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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130787, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548499

RESUMO

In present study, polysaccharide polyelectrolyte nanoparticles (CMAAP-CS NPs) were constructed by mixing carboxymethylated Anemarrhena asphodeloides polysaccharide (CMAAP) and chitosan (CS). CMAAP-CS NPs were applied as carrier to improve the bioavailability and stability of curcumin (Cur). The average particle size of CMAAP-CS NPs was 216.60 ± 4.21 nm and the entrapment efficiency of Cur reached 82.50 ± 2.09 %. The simulated digestion experiments in vitro confirmed that the bioavailability of Cur loaded in CMAAP-CS NPs was 59.84 ± 0.03 % after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion, which was obvious higher than 21.57 ± 0.07 % of free Cur under the same conditions. The results of stability testing revealed that CMAAP-CS NPs could markedly reduce the degradation of Cur against storage, heating, UV light treatment, and neutral pH. This study provided promising polyelectrolyte complex loaded hydrophobic nutrients in medicine industry.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Quitosana , Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Curcumina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Quitosana/química , Polieletrólitos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(1): 88-99, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403342

RESUMO

Anemarrhena asphodeloides is a common medicinal material used in clinical prescriptions and Chinese patent medicine. In this study, the Illumina platform was used to obtain the chloroplast genome sequences of seven kinds of A. asphodeloides from different areas. The specific DNA barcodes were screened by comparative genomics analysis, and the DNA barcodes were used to identify the germplasm resources and analyze the genetic diversity of A. asphodeloides samples from different areas in China. All the seven chloroplast genomes had a ring structure. The total length was 156 801-156 930 bp, and 113 genes were annotated, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. The comparative genomics analysis showed that rps16, trnG-GCC, atpF, rpoB, ycf3, rpl16, ndhF, trnS-GCU_trnG-GCC, petN-psbM, and ndhF-rpl32 were potential candidates for specific DNA barcodes of A. asphodeloides. In this study, the second intron of ycf3 and atpF intron sequences with a sequence length of 700-800 bp and easy amplification were selected for polymerase chain reaction(PCR) amplification and sequencing of 594 samples from 26 areas. The sequence analysis showed that six and eight haplotypes of ycf3 and atpF sequences could be identified, respectively, and 17 haplotypes could be identified by combined analysis of the two sequences, which were named Hap1-Hap17. The haplotype diversity(H_d), nucleotide diversity(P_i), and genetic distance of A. asphodeloides in 26 populations were 0.68, 0.93×10~(-3), and 0-0.003 1, respectively, indicating that the genetic diversity within the species of A. asphodeloides is rich. The intermediary adjacent network analysis showed that Hap5 was the oldest haplotype, which was mainly distributed in Yixian county of Baoding, Hebei province, Hequ county of Xinzhou, Shanxi province, and Xiangfen county of Linfen, Shanxi province. This study has important guiding significance for the identification of A. asphodeloides species, the protection and development of germplasm resources, and the identification of production areas, and it provides a research basis for further revealing the genetic evolution law of A. asphodeloides.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Anemarrhena/química , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Variação Genética , China , Filogenia
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 319(Pt 3): 117250, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832811

