (TC) confirmó la localización de la punta del catéter tras la inyección de 1ml de medio de contraste. Realizamos una serie de movimientos estandarizados de hombro durante una sesión simulada de fisioterapia de hombro en cadáveres. Tras ello, administramos 1ml de azul de metileno a través de los catéteres, y seguidamente realizamos disecciones para identificar con precisión la localización de las puntas del catéter y compararlas con su localización previa a la «fisioterapia».ResultadosLa imagen de la TC confirmó la localización en todos los casos de los extremos del catéter en la muesca supraescapular. Sin embargo, tras la fisioterapia, se encontró que 2 catéteres (25%) habían migrado y, en especial, uno fue localizado en el músculo supraespinoso y el otro en el músculo trapecio.ConclusiónNuestros hallazgos sugieren que el desplazamiento del catéter puede producirse en cerca del 25% de los casos tras la manipulación mediante fisioterapia simulada. Sin embargo, es necesaria más investigación para determinar la incidencia real de los desplazamientos del catéter en la práctica clínica. (AU)


Background: Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are commonly used for pain management. However, the incidence of catheter dislodgement or migration is unclear, and may be underestimated and underreported. Our objective was to assess suprascapular catheter tip positioning before and after routine simulated shoulder physiotherapy manipulation in an anatomical cadaver model.MethodEight ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block catheters were placed in cryopreserved fresh cadavers. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the location of the catheter tip after injection of 1ml of contrast medium. We performed a series of standardized shoulder movements during a simulated shoulder physiotherapy session in cadavers. Following this, we administered 1ml of methylene blue through the catheters, and then performed anatomical dissections to accurately identify the location of the catheter tips and compare them to their placement prior to the ‘physiotherapy’ResultCT imaging confirmed the location of the catheter tips at the suprascapular notch in all cases. However, following physiotherapy, 2 catheters (25%) were found to have migrated - specifically, 1 was located in the supraspinatus muscle, and the other was located in the trapezius muscle.ConclusionOur findings suggest that catheter dislodgement may occur in approximately 25% of cases following simulated physiotherapy manipulation. However, further research is needed to determine the read incidence of catheter dislodgement in clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Tomografia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Anatomia , Anestesia por Condução
2.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 46(3): 391-398, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the current practices in anatomy teaching at French universities in 2023. METHODS: On January 10, 2023, a questionnaire was sent to all members of the official list of the French Medical College of Professors of Anatomy. Each Anatomy centre was asked to complete this online form only once. The questionnaire covered several key themes, including broad questions, dissections practices, "virtual" dissections, teaching methods and teaching staff. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 26/28 anatomy centres. Access to body donor dissection is reported to be mandatory in 15 of the 26 centers (58%), optional in 10 centers (38%), and "tolerated" in one center (4%). Fifteen of 26 centers (58%) reported having a virtual dissection table for teaching anatomy. Concerning the teaching of anatomy via live ultrasound, 10 out of 26 centers (38%) reported providing it. Regarding the teaching methods used for medical students, chalk and board lectures are the most common method, although the intensity of use varies. Most lectures are given with chalk and board in 42% (11/26) of the centers. In about 73% (19/26) of the centers, tablet lectures are used. Regarding anatomy teachers, it was reported that in 24/26 anatomy centres (92%), more than 50% of the courses for medical students are taught by professors holding the chair of anatomy (21/26 professors (81%), 3/26 associate professors (12%)). CONCLUSION: The present study endeavors to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on anatomy education by offering insights into the current practices in French universities.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Dissecação/educação , Currículo , França , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carbonato de Cálcio , Anatomia/educação , Ensino
3.
Nurse Educ Today ; 137: 106160, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomy education is a fundamental part of clinical nursing, but anatomy courses may lead to a range of psychological changes, such as death anxiety and sense of meaning in life. Such experiences and changes may influence student's willingness to donate their body. There is insufficient evidence on whether anatomy courses bring about these changes, and the reasons behind experiences are unclear. Focusing on these changes is essential to improve anatomy education in nursing and to promote the mental health of students in the nursing field. OBJECTIVES: To explore changes and underlying reasons for death anxiety, sense of meaning in life, and the willingness to donate a body before and after anatomy courses. DESIGN: An explanatory sequential explanatory mixed-methods study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 students completed quantitative surveys and 16 students from the sub-samples of the quantitative stage were included in the qualitative interviews. All students were from a comprehensive university in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2022 to April 2023, including two rounds of questionnaire surveys and one interview. The questionnaires included sociodemographic data, the Death Anxiety Scale (CT-DAS), the Meaning of Life Scale (MLQ), and a body donation willingness question. Interviews were conducted based on the research objectives. The statistical methods included descriptive statistics, z-tests, and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Quantitative results showed a decrease in emotional dimension of death anxiety (z = -2.534, P < 0.05) and an increase in body donation willingness (z = -3.183, P < 0.05). Qualitative analysis revealed cognitive experience and value assessment may relate to the changes. Based on the two themes, the reduction of death anxiety in emotional dimension can be further attributed to four factors: demystification, instrumentalization, desensitization, and respect and gratitude towards donors. The increase in willingness to donate bodies can be further attributed to two aspects: increase in knowledge of body donation and the affirmation of the value of donation. CONCLUSION: The study found that students experience a decrease in death anxiety in the emotional dimension and an increased inclination to donate their bodies after anatomy courses, which may be related to cognitive experience and value assessment. Future nursing anatomy education could delve deeper into these two perspectives and support students to positively cope with death anxiety and rethink body donation through enriching death education activities such as donor memorial ceremonies. These results provide a basis for designing anatomy courses and improving the psychological well-being and professional competence of nursing students.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emoções , Ansiedade , Anatomia/educação
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 9-16, feb. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528816

