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1.
J Small Anim Pract ; 65(4): 243-250, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Angiostrongylosis is a significant differential for a diverse range of clinical signs in dogs, many of whom present acutely and sometimes with fatal consequences. Point-of-care diagnostic assays include a commercially available Angiostrongylus vasorum qualitative direct lateral flow assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case records from one referral centre from dogs with an invalid A. vasorum lateral flow assay, comprising an absent control line alongside a visible test line, were reviewed. As control line failure was hypothesised to be due to antigen excess; where available the A. vasorum lateral flow assay was repeated using dilutions of the original serum. RESULTS: Six dogs had an invalid A. vasorum lateral flow assay result. Five dogs had presented with acute-onset, severe clinical disease consistent with angiostrongylosis, and one dog was a clinically healthy in-contact. Clinical suspicion of angiostrongylosis was confirmed using alternative diagnostic testing and/or response to treatment. Repetition of the A. vasorum lateral flow assay, in four cases, using diluted plasma (10% to 12.5% v/v) resulted in the appearance of a control line alongside the visible test line. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A heavy burden of A. vasorum infection resulting in angiostrongylosis should be suspected in dogs with compatible clinical signs and an invalid A. vasorum lateral flow assay result due to control failure alongside a visible test line. Repetition of the test with a diluted serum may be considered to account for the hook effect, also known as the postzone phenomenon, as a possible cause.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Strongylida , Cães , Animais , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Testes Imediatos
3.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 160, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480554

RESUMO

Dog faecal samples examined from January 2019 to December 2019 were retrospectively analysed for frequency of endoparasites. The examinations were performed with several different methods: 29,219 samples were examined by flotation method and sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin concentration (SAFC) technique, 1,330 samples by Baermann-Wetzel migration technique, 12,221 samples using a Giardia coproantigen enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 1,180 samples using a Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISA, 1,671 samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Giardia duodenalis and 447 samples by PCR testing for Cryptosporidium spp.. A total of 7.1% of the samples were positive for parasites in the microscopical examination using the flotation method and SAFC technique. The parasites found included Cystoisospora spp. (2.8%), Giardia duodenalis (2.3%), Ancylostomatidae (1.8%), Toxocara canis (1.6%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%), Toxascaris leonina (0.5%), Capillaria spp. (0.2%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.2%), Crenosoma vulpis (0.1%), Taeniidae (0.1%), Sarcocystis spp. (0.03%), Dipylidium caninum (0.01%), Diphyllobothrium latum (< 0.01%), Spirurida (< 0.01%) and Opisthorchiidae (< 0.01%). Using the Baermann-Wetzel migration technique, Angiostrongylus vasorum was found in 0.75% and Crenosoma vulpis in 0.3% of the samples. ELISAs for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. revealed 13.9% and 1.0% positive faecal samples, and Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. PCRs 19.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Dogs in the first year of life were more frequently infected with parasites than older animals. In the microscopic examination using flotation method and SAFC technique, the significantly highest detection rates were found in dogs up to six months of age (p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Giardia lamblia , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Cães , Animais , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Prevalência , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 155, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446236