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) belongs to the category of "Xiaoke disease" according to the symptoms, and "stasis-heat" is the main pathogenesis of DCM. The Chinese medicine Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (AAB), as a representative of heat-clearing and engendering fluid, is often used clinically in the treatment of DCM. Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge total saponins (RATS) are the main bioactive components of AAB, the modern pharmacologic effects of RATS are anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardioprotective. However, the potential protective mechanisms of RATS against DCM remain largely undiscovered. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of RATS on DCM and its mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin and a high-fat diet were used to induce DCM in rats. UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was used to determine the chemical components of RATS. The degenerative alterations and apoptotic cells in the heart were assessed by HE staining and TUNEL. Network pharmacology was used to anticipate the probable targets and important pathways of RATS. The alterations in metabolites and main metabolic pathways in heart tissue were discovered using 1 H-NMR metabolomics. Ultimately, immunohistochemistry was used to find critical pathway protein expression. RESULTS: First of all, UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed that RATS contained 11 active ingredients. In animal experiments, we found that RATS lowered blood glucose and lipid levels in DCM rats, and alleviated cardiac pathological damage, and decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, the study found that RATS effectively reduced inflammatory factor release and the level of oxidative stress. Mechanistically, RATS downregulated the expression levels of PI3K, AKT, HIF-1α, LDHA, and GLUT4 proteins. Additionally, glycolysis was discovered to be a crucial pathway for RATS in the therapy of DCM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the protective effect of RATS on DCM may be attributed to the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α pathway and the correction of glycolytic metabolism.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Diabetes Mellitus , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas , Saponinas , Animais , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Anemarrhena/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Saponinas/química , Glicólise
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 27(22): 3601-3613, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621124

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a prevalent complication of diabetes, characterized by systemic metabolic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture, particularly in the spine. Anemarrhenae Rhizoma/Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (AR/PCC) herb pair has been extensively employed in Traditional Chinese Medicine to manage diabetes; however, its potential to ameliorate diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) has remained obscure. Herein, we explored the protective efficacy of AR/PCC herb pair against DOP using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat diabetic model. Our data showed that AR/PCC could effectively reduce the elevated fasting blood glucose and reverse the osteoporotic phenotype of diabetic rats, resulting in significant improvements in vertebral trabecular area percentage, trabecular thickness and trabecular number, while reducing trabecular separation. Specifically, AR/PCC herb pair improved impaired osteogenesis, nerve ingrowth and angiogenesis. More importantly, it could mitigate the aberrant activation of osteoblast pyroptosis in the vertebral bodies of diabetic rats by reducing increased expressions of Nlrp3, Asc, Caspase1, Gsdmd and IL-1ß. Mechanistically, AR/PCC activated antioxidant pathway through the upregulation of the antioxidant response protein Nrf2, while concurrently decreasing its negative feedback regulator Keap1. Collectively, our in vivo findings demonstrate that AR/PCC can inhibit osteoblast pyroptosis and alleviate STZ-induced rat DOP, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for mitigating DOP.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Osteoporose , Ratos , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Piroptose , Anemarrhena/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(8): e202300578, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37458474

RESUMO

The rhizoma of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides has a long history of hypoglycemic use in Chinese traditional medicine. In this article, 400 µmol/L H2 O2 induced normal INS-1 pancreatic beta cells to establish experimental model of oxidative damage. Quercetin was used as a positive drug, and mangiferin and its ethanolic extract were selected as therapeutic agents in an oxidative damage model to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the active ingredients of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides rhizoma on oxidative damage in INS-1 pancreatic ß-cells. Building a qualitative analysis method of membrane phospholipids of INS-1 pancreatic beta cells and identified 82 phospholipids based on the UPLC/Q-TOF MS technology, which could provide a database for further statistics analysis. OPLS-DA was used to screen the phospholipid biomarkers from the raw data. Exploring the biological significances of these biomarkers, and discussing the toxic effect of the effective components of Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizoma, on oxidatively damaged INS-1 pancreatic beta cell.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Rizoma , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 249: 126017, 2023 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517752

RESUMO

Anemarrhena asphodeloides polysaccharide (AAP70-1) was reported to have immunomodulatory effects in our previous report. To further improve the immunomodulatory effects of AAP70-1, an A. asphodeloides polysaccharide-zinc complex (AAP-Zn) was synthesized using a ZnCl2 modification method, and the potential mechanisms by which AAP-Zn activates macrophages were investigated. The results showed that the structural features of AAP-Zn were similar to those of AAP70-1 with a Zn content of 0.2 %, confirming that Zn mainly interacted with AAP70-1 by forming ZnO coordination bonds and Zn…OH bonds. In addition, the administration of AAP70-1 and AAP-Zn effectively improved the immunomodulatory effects by enhancing phagocytosis and upregulating the mRNA expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-18), as well as increasing the production levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in zebrafish embryos. The intracellular mechanism by which AAP-Zn activates macrophages was found to involve activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Our findings suggested that AAP-Zn may be a potential immunopotentiator in the field of biomedicine or functional foods.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , NF-kappa B , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Anemarrhena/química , Zinco/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases
7.
Molecules ; 28(14)2023 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37513375