RESUMO

Los términos fossa y fovea se encuentran en Terminologia Anatomica, sin embargo, no existe una diferencia clara entre ambos términos. Por este motivo, el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la coherencia entre la relación léxica, morfológica y etimológica de los términos fossa y fovea con su utilización en Terminologia Anatomica. Los términos fossa y fovea fueron consultados en Terminologia Anatomica (Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology, 2019) y en Terminologia Anatomica Internacional (Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 2001). Posteriormente se realizó la búsqueda de ambos términos en diccionarios latín-español e inglés-latín. Finalmente fueron consultados los términos fossa y fovea en el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española y en el Diccionario panhispánico de términos médicos de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina de España para conocer las definiciones en el área médica. La búsqueda reportó que el término "fosa" proviene del latín fossa, que significa "excavación, foso, fosa; hoyo, agujero". Por su parte "fóvea" proviene del latín fovea que significa"hoyo pequeño". Por lo tanto, la diferencia de fossa y fovea está determinada por su tamaño según sus definiciones. Sin embargo, en Terminologia Anatomica se han descrito estructuras con el diminutivo de fossa y fovea lo que complejiza la diferenciación de los términos según su tamaño. Además, la falta de unificación en la nomenclatura entre fossa, fovea y sus diminutivos, genera una gran confusión e incoherencias en las traducciones del latín al inglés y al español en Terminologia Anatomica que merman la precisión de la nomenclatura. Por lo tanto se propone la unificación de los términos fossa y fovea en base al tamaño de la depresión anatómica y clarificar su traducción al inglés y español.


SUMMARY: The terms fossa and fovea are found in Terminologia Anatomica, however, there is no clear difference between both terms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the coherence between the lexical, morphological and etymological relationship of the term's fossa and fovea with their use in Terminologia Anatomica. The terms fossa and fovea were consulted in Terminologia Anatomica (Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology, 2019) and in International Anatomical Terminology (Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 2001). Subsequently, a search for both terms was carried out in Latin-Spanish and English-Latin dictionaries. Finally, the terms fossa and fovea were consulted in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española and in the Diccionario panhispánico de términos médicos de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina de España to know the definitions in the medical area. The search reported that the term "fossa" comes from the Latin fossa, which means "excavation, ditch, ditch; hole, hole." For its part, "fovea" comes from the Latin fovea, which means "small hole." Therefore, the difference between fossa and fovea is determined by their size according to their definitions. However, in Terminologia Anatomica, structures have been described with the diminutive of fossa and fovea, which makes the differentiation of the terms according to their size more complex. Furthermore, the lack of unification in the nomenclature between fossa, fovea and their diminutives generates great confusion and inconsistencies in the translations from Latin to English and Spanish in Terminologia Anatomica that reduce the precision of the nomenclature. Therefore, we propose the unification of the terms fossa and fovea based on the size of the anatomical depression and clarify their translation into English and Spanish.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anatomia , Terminologia como Assunto
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 86-92, feb. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528839