RESUMO

Although rare, Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection may be a more prevalent etiology of inflammatory bowel disease than ulcerative colitis and Chron's disease in endemic areas in Central and South America. The present study reviewed the occurrence of A. costaricensis in Brazil, its clinical presentation and pathology; and proposed diagnostic criteria and case definitions for abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA). Southern and southeastern Brazilian regions are the main endemic areas, and AA affects both genders and all age groups. A review of all 23 published reports of 51 Brazilian patients highlighted the following features that were subsequently classified as minor diagnostic criteria: abdominal pain, palpable mass in the right lower abdominal quadrant, history of exposure, ileocecal tumor, and intestinal perforation with wall thickening. Proposed major criteria include right lower quadrant abdominal pain, blood eosinophilia, positive serology (antibody detection), intense eosinophilic infiltration that involves all strata of the intestinal wall, eosinophilic granulomatous reaction, and eosinophilic vasculitis. In addition to the definitions of suspected and possible cases according to increasing strength of evidence of this infection, demonstration of worms/eggs/larvae in tissues or Angiostrongylus DNA in tissues or serum are required for a confirmed diagnosis. The application of the proposed criteria and definitions may improve patient management, epidemiologic surveillance, and identification of new endemic areas.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Humanos , Dor Abdominal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
5.
J Small Anim Pract ; 65(4): 234-242, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bleeding diathesis is a complication in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum. This retrospective study investigated clinical and laboratory haemostatic differences in A. vasorum-positive dogs with and without signs of bleeding and impact of bleeding on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographics, type of clinical bleeding, haematocrit and a range of haemostatic tests, including thromboelastography and derived velocity curves were retrospectively registered from A. vasorum-positive dogs. All parameters were compared between dogs with and without signs of bleeding using univariable analyses. Binomial and multinomial regression models were applied to examine specific indicators in the bleeding dogs. P-values were false discovery rate adjusted, and adjusted P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty dogs entered the study, including 65 dogs (36.1%) presenting with bleeding diathesis. Different types of cutaneous and mucosal bleeding were the most common clinical findings. Twenty dogs presented with neurological signs associated with intracranial and intra-spinal bleeding. One hundred and thirty-seven dogs had haematological and/or haemostatic laboratory analyses performed. Haematocrit, platelet count, thromboelastographic angle, maximum amplitude, global clot strength, maximum rate of thrombin generation and total thrombin generation were decreased, while prothrombin time was prolonged in bleeding dogs. Survival rate of bleeding dogs was lower at hospital discharge (76.9%) and 1 month after diagnosis (66.0%) than in dogs without signs of bleeding (94.8% and 90.1% at discharge and at 1 month, respectively). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Several haemostatic aberrations were detected in A. vasorum-positive dogs with bleeding diathesis. Bleeding was identified as an important negative prognostic indicator in A. vasorum-positive dogs.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Doenças do Cão , Hemostáticos , Infecções por Strongylida , Cães , Animais , Trombina , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/complicações , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/veterinária
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 56, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The closely related Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus malaysiensis have been reported to coexist in Thailand and share similar hosts and life cycles. Recently, in an angiostrongyliasis outbreak in Thailand, both A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients. Morphological similarities, overlapping distribution, shared hosts and habitats, and the close genetics of the two Angiostrongylus species can complicate accurate species identification. Addressing these challenges, this study aims to evaluate whether a correlation between the morphological and genetic identities of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis can improve species identification accuracy. METHODS: Angiostrongylus spp. specimens from five zoogeographical regions in Thailand were subjected to morphological and molecular identification using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2). The morphological characters for males and females were then validated using the species identity obtained from the nuclear ITS2 region. RESULTS: The results revealed that morphological misidentifications between these two closely related species are common due to overlapping morphological characters. Although certain male traits such as body length and width aided species differentiation, female traits were found to be less reliable. Furthermore, hybrid forms (8.2%) were revealed through the ITS2 results, which can further complicate morphological identification. Mito-nuclear discordance was also present in 1.9% of the Angiostrongylus specimens from Thailand, suggesting a complex historical interbreeding between the species. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we suggest that nuclear ITS2 is a reliable marker for species identification of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis, especially in regions where both species coexist. Additionally, the scope and consequences of hybridization between the two closely related Angiostrongylus species should be further investigated in Thailand.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Angiostrongylus/genética , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Filogenia , Fenótipo , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
7.
J Helminthol ; 98: e7, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225903

RESUMO

Semperula wallacei (Issel, 1874) is a species of terrestrial slug that occurs in southeast China and the Pacific Basin and is the only species of its genus that occurs beyond the Oriental region and to the east of Wallace's line in the Australian region, where it has probably been introduced. In this study, we report for the first time S. wallacei as an intermediate host for Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) based on histological and molecular analyses of slugs from Tuamasaga, Samoa, deposited at the Medical Malacological Collection (Fiocruz-CMM). DNA was obtained from the deparafinized tissues scraped from specimen slides. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeted to the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were carried out using the restriction enzyme Cla I. The RFLP profile observed for our larval specimen of S. wallacei was identical to the profile previously established for A. cantonensis, demonstrating that S. wallacei can be naturally infected with A. cantonensis and is likely to be an intermediate host for this parasitic nematode species in the field. The potential for geographical range expansion of S. wallacei in the Pacific Basin, its small size, and the general role of veronicellids as crop pests and hosts of nematodes, indicate the significance of S. wallacei as an invasive species in the Pacific Basin. Our work also highlights the importance of biological collections for investigating the environmental impact of invasive species on agriculture, public health, and biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Gastrópodes , Nematoides , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Austrália , Moluscos/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Int ; 99: 102829, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38030119