RESUMO

Cancer, as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, has challenged current chemotherapy drugs. Considering that treatments are expensive, alongside the resistance of tumor cells to anticancer drugs, the development of alternative medicines is necessary. Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, a recognized and well-known medicinal plant for more than two thousand years, has demonstrated its effectiveness against cancer. Timosaponin-AIII (TSAIII), as a bioactive steroid saponin isolated from A. asphodeloides, has shown multiple pharmacological activities and has been developed as an anticancer agent. However, the molecular mechanisms of TSAIII in protecting against cancer development are still unclear. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive discussion on the anticancer effects of TSAIII, including proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, autophagy mediation, migration and invasion suppression, anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant effects. The pharmacokinetic profiles of TSAII are also discussed. TSAIII exhibits efficacy against cancer development. However, hydrophobicity and low bioavailability may limit the application of TSAIII. Effective delivery systems, particularly those with tissue/cell-targeted properties, can also significantly improve the anticancer effects of TSAIII.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Saponinas , Humanos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 230: 115386, 2023 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37044004

RESUMO

Mangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone, is one of the major bioactive ingredients derived from the dry rhizome of Anemarrhenae rhizome, which has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatty liver, anti-metabolic syndrome, and anti-diabetic. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its impact on phospholipid metabolism in the erythrocyte membrane of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. The present research aimed to evaluate the effects of mangiferin on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM model rats and discuss the relationship between lipid metabolites and potential targets involved in the hypoglycemic effects by integrating lipidomics and network pharmacology method. After 8 consecutive weeks of treatment with mangiferin, the T2DM model rats exhibited significant improvements in several biochemical indices and cytokines, including fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels after 12 h of fasting, fasting insulin level (FINS), total cholesterol (T-CHO), triacylglycerols (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HMOA-IR), TNF-α and IL-6. A total of 22 differential lipid metabolites were selected from erythrocyte membrane phospholipids, which were closely associated with the processes of T2DM. These metabolites mainly belonged to glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. Based on network pharmacology analysis, 22 genes were recognized as the potential targets of mangiferin against diabetes. Moreover, molecular docking analysis revealed that the targets of TNF, CASP3, PTGS2, MMP9, RELA, PLA2G2A, PPARA, and NOS3 could be involved in the modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to improve IR and hyperglycemia. The combination of immunohistochemical staining and PCR showed that mangiferin could treat T2DM by regulating the expression of PPARγ protein and NF-κB mRNA expression to impact glycerophospholipids (GPs) and AA metabolism. The present study showed that mangiferin might alleviate IR and hyperglycemia of T2DM model rats via multiple targets and multiple pathways to adjust their phospholipid metabolism, which may be the underlying mechanism for mangiferin in the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hiperglicemia , Xantonas , Ratos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Lipidômica , Rizoma/química , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Xantonas/farmacologia , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfolipídeos , Colesterol
9.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111183

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the simulated saliva-gastrointestinal digestion of AABP-2B on its structural features, inhibitory α-glucosidase activity, and human gut microbiota. The salivary-gastrointestinal digestion results show that there is no significant change in the molecular weight of AABP-2B, and no free monosaccharides are released. This indicates that, under a simulated digestive condition, AABP-2B is not degraded and can be further utilized by gut microbiota. AABP-2B still possessed good inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase after salivary-gastrointestinal digestion, which may be attributed to the largely unchanged structural characteristics of AABP-2B after simulated digestion. Furthermore, in vitro fecal fermentation with AABP-2B after salivary-gastrointestinal digestion showed that AABP-2B modulated the gut microbiota structure and increased the relative proportions of Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, and Megasphaera. AABP-2B can also modify the intestinal flora composition by inhibiting pathogen growth. Moreover, the AABP-2B group resulted in a significant increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) content during fermentation. These findings demonstrate that AABP-2B can be used as a prebiotic or functional food to promote gut health.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Humanos , Fermentação , Anemarrhena/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 236: 123843, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36858093