RESUMO

La presente revisión narrativa trata de caracterizar como ha sido el proceso de enseñanza de la anatomía en la Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), presentando una visión histórica desde los inicios de la Universidad a los tiempos actuales y una reflexión sobre el futuro de la Anatomía Humana. Se describen los orígenes del Instituto de Anatomía de la UACh, primeros académicos, logros institucionales, convenios interinstitucionales; además, se detallan los métodos y estrategias educativas utilizadas en la actualidad para la enseñanza anatómica y se presenta una visión panorámica del porvenir como instituto de docencia e investigación en el campo de la Anatomía humana.


SUMMARY: This narrative review tries to characterize how the anatomy teaching process has been carried out at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), presenting a historical vision from the beginnings of the University to the present time and a reflection on the future of Human Anatomy. The origins of the Human Anatomy Institute at the UACh, first academics, institutional achievements, inter-institutional agreements are described; in addition, the educational methods and strategies currently used for anatomical teaching are detailed and a panoramic vision of the future as a teaching and research institute in the field of human anatomy is presented.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Universidades/história , Anatomia/educação , Anatomia/história , Chile
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298067, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349912

RESUMO

We implemented flipped learning for a gross anatomy dissection course and compared its effects on students' motivation and academic achievement with those of traditional dissection methods. We invited 142 first-year medical students at Chonnam National University Medical School to participate in this study. All participants engaged in traditional dissection methods in the first part of the study and flipped learning in the latter part. Medical students' motivation to learn anatomy by cadaveric dissection was measured using the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) model. Thereafter, all students completed a written examination consisting of 96 multiple-choice questions. The students' mean motivational score regarding attention was significantly higher in association with flipped learning than with traditional learning. However, the students' mean motivational scores regarding relevance, confidence, and satisfaction were not significantly different between the methods. Additionally, the mean anatomy practice test score was significantly higher in association with flipped learning than with traditional learning. The students' motivational scores and anatomy practice test scores associated with flipped learning positively correlated with the extent of learning material completion. The students' responses indicated that flipped learning helped enhance the learning process, improve time management, reduce confusion during practice, and promote independent practice. The application of flipped learning to a cadaveric dissection course increased individual learning motivation, which improved learning activities both in and out of class, as well as academic achievement.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Avaliação Educacional , Aprendizagem , Dissecação , Currículo , Cadáver , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Anatomia/educação
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(2): 264-271, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419224

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to conventional teaching strategies, and to determine the impact of sub-disciplines of Anatomy on learning outcomes of the subject. METHODS: The cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at Bahria University Health Sciences, Karachi, from August to October 2022, and comprised 1st and 2nd year medical students and 1st year dental students of either gender who were being taught by the hybrid method including both conventional and problem-based learning strategies. Data was collected using a questionnaire circulated through Google Forms. It had close-ended questions that were scored on a Likert scale. Anatomy sub-disciplines explored were gross, embryology and histology. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 251 subjects, 125(49.8%) were males and 126(50.2%) were females. The overall age ranged aged 18- 23 years. There were 115(45.8%) 1st year medical students, 111(44.2%) 2nd year medical students and 25(10%) 1st year dental students. Among 1st year medical students 60(52.17%), among 2nd year medical students 64(57.6%) and among 1st year dental students 14(56%) respondents favoured problem-based learning compared to conventional methodology. Highly significant results were obtained regarding need of topic revision (p<0.001), whether knowledge of conventional teaching method is enough for understanding the clinical scenarios (p=0.017, whether pictures shown during the problem-based learning sessions were enough for understanding anatomy (p=0.035), relevance of questions in oral structured practical examination (p=0.019) and viva (p=0.002). When the participants were asked regarding the anatomy sub-discipline that required revision for comprehensive learning, 72(28.3%) mentioned gross anatomy. CONCLUSIONS: Students considered problem-based learning to be more inducive in enhancing learning compared to conventional teaching.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Aprendizagem , Currículo , Anatomia/educação , Ensino
8.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 558-570, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299426