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus spp. (Metastrongyloidea) can cause severe disease in several animal species and humans. This report describes an infection with Angiostrongylus dujardini in a captive coconut lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) from a zoo in Switzerland. The bird was reported being attacked by conspecifics, removed from the flock, and hospitalized. It showed lethargy, moderately reduced body condition, and lack of reaction to visual stimuli. Analgesic and antibiotic treatment were initiated but because of worsening of its general condition, the bird was euthanized the following day. Necropsy revealed multifocal, subcutaneous hemorrhages, diffusely reddened lungs and a moderately dilated right heart with several intraluminal nematodes embedded in a coagulum. Four worms were collected and microscopically examined. They were identified as adult females, measuring 19-21 mm long x 0.4-0.5 mm wide, with general morphological and morphometric characteristics consistent with angiostrongylid nematodes. In lung sections, multifocal collection of thin-walled embryonated eggs in variable stages of development was observed along with fully developed nematode larvae within the lumina of alveoli and lung vessels. Associated granulomatous infiltrates indicated a severe, multifocal, chronic, granulomatous pneumonia. The diagnosis of A. dujardini infection was formulated by morphological examination of adult and larval stages, supported by molecular analysis (PCR-amplification and sequencing of the ITS2, 5.8S and 28S rDNA flanking regions). This is the first report of A. dujardini infection in an avian species, providing evidence that birds can serve as accidental hosts of this parasite in addition to mammals, and that the parasite can reach maturity and multiply in the avian cardiorespiratory system.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Papagaios , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Suíça , Pulmão/parasitologia , Coração , Angiostrongylus/anatomia & histologia , Angiostrongylus/genética , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Mamíferos
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 85(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study determined the in vitro efficacy of 6 common anthelmintics (eprinomectin, ivermectin, milbemycin oxime, moxidectin, selamectin, and fenbendazole) on motility (viability) of infectious third-stage larvae (L3) of Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, which are important causes of canine and feline cardiopulmonary disease. SAMPLES: First-stage larvae (L1) from C vulpis, An vasorum, and Ae abstrusus. PROCEDURES: Naïve Limax maximus slugs were fed 1,000 to 2,000 L1 and held at 16 °C for at least 4 weeks to produce live L3. Approximately 50 to 100 L3/well were subsequently incubated in culture media alone or media containing 6 separate test anthelmintics at 4 concentrations, to bracket expected in vivo drug plasma levels in anthelmintic-treated dogs and cats. Drug effects on L3 motility (viability) were analyzed by multilevel logistic models, generating dose-response relationships. Experiments were completed 1-9/2019. RESULTS: Drug concentration estimates corresponding to a 50% larval mortality rate identified that C vulpis was the most sensitive species to the anthelmintics tested. Ae abstrusus was most susceptible to moxidectin and selamectin, while An vasorum was insusceptible to all anthelmintics tested, except for selamectin at high drug concentrations. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The in vitro anthelmintic response to antiparasitic agents may guide and improve disease therapy and prevention. Considering the observed lack of efficacy against L3, monthly anthelmintic treatment for protection against An vasorum infection in dogs would primarily rely on the anthelmintic's adulticidal activity. Maximal preventive control for An vasorum would, therefore, require at least 1 treatment administered a minimum of 1 week after the end of the transmission season.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Macrolídeos , Metastrongyloidea , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Angiostrongylus/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Larva , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 54(3-4): 185-193, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097033