RESUMO

In this study, an acid polysaccharide (AABP-1B) was extracted from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge and purified using 60 % alcohol precipitation and DEAE-52 cellulose. The molecular weight of AABP-1B was 105 kDa, and it consisted of mannose (Man), rhamnose (Rha), galacturonic acid (GalA), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and arabinose (Ara) in a ratio of 6.3:1.3:1.1:0.2:0.4:0.7. Methylation and NMR analyses revealed that the backbone of AABP-1 consists of 4)-ß-D-Manp-(1 and 4)-2-O-acetyl-ß-D-Manp-(1. In addition, the biological activity assays showed that AABP-1B not only displays potential antioxidant activity but also exhibits the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect. Moreover, AABP-1B enhanced glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis in insulin-resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. These results suggest that AABP-1B has potential hypoglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Hipoglicemiantes , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Anemarrhena/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Glucose
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 231: 123324, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657544

RESUMO

To discover the polysaccharide with anti-diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) activity and clarify its structure, an arabinomannan (PAAP-1B) with a molecular weight of 14.0 kDa was isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. using column chromatography. It consists of arabinose, mannose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 6:3:1. PAAP-1B has a backbone composed of 1,5-α-Araf, 1,4-ß-Manp, and 1,6-ß-Galp residues that are branched at C3 of α-Araf and ß-Galp residues. The side chains are T-α-Araf, T-α-Manp, T-ß-Galp, and 1,6-ß-Galp. PAAP-1B attenuated DOP and reduced ferroptosis in the femurs and tibias of alloxan-induced mice. It also suppressed ferroptosis in advanced glycation end product-induced osteoblasts by decreasing 4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, mitochondrial reactive oxidative species levels, and lipid peroxidation, while reversing the downregulation of solute carrier family 7 membrane 11 and glutathione expression.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Camundongos , Animais , Anemarrhena/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Mananas , Galactose
12.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 37(7): e9473, 2023 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645740

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (AR) has been an often used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for a long time. Its salt-processed form is one of the most common application forms. Modern pharmacological research has shown that the salt-processed product has various significantly enhanced pharmacological activities. However, the pharmacodynamic material basis of this change is not yet known. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to screen pharmacodynamic substances in AR and salt-processed AR (SAR). METHODS: An integrated strategy combining plant metabolomics with molecular docking technology was established to screen pharmacodynamic substances. The plant metabolomics analysis was performed to select the chemical markers between AR and SAR. Then, molecular docking technology was applied to explore the relationship between chemical markers and diabetes targets (α-glucosidase). Finally, potential quality control markers were screened. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the quantification of nine steroidal saponins between AR and SAR. The results of plant metabolomics analysis showed a quite clear discrimination including 29 chemical markers between AR and SAR. Taking the hypoglycemic activity into consideration, 16 steroidal saponins were selected as potential quality markers. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method not only supplied an optional solution to search for pharmacophores in AR and SAR, but also provided a foundation for the study of the differential components and pharmacodynamics in various processed products of TCMs.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Saponinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Anemarrhena/química , Controle de Qualidade , Saponinas/análise , Metabolômica
13.
Phytother Res ; 37(5): 1951-1967, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631974