RESUMO

Donor-centered education offers students the opportunity to not only acquire visual and tactile experiences for applying anatomical knowledge but also a chance for students to reflect upon fundamental humanistic principles. The exploration of differences in students' viewpoints on body donation and the utilization of body donors in their education remains unexplored across various healthcare professional programs, which has an impact on student learning and experience. This study aimed to qualitatively examine the similarities and differences in student perspectives regarding body donation across three healthcare professional programs. One-page reflections from nursing (n = 37), physical and occupational therapy (n = 49), and medical students (n = 66) regarding their experiences in the anatomy laboratory at McGill University were collected and analyzed using a deductive approach based on themes and sub-themes outlined by Stephens et al. in 2019. Despite differences in their curricula, there were few discrepancies across the programs' reflections suggesting that donor-based learning had similar effects on each user group. Most students across the healthcare professional programs mentioned that their positive laboratory experiences motivated them to donate their bodies, extending the privilege they had to future generations. Nursing students did not reflect upon the notion that working with body donors provided unique learning experiences in the anatomy laboratory. Likewise, physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) students did not address the importance of maintaining the privacy of body donors by covering certain body parts during lab. These findings show that prosection- and dissection-based exercises encourage reflective practices associated with these of medical ethics, highlighting an important advantage to including donor-based learning in anatomical education.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Anatomia/educação , Dissecação/educação , Currículo , Atenção à Saúde
9.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 646-659, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308395

RESUMO

Dissection of human body donors is a valuable part of anatomical education, research, and clinical training. In the United States, deceased human bodies are predominantly sourced through whole-body donation programs (BDPs) housed by academic institutions. Due to the lack of information regarding BDPs, the aim of this study was to gather information from US BDPs through a survey to better understand the donation process and standard operating procedures of these programs. In 2021, a Qualtrics survey was distributed to 125 BDPs and yielded responses from 72 program leaders. Collectively, these programs received more than 26,000 whole-body donations annually. Findings show that 70% typically receive enough donations to fit the needs of their institutions, 17% receive a surplus of donations, and 13% receive too few donations. Sixty-eight percent of programs permit next of kin body donation regularly or in times of need, and 44% allow next of kin to make changes to a donor's donation form after death. On average, over 85% of the registered donor population is composed of white individuals, and only 6 institutions have methods in place to promote diversity among their donor population. Overall, there is considerable variability in the operation of BDPs across the United States. These findings can be used to make recommendations about donor enrollment and program operations to ultimately improve the donation process. Future research needs to investigate the opinions and preferences of body donors along with their next of kin on the body donation process and associated policies.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Anatomia/educação , Doadores de Tecidos , Dissecação , Universidades
10.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 674-682, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317582

RESUMO

In anatomical research and education, three-dimensional visualization of anatomical structures is crucial for understanding spatial relationships in diagnostics, surgical planning, and teaching. While computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offer valuable insights, they are often expensive and require specialized resources. This study explores photogrammetry as an affordable and accessible approach for 3D modeling in anatomical contexts. Two photogrammetry methods were compared: conventional open-source software (Colmap) and Apple's RealityKit Object Capture. Human C3 vertebrae were imaged with a 24 MP camera, with and without a cross-polarization filter. Reconstruction times, vertex distances, surface area, and volume measurements were compared to CT scans. Results revealed that the Object Capture method surpassed the conventional approach in reconstruction speed and user-friendliness. Both methods exhibited similar vertex distance from reference mesh and volume measurements, although the conventional approach produced larger surface areas compared to CT-based models. Cross-polarization filters eliminated the need for pre-processing and improved outcomes in challenging lighting conditions. This study demonstrates that photogrammetry, especially Object Capture, as a reliable and time-efficient tool for 3D modeling in anatomical research and education. It offers accessible alternatives to traditional techniques with advantages in texture mapping. While further validation of various anatomical structures is required, the accessibility and cost-effectiveness of photogrammetry make it a valuable asset for the field. In summary, photogrammetry would have the potential to revolutionize anatomical research and education by providing cost-effective, accessible, and accurate 3D modeling. The study underscores the promise of advancing anatomical research and education through the integration of photogrammetry with ongoing improvements in user-friendliness and accessibility.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Anatomia/educação , Software , Fotogrametria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 506-513, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317576