RESUMO

In recent years, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) and Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi), commonly referred to as canine lungworms, have gained a growing interest worldwide as the result of their geographical expansion. Each of these nematode species differs considerably in its biology and pathogenicity. Despite their impact on dogs' health, these parasites are often underdiagnosed owing to diagnostic challenges. Here, we describe the development and validation of a Taq-Man-based multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection of the main species of canine lungworms in faeces of infected dogs. Using 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic gene block fragments containing individual sequence targets of each lungworm species, the analytical sensitivity of the assay ascertained was 1.84 ng/µl for A. vasorum, 3.08 ng/µl for C. vulpis and 0.79 ng/µl for Eucoleus spp. The sensitivity of the assays and their ability to detect mixed species infections were compared with microscopy-based techniques (faecal floatation and Baermann technique) applied to faecal samples submitted for lungworm testing through an accredited diagnostic laboratory at the Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Switzerland, and from community dogs as part of a research project on canine endoparasites in Cambodia. The multiplex qPCR displayed high diagnostic sensitivity (42/46, 91.3%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 79.1-97.1%) and a diagnostic specificity of 100% (45/45, 95% CI: 90.6-100%), and was able to detect 42.9% additional mixed lungworm species infections compared with microscopy-based methods. Kappa statistics showed substantial agreement between the qPCRs and microscopy for mixed infections (κ = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.4-1) and Eucoleus spp. (κ = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.85) and almost perfect agreement for C. vulpis (κ = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1) and A. vasorum (κ = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84-1). This multiplex qPCR enables timely, accurate, and sensitive diagnosis of canine lungworm species in faecal samples and can be used to monitor the geographical distribution and emergence of these parasitic species, globally.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Cães , Angiostrongylus/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
11.
Parasitology ; 150(10): 950-955, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37614202

RESUMO

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode that causes neurological disorders in its accidental hosts, including humans. This invasive pathogen is native to Southeast Asia and adjacent regions and is gradually expanding its distribution to tropical and subtropical areas with new foci discovered near temperate regions. The parasite has a complex life cycle with a range of gastropods serving as intermediate hosts. A broad spectrum of poikilotherm vertebrates and invertebrates can serve as paratenic hosts. Since it has already been demonstrated that other, non-zoonotic metastrongyloids can survive in their intermediate hosts during the winter, the aim of our study was to evaluate the survival of A. cantonensis third-stage larvae in experimentally infected slugs (Limax maximus) kept at 4.5­7°C for 60 days. Third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis survived the period of low temperature and remained capable of infecting definitive hosts (laboratory rats) afterwards, even though their numbers dropped significantly. These results suggest that further spread to higher latitudes or altitudes is possible in areas with sufficient abundance of definitive hosts, since low winter temperatures are not necessarily an obstacle to the spread of the parasite.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 276, 2023 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37563598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is the main pathogen responsible for eosinophilic meningitis in humans. One of its intermediate snail hosts, Achatina fulica, was already present in many countries around the world before it appeared in the West Indies in the late 1980s. In the French territories in the Caribbean and northern South America, the first cases of human neuroangiostrongyliasis were reported in Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Guiana in 2002, 2013 and 2017, respectively. In order to better characterize angiostrongyliasis in Guadeloupe, particularly its geographical origin and route of introduction, we undertook molecular characterization of adult worms of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its intermediate host Achatina fulica. METHODS: Genomic DNA of adult Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Achatina fulica was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mitochondrial genes cytochrome B and C for A. cantonensis and 16S ribosomal RNA for A. fulica. The PCR products were sequenced and studied by phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Cytochrome B and cytochrome C molecular markers indicate a monophyletic lineage of A. cantonensis adult worms in Guadeloupe. Two sequences of A. fulica were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the recent introduction of both Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Achatina fulica into Guadeloupe. Achatina fulica in Guadeloupe shares a common origin with those in Barbados and New Caledonia, while Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guadeloupe shares a common origin with those in Brazil, Hawaii and Japan.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Adulto , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Filogenia , Guadalupe , Citocromos b/genética , Caramujos , Brasil , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
13.
Parasitol Res ; 122(9): 2217-2225, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37430031

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or the rat lungworm, is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis associated with eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Additionally, this nematode can cause ocular angiostrongyliasis, though this is rare. The worm can cause permanent damage to the affected eye and sometimes even blindness. Genetic characterization of the worm from clinical samples is limited. In the present study, we investigated the genetics of A. cantonensis recovered from a patient's eye in Thailand. We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, or COI, and cytochrome b, or cytb) and nuclear gene regions (66-kDa protein and internal transcribed spacer 2, or ITS2) from a fifth-stage larva of Angiostrongylus sample that was surgically removed from the human eye. All sequences of the selected nucleotide regions were highly similar (98-100%) to the sequences of A. cantonensis in the GenBank database. The maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining trees of the COI gene indicated that A. cantonensis was closely related to the AC4 haplotype, whereas the cytb and 66-kDa protein genes were closely clustered with the AC6 and Ac66-1 haplotypes, respectively. In addition, the phylogeny of the concatenated nucleotide datasets of the COI and cytb revealed that the worm was closely related to the Thai strain and strains from other countries. This study confirms the identification and genetic variation of the fifth-stage larvae of A. cantonensis recovered from a patient's eye in Thailand. Our findings are important for future research on the genetic variation of A. cantonensis that causes human angiostrongyliasis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Larva/genética , Nucleotídeos
14.
Adv Parasitol ; 121: 65-197, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37474239