RESUMO

Increased glycolytic in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not only contributes to early-stage disease pathogenesis but leads to sustained proliferation of FLS. Given the importance of PKM2 in glycolysis and apoptosis, PKM2 is considered a potential therapeutic and drug discovery target in RA. Total saponins of anemarrhena (TSA), a class of steroid saponins, originated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. In this study, we verified that 200 mg/kg TSA could significantly alleviate inflammation and the pathological characteristics of RA and inhibit synovial hyperplasia in AA rats. We confirmed that sarsasapogenin (SA) was the principal active ingredient absorbed into the blood of TSA by the UPLC/Q Exactive MS test. Then we used TNF-α-induced MH7A to get the conclusion that 20 µM SA could effectively inhibit the glycolysis by inhibiting the activity of PKM2 tetramer and glucose uptake. Moreover, 20 µM SA could suppress proliferation, migration, invasion, and cytokine release of FLS, interfere with the growth cycle of FLS, and induce FLS apoptosis by depressing the phosphorylation of PKM2. At last, In-1, a potent inhibitor of the PKM2 was used to reverse verify the above results. Taken together, the key mechanisms of SA on RA treatment through downregulating the activity of PKM2 tetramer and phosphorylation of PKM2 inhibited pathological glycolysis and induced apoptosis to exert inhibition on the proliferation and invasion of RA FLS.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Artrite Reumatoide , Sinoviócitos , Animais , Ratos , Anemarrhena/química , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos , Glicólise , Membrana Sinovial , Saponinas/farmacologia
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115857, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330891

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge., belonging to the family Liliaceae, are named 'Zhi-mu' according to traditional Chinese medicine theory. It is a medicinal plant that has long been used as a tonic agent in various ethnomedicinal systems in East Asia, especially in China, and also for treating arthralgia, hematochezia, tidal fever, night sweats, cough, dry mouth and tongue, hemoptysis, etc. THE ARM OF THE REVIEW: The review aims to provide a systematic overview of botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and quality control of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and to explore the future therapeutic potential and scientific potential of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on Anemarrhena asphodeloides using scientific databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Elsevier, SpringerLink, ACS publications, ancient books, Doctoral and master's Theses. Collected data from different sources was comprehensively summarised for botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and quality control of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. RESULTS: A comprehensive analysis of the literature as mentioned above confirmed that the ethnomedical uses of Anemarrhena asphodeloides had a history of thousands of years in eastern Asian countries. Two hundred sixty-nine compounds have been identified from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, including steroidal saponins, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, steroids, organic acids, polysaccharides, benzophenones and other ingredients. Studies have shown that the extracts and compounds from Anemarrhena asphodeloides have extensive pharmacological activities, such as nervous system activity, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiosteoporotic, antiallergic, antiplatelet aggregation, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-ageing, hair growth promoting, preventing cell damage, etc. Evaluating the quality and toxicity of Anemarrhena asphodeloides is essential to confirm its safe use in humans. CONCLUSION: Anemarrhena asphodeloides is widely used in traditional medicine and have diverse chemical constituents with obvious biological activities. Nevertheless, more studies should be carried out in animals and humans to evaluate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in its biological activity and confirm its safe use.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Botânica , Animais , Humanos , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fitoterapia
15.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500651

RESUMO

The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the biologically active components in Anemarrhenae rhizoma (AR) would be affected by the interaction of P-glycoprotein(P-gp) and effective components in AR. However, little is known about the interaction between them. The goal of this research was to examine the transmembrane absorption of timosaponin AIII(TAIII), timosaponin BII(TBII), sarsasapogenin (SSG), mangiferin(MGF), neomangiferin(NMGF), isomangiferin(IMGF), and baohuosideI(BHI) in AR and their interaction with P-gp. Seven effective components in AR(TAIII, TBII, SSG, MGF, NMGF, IMGF, and BHI) were investigated, and MDCK-MDR1 cells were used as the transport cell model. CCK-8 assays, bidirectional transport assays, and Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) transport assays were determined in the MDCK-MDR1 cells. LC/MS was applied to the quantitative analysis of TAIII, TBII, MGF, NMGF, IMGF, SSG, and BHI in transport samples. The efflux ratio of MGF, TAIII, TBII, and BHI was greater than 2 and significantly descended with the co-administration of Verapamil, indicating MGF, TAIII, TBII, and BHI as the substrates of P-gp. The efflux ratio of the seven effective components in the extracts (10 mg/mL) of AR decreased from 3.00~1.08 to 1.92~0.48. Compared to the efflux ratio of Rh-123 in the control group (2.46), the efflux ratios of Rh-123 were 1.22, 1.27, 1.25, 1.09, 1.31, and 1.47 by the addition of TAIII, TBII, MGF, IMGF, NMGF, and BHI, respectively, while the efflux ratio of Rh-123 with the co-administration of SSG had no statistical difference compared to the control group. These results indicated that MGF, TAIII, TBII, and BHI could be the substrates of P-gp. TAIII, TBII, MGF, IMGF, NMGF, and BHI show the effect of inhibiting P-gp function, respectively. These findings provide important basic pharmacological data to assist the therapeutic development of AR constituents and extracts.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Rizoma , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Rodamina 123
16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(10): 3888-3900, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305416