RESUMO

At the University of Bristol, we established a novel dissection course to complement our anatomy degree. Students enrolled in this undergraduate course are trained as comparative anatomists, with equal time given to both human and veterinary anatomy. Historically, students opted to dissect either human or veterinary donors as part of the course. To fully reflect the comparative nature of the degree, the dissection course was redesigned so students could dissect both human and veterinary specimens as part of the same course. This facilitated a wide-ranging experience of anatomy, encouraging detailed knowledge of a multitude of species and allowing for multifaceted anatomy graduates to be ready for employment in a wide and competitive job market. Across three iterations of the amended version of the course, median marks ranged from 58.7% to 62.0%, with between 22 and 39 students enrolled. In comparison to the course prior to the introduction of the change, median marks ranged from 59.8% to 62.8%, with between 16 and 24 students enrolled. There was no significant difference between marks before or after the introduction of the concurrently comparative aspect. This paper describes the course, with learning materials and assessments considered, along with some reflection on its value. The course offers benefits to students by widening their perspective on anatomical knowledge and making them more equipped for the job market. It also broadens their understanding of form-function relationships. However, student feedback implied that having the choice between human or veterinary dissection was preferable, and this may outweigh the perceived benefits of the course.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Cavalos , Camundongos , Ovinos , Anatomia/educação , Anatomia Comparada/educação , Universidades , Currículo , Dissecação/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cadáver
12.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 630-645, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344877

RESUMO

The management of human fetal and embryological collections presents an ethical challenge that can be explored from different perspectives, particularly when considering informed consent. The "micro ethics" level focuses on parties engaged in giving and receiving human tissue while the "macro ethics" level focusses on the collective responsibility of the discipline and society. Additionally, adopting a framework, where ways of working are designed with relevant communities, requires understanding the perspectives of individuals, communities, and organizations. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the perceptions of education-focused Australian stakeholders. A survey collected the perspectives of 198 participants. The majority of participants (61.6%; n = 122/198) indicated that human fetal and embryological remains obtained prior to era of informed consent should be retained for use in education/research. It is likely that their perspective is based on the notion that if human fetal and embryological collections are used for good, then disposing of them would deny this benefit. Women (p < 0.001) indicated a preference for obtaining fetuses and embryos with informed consent for education and research (38.4%; n = 76/198). Majority were in favor of recording both maternal (MI) (59.6%; n = 118/198) and paternal information (PI) (58.1%; n = 115/198) with each donation. Majority (56.1%; n = 111/198) expressed that donations should be accepted from both parental sources. Consideration of stakeholder perspectives is important in developing guidelines regarding these collections. The results from this study demonstrate a level of discomfort with respect to collections without informed consent, which should be considered at the macro ethical and micro ethical level.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Humanos , Feminino , Austrália , Anatomia/educação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Feto , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 514-528, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344900

RESUMO

The purpose of this review was to (1) analyze the effectiveness of immersive virtual reality (iVR) and augmented reality (AR) as teaching/learning resources (collectively called XR-technologies) for gaining anatomy knowledge compared to traditional approaches and (2) gauge students' perceptions of the usefulness of these technologies as learning tools. This meta-analysis, previously registered in PROSPERO (CRD42023423017), followed PRISMA guidelines. A systematic bibliographical search, without time parameters, was conducted through four databases until June 2023. A meta-analytic approach investigated knowledge gains and XR's usefulness for learning. Pooled effect sizes were estimated using Cohen's standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A single-group proportional meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the percentage of students who considered XR devices useful for their learning. Twenty-seven experimental studies, reporting data from 2199 health sciences students, were included for analysis. XR-technologies yielded higher knowledge gains than traditional approaches (SMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.60), especially when used as supplemental/complementary learning resources (SMD = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63). Specifically, knowledge performance using XR devices outperformed textbooks and atlases (SMD = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.54) and didactic lectures (SMD = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.57 to 1.42), especially among undergraduate students (SMD = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.62). XR devices were perceived to be more useful for learning than traditional approaches (SMD = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.04 to 1), and 80% of all students who used XR devices reported these devices as useful for learning anatomy. Learners using XR technologies demonstrated increased anatomy knowledge gains and considered these technologies useful for learning anatomy.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Realidade Aumentada , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Anatomia/educação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
14.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 462-467, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351605