RESUMO

The rise to prominence of some Angiostrongylus species through associated emerging disease in humans and dogs has stimulated calls for a renewed focus on the biology of this genus and three related genera. Although significant research efforts have been made in recent years these have tended to focus on individual species and specific aspects such as diagnosis and treatment of disease or new records of occurrence and hosts. This comprehensive review takes a comparative approach, seeking commonalities and differences among species and asking such questions as: Which species belong to this and to closely related genera and how are they related? Why do only some species appear to be spreading geographically and what factors might underlie range expansion? Which animal species are involved in the life cycles as definitive, intermediate, paratenic and accidental hosts? How do parasite larvae find, infect and develop within these hosts? What are the consequences of infection for host health? How will climate change affect future spread and global health? Appreciating how species resemble and differ from each other shines a spotlight on knowledge gaps and provides provisional guidance on key species characteristics warranting detailed study. Similarities exist among species, including the basic life cycle and transmission processes, but important details such as host range, climatic requirements, migration patterns within hosts and disease mechanisms differ, with much more information available for A. cantonensis and A. vasorum than for other species. Nonetheless, comparison across Angiostrongylus reveals some common patterns. Historically narrow definitive host ranges are expanding with new knowledge, combining with very broad ranges of intermediate gastropod hosts and vertebrate and invertebrate paratenic and accidental hosts to provide the backdrop to complex interactions among climate, ecology and transmission that remain only partly understood, even for the species of dominant concern. Key outstanding questions concern larval dynamics and the potential for transmission outside trophic relations, relations between infection and disease severity in different hosts, and how global change is altering transmission beyond immediate impacts on development rate in gastropods. The concept of encounter and compatibility filters could help to explain differences in the relative importance of different gastropod species as intermediate hosts and determine the importance of host community composition and related environmental factors to transmission and range. Across the group, it remains unclear what, physiologically, immunologically or taxonomically, delimits definitive, accidental and paratenic hosts. Impacts of infection on definitive host fitness and consequences for population dynamics and transmission remain mostly unexplored across the genus. Continual updating and cross-referencing across species of Angiostrongylus and related genera is important to synthesise rapid advances in understanding of key traits and behaviours, especially in important Angiostrongylus species that are emerging causative agents of disease in humans and other animals.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva , Ecologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
15.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(7): 636-646, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37403513

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus malaysiensis is a potential zoonotic parasite, which reported to co-occur with A. cantonensis in human cerebrospinal fluid. It is a heteroxenous nematode that primarily develops through the early larval stages in gastropods and attains sexual maturity within rats. This study was conducted to determine the host species responsible for the reservoir of A. malaysiensis and investigate the risk factor for transmission among the hosts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was conducted in six recreational parks. The rats were trapped alive using steel wire traps with bait, while the gastropods were collected by active searching. The rats were euthanized and dissected to collect any adult worms observed. The molecular detection of A. malaysiensis was performed by PCR on gastropod tissue samples. Biotic and landscape factors were recorded for risk factor analysis. In total, 82 rats and 330 gastropods were collected throughout the study. Overall, 3.64% of gastropods and 32.9% of rats were infected with A. malaysiensis. Rattus tiomanicus (Malayan wood rat) and Parmarion martensi (Yellow-shelled semi-slug) were found as important hosts for A. malaysiensis. Host species, sampling site and macrohabitat type are risk factors associated with the prevalence of A. malaysiensis infection in rats. For gastropods, host species and sampling site are risk factors that correlate with the parasite detection. In total, 128 adult A. malaysiensis were recovered from the infected rats. The mean intensity of infection with adult A. malaysiensis was 4.65 for Rattus rattus complex and 4.90 for R. tiomanicus. Adult worms were found in the pulmonary artery or right ventricle, while eggs and first-stage larvae were found in capillaries of the caudal lung lobe. Infected lungs showed extravasated red blood cells in the alveolar spaces. The pulmonary arteries in the infected lung lobe were thickened. Kepong Metropolitan Park is the hotspot area for A. malaysiensis in Kuala Lumpur. These results provide essential information for public health officials to develop targeted interventions to reduce the transmission of A. malaysiensis in urban areas, particularly in recreational parks.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Gastrópodes , Parasitos , Doenças dos Roedores , Infecções por Strongylida , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Óvulo , Larva , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia
16.
J Helminthol ; 97: e43, 2023 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37194316