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global metabolic disease with potentially life- threatening complications. Liver metabolism plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that the Chinese medicinal Anemarrhenae rhizoma (AR) can relieve insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. However, the effect on abnormal liver metabolism in diabetes mellitus is still unclear. Therefore, we extracted liver proteins of T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ), T2DM rats treated with AR extract (ARE), obesity rats (fed with HFD), and normal control rats (fed with normal diet). Then, through tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling combined with mass spectrometry (MS), we obtained the quantitative proteomic data. Bioinformatics software was used for hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the data in each group. The volcano map for differentially expressed proteins (P < 0.05, fold change > 1.5) was plotted. It was found that the treatment group was closer to the normal control group, indicating that the quantitative proteomic data of liver tissue can reflect the therapeutic effect of ARE on T2DM rats. Key protein clusters closely related to the treatment of ARE were screened out. The Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the protein clusters were analyzed by David, and the result showed that AR's alleviation of abnormal fatty acid metabolism in livers of T2DM rats may be related to the regulation of the expression of key proteins Ndufa6 and Prkar2b.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ratos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fígado/metabolismo
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113489, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076507

RESUMO

Certain herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine may produce a growth-enhancing effect by promoting the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland or mimicking the function of GH. In this study, we aimed to identify herbs that could serve as GH alternatives. A reporter gene assay for GH was developed, and 100 different herbal extracts were assayed. We found that Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (RA) water extracts exhibited transactivation activities that stimulate the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). The growth-promoting effect of RA in NB2-11 cells was inhibited by co-treatment with GH receptor (GHR)-Fc fusion protein. Unlike GH, RA extracts did not enhance the growth of B16F10 melanoma cells. The activation of the Janus kinase 2-STAT5 signaling pathway was confirmed in both NB2-11 cells and WI-38 human normal lung fibroblasts; the activation was inhibited by co-treatment with GHR-Fc fusion protein. Docking analysis of the active ingredients of RA, including mangiferin, neomangiferin, isomangiferin, anemarsaponin E, 7-O-methylmangiferin, officinalisinin I, timosaponin BII, timosaponin AI, and timosaponin AIII, using SWISSDOCK indicated a direct interaction of these compounds with GHR. The growth-promoting effects and activation of STAT5 were also confirmed. Moreover, we found that RA extract significantly increased the height of the tibial growth plate and stimulated the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 in the serum, liver, and muscle tissues. Our findings provide evidence that herbal extracts, particularly, RA extracts, can promote growth by mimicking GH bioactivity.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hormônio do Crescimento , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Humanos , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 293: 115269, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398497