RESUMO

The ability to create efficient "mental models" or representations of anatomical structures is crucial for achieving competence in most areas of anatomy. Gesture-based teaching has been recognized to lighten cognitive loads and allow superior mental model creation compared to non-gestural teaching practices. This commentary explores the cognitive basis and possible mechanisms behind this advantage such as (1) reducing visual working memory load, (2) allowing parallel and sequential development of internal representations, and (3) facilitating preferential feature extraction and improved organization of spatial information. We also highlight how information transfer limitations of the gestural medium, interestingly, unveil features and organizational motifs preserved in the "expert's" mental schemas concerning particular anatomical structures. The universal and innate use of gestures in communication, their visual nature, and the ability to break down complex spatial information through sequential steps, all add to the immense potential of this subtle yet powerful tool of hand gestures. As pedagogical practices in the anatomical sciences continue to evolve largely towards technology-enhanced teaching utilizing perceptually richer media, the unique advantages of gesture-based teaching need to be reemphasized.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Gestos , Anatomia/educação , Aprendizagem , Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo
15.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 620-629, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372425

RESUMO

Fellows completing the Clinical Anatomy Fellowship at Kansas City University assist Anatomy faculty in the Gross Anatomy laboratory, complete robust research projects, and support other departments. The program's positive impact on participants has been reported; however, the impact on individuals interfacing with Fellows has not been investigated. A follow-up, survey-based (Likert scale, multiple-choice, open-ended) study was conducted to evaluate faculty, staff, and student perceptions of the program. Ninety-five percent of surveyed faculty and staff (n = 22) perceived the Fellows as beneficial to students, faculty, and the university (p < 0.05) by acting as role models (95%) and mentors (90%), contributing to educational processes (90%), and reducing faculty work burden (81%) (p < 0.05). Student responses (n = 95) were also positive: 97% perceived interactions with Fellows as beneficial (p < 0.05). A passion for Anatomy (mean, 4.6; p < 0.05) and the opportunity to increase competitiveness for residency (mean, 4.5; p < 0.05) were the most important factors driving interest in the Fellowship (Cronbach's alpha, 0.766). In contrast, diverting a year from the school's curriculum (mean, 4.4; p < 0.05) and delaying clinical experiences (mean, 4.3; p < 0.05) were the most important deterrents (Cronbach's alpha, 0.505). Additionally, the financial investment required by the program is lower than that associated with hiring full-time faculty. Analysis comparing employment of Fellows versus associate-level faculty identified annual net savings of $370,000. Not only does the Fellowship augment faculty and student experiences at the university, but it also allows for substantial cost savings. Collectively, these data are evidence for other health professional institutions to consider adopting a similar program.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Anatomia/educação , Docentes , Currículo , Estudantes
16.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 571-590, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372435

RESUMO

There is a drive to implement inclusive practices in anatomy by adapting curricula and utilizing inclusive language and resources that negate biases. However, to date there is no data regarding student's perception of inclusivity. Therefore, the study aims to investigate anatomy student's opinions on inclusive practices in anatomy education based on the protected characteristics of age, disability, ethnicity, gender affirmation and sex. One hundred and forty-five students completed a questionnaire with 21 Likert-scale and two open-ended questions. Kruskal-Wallis tests compared responses by groups defined by the protected characteristics of the Equality Act (2010). Most students (71.2%; n = 84) agreed or strongly agreed that "improving inclusivity in anatomy education should be educator's priority". In terms of representation, there was a statistically different response rate from students from different ethnic backgrounds to the statements "there are anatomy educators" (p < 0.001), "images in textbooks" (p < 0.001) and "models in the dissection room" (p < 0.001) "that look like me". Most students agreed or strongly agreed to statements relating to the protected characteristics of age (70.4%; n = 68), disability (78.6%; n = 77), ethnicity (59.8%; n = 64), gender affirmation (46.3%; n = 46) and sex (51.5%; n = 62). Themes identified relating to improving inclusivity included "reflecting reality", "teaching the truth", "the invisibility of women" and the "learning environment". Students have confirmed that anatomists, as gatekeepers of the knowledge of the human body, should foster inclusive teaching practices that will benefit all students and potentially future patient care.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Feminino , Anatomia/educação , Currículo , Dissecação , Aprendizagem
17.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 499-505, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379173