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anemarrhenae Rhizoma/Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (AR/PCC) herb pair has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of diabetic osteoporosis. However, the anti-diabetic osteoporotic active components of AR/PCC remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the major active ingredients in AR/PCC for its protective effects against bone deterioration induced by diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aqueous extracts of AR/PCC with different proportions (AR:PCC = 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, w/w) were prepared. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally administrated with the AR/PCC extracts. The absorbed phytochemical compounds in serum of diabetic rats were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method and their contents in the AR/PCC extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector-evaporative light scattering detector method. The absorbed compounds in the extracts were considered as the major potential active components in AR/PCC, and their combination was defined as M-AR/PCC. A component-knockout approach was applied to evaluate the contribution of each compound in M-AR/PCC. The larvae and adults of diabetic zebrafish models were then used to evaluated the anti-diabetic osteoporotic performance of the M-AR/PCC. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique was applied to study the regulation effects of M-AR/PCC on osteogenesis and osteoclastgensis in diabetic zebrafish models. RESULTS: The phenotypes of diabetic osteoporosis rats induced by streptozotocin were reversed by the oral administration of AR/PCC extracts with different ratios, as evidenced by the increased bone mineral density, bone volume density, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and decreased trabecular separation of femoral metaphysis. Seven phytochemical compounds were detected in the serum and their contents in AR/PCC varied dramatically with different proportions, including 1 xanthone glycoside and 6 alkaloids. By using diabetic zebrafish larvae model and compound-knockout strategy, each compound in M-AR/PCC were proved to play an indispensable role in the positive regulatory actions in the bone mass of diabetic zebrafish. Furthermore, the herb pair with a ratio of 1:1 and the related M-AR/PCC showed the best therapeutic effects on diabetic osteoporosis. They showed similar performances on the inhibition of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the promotion of the alkaline phosphatase activity in diabetic adult zebrafish model. The M-AR/PCC treatment could decrease the blood glucose, upregulate the mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes (alp, runx2b and opg) and downregulate the expression of osteoclast-related genes (acp5α, rankl and sost) in streptozotocin-induced zebrafish. CONCLUSION: AR/PCC herb pair and its major active components possess potent anti-diabetic osteoporotic effect on streptozotocin-induced in vivo models. The combination of the seven active compounds derived from AR/PCC herbal pair could be a potential agent for protection against osteoporosis associated with diabetes.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335393

RESUMO

Sarsasapogenin is a natural steroidal sapogenin molecule obtained mainly from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. Among the various phytosteroids present, sarsasapogenin has emerged as a promising molecule due to the fact of its diverse pharmacological activities. In this review, the chemistry, biosynthesis and pharmacological potentials of sarsasapogenin are summarised. Between 1996 and the present, the relevant literature regarding sarsasapogenin was obtained from scientific databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Overall, sarsasapogenin is a potent molecule with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-osteoclastogenic and neuroprotective activities. It is also a potential molecule in the treatment for precocious puberty. This review also discusses the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and possible structural modifications as well as obstacles and opportunities for sarsasapogenin to become a drug molecule in the near future. More comprehensive preclinical studies, clinical trials, drug delivery, formulations of effective doses in pharmacokinetics studies, evaluation of adverse effects and potential synergistic effects with other drugs need to be thoroughly investigated to make sarsasapogenin a potential molecule for future drug development.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena , Espirostanos , Anemarrhena/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Espirostanos/química , Espirostanos/farmacologia
20.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 1797-1807, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35083996

RESUMO

A new polysaccharide (AABP-2B) was obtained from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge after purification by gradient alcohol precipitation and DEAE-52 cellulose column chromatography. AABP-2B was confirmed to be a homogeneous polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 5800 Da and was composed of mannose and glucose at a molar ratio of 7.2 : 2.8. Structural analysis demonstrated that the backbone of AABP-2B was mainly composed of 4)-ß-D-Manp-(1, 4,6)-ß-D-Glcp-(1 and 3,6)-ß-D-Manp-(1. The hypoglycaemic effect of AABP-2B was evaluated by its inhibition of α-glucosidase activities and insulin resistance in a HepG2 cell model. The results showed that AABP-2B displayed α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and could significantly improve glucose consumption by activating the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Hence, AABP-2B may have potential as a functional food or medicine for diabetes therapy.


Assuntos
Anemarrhena/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mananas , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mananas/química , Mananas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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