RESUMO

The reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) slices to three-dimensional (3D) digital anatomical models requires technical skills and software that are becoming increasingly important to the modern anatomist, but these skills are rarely taught in undergraduate science classrooms. Furthermore, learning opportunities that allow students to simultaneously explore anatomy in both 2D and 3D space are increasingly valuable. This report describes a novel learning activity that trains students to digitally trace a serially imaged neuron from a confocal stack and to model that neuron in 3D space for 3D printing. By engaging students in the production of a 3D digital model, this learning activity is designed to provide students a novel way to enhance their understanding of the content, including didactic knowledge of neuron morphology, technical research skills in image analysis, and career exploration of neuroanatomy research. Moreover, students engage with microanatomy in a way that starts in 2D but results in a 3D object they can see, touch, and keep. This discursive article presents the learning activity, including videos, instructional guides, and learning objectives designed to engage students on all six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Furthermore, this work is a proof of principle modeling workflow that is approachable, inexpensive, achievable, and adaptable to cell types in other organ systems. This work is designed to motivate the expansion of 3D printing technology into microanatomy and neuroanatomy education.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Anatomia/educação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Modelos Anatômicos , Neurônios
19.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 46(2): 103-115, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the combination of chalkboard lectures and cadaveric models, the ear remains a complex anatomical structure that is difficult for medical students to grasp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a 3D-printed ear model for educating undergraduate medical students by comparing it with a conventional cadaveric model. METHODS: Models of the ear comprising the outer ear, tympanic membrane, ossicles and inner ear were modeled and then 3D-printed at 6:1 and 10:1 scales based on cadaveric dissection and CT, cone-beam CT and micro/nano CT scans. Cadaveric models included two partially dissected dry temporal bones and ossicles. Twenty-four 3rd year medical students were given separate access to cadaveric models (n = 12) or 3D-printed models (n = 12). A pre-test and two post-tests were carried out to assess knowledge (n = 24). A satisfaction questionnaire focusing solely on the 3D-printed model, comprising 17 items assessed on a 5-point Likert scale, was completed by all study participants. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire comprising four items (realism, color, quality and satisfaction with the 3D-printed ear model) was given to three expert anatomy Professors. RESULTS: The test scores on the first post-test were higher for the students who had used the 3D-printed models (p < 0.05). Overall satisfaction among the students and the experts was very high, averaging 4.7 on a 5-point Likert-type satisfaction scale. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the overall pedagogical value of a 3D-printed model for learning ear anatomy.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Modelos Anatômicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Cadáver , Anatomia/educação , Ensino
20.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 46(2): 117-124, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the Hisense computer-assisted surgery system (CAS) in teaching pediatric liver surgical anatomy. METHODS: The research subjects were residents who underwent standardized training at the Department of Pediatric Surgery at Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College from May 2022 to May 2023. RESULTS: The study recruited a total of 62 students, with 31 students assigned to the Hisense CAS group (12 males and 19 females) and the remaining 31 students serving as controls (Control group, 15 males and 16 females). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics observed between the two groups. This study found that the average scores of the Hisense CAS teaching group in the liver surgery evaluations were higher than those of the control group. Specifically, the Hisense CAS group had an average score of 84.25 ± 5.70 points in the liver surgery knowledge test, 77.10 ± 8.12 points in the image reading test, and 70.58 ± 8.79 points in the surgical simulation test, while the traditional teaching group had average scores of 73.45 ± 6.12 points, 69.81 ± 6.05 points, and 66.42 ± 6.61 points, respectively; the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this study also found that the Hisense CAS teaching model resulted in significantly better teaching satisfaction on the part of the residents in terms of standardized teaching for physicians in pediatric liver surgical anatomy. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study demonstrated greater satisfaction of the residents with the use of 3D reconstruction added to traditional teaching sessions and better performance during the posttraining evaluation.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Instrução por Computador , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Fígado/cirurgia , Simulação por Computador , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ensino , Anatomia/educação
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