RESUMO

We investigated parasitic zoonoses caused by protozoans and helminths in urban and peri-urban rat populations (Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus) in Spanish cities. Rats were trapped and then dissected to remove adult helminths, and the contents of the large intestine were retrieved for the study of parasitic forms. The Midi Parasep® solvent free (SF) technique was used to concentrate the parasites in the intestinal contents. Some of the rats studied (n = 8) were infected by the rat lungworm, Angiostongylus cantonensis, whose first stage larvae (L1) are shed in rat faeces. After the concentration technique, L1 larvae were found in the sediment of 6 of the 8 positive rats. The two negative sediment samples were due to the presence of either only adult females or, in addition to males, only young females in the lungs of the rats. In view of our results, Midi Parasep® SF turned out to be a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to detect nematode larvae, such as the L1 larvae of A. cantonensis (or A. costaricensis), in natural and experimentally infected rats.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Parasitos , Infecções por Strongylida , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ratos , Larva , Solventes , Zoonoses , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(5): e0011038, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37126515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is recognised as the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningitis, a serious condition observed when nematode larvae migrate through the CNS. Canine Neural Angiostrongyliasis (CNA) is the analogous disease in dogs. Both humans and dogs are accidental hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is warranted. A highly sensitive PCR based assay is available but often not readily accessible in many jurisdictions. An alternative DNA amplification assay that would further improve accessibility is needed. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of a newly designed LAMP assay to detect DNA of globally distributed and invasive A. cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae, the other neurotropic Angiostrongylus species, which is native to Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of A. cantonensis infection (2020-2022) were received for confirmatory laboratory testing and processed for DNA isolation and ultrasensitive Angiostrongylus qPCR targeting AcanR3390. A newly designed LAMP assay targeting the same gene target was directly compared to the reference ultrasensitive qPCR in a diagnostic laboratory setting to determine the presence of A. cantonensis DNA to diagnose CNA. The LAMP assay (Angie-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of A. cantonensis DNA from archived DNA specimens (Kappa = 0.81, 95%CI 0.69-0.92; n = 93) and rapid single-step lysis of archived CSF samples (Kappa = 0.77, 95%CI 0.59-0.94; n = 52). Only A. cantonensis DNA was detected in canine CSF samples, and co-infection with A. mackerrasae using amplicon deep sequencing (ITS-2 rDNA) was not demonstrated. Both SYD.1 and AC13 haplotypes were detected using sequencing of partial cox1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Angie-LAMP assay is a useful molecular tool for detecting Angiostrongylus DNA in canine CSF and performs comparably to a laboratory Angiostrongylus qPCR. Adaptation of single-step sample lysis improved potential applicability for diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis in a clinical setting for dogs and by extension, to humans.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Meningite , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Cães , Ratos , Animais , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Caramujos/genética , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Meningite/diagnóstico , Meningite/veterinária
18.
Parasitology ; 150(8): 700-704, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37232239

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (the rat lungworm) is a zoonotic parasite of non-permissive accidental (dogs, humans, horses, marsupials, birds) hosts. The 3rd stage larvae (L3s) in the intermediate host (molluscs) act as the source of infection for accidental hosts through ingestion. Larvae can spontaneously emerge from dead gastropods (slugs and snails) in water, which are experimentally infective to rats. We sought to identify the time when infective A. cantonensis larvae can autonomously leave dead experimentally infected Bullastra lessoni snails. The proportion of A. cantonensis larvae that emerge from crushed and submerged B. lessoni is higher in snails 62 days post-infection (DPI) (30.3%). The total larval burden of snails increases at 91 DPI, indicating that emerged larvae subsequently get recycled by the population. There appears to be a window of opportunity between 1 and 3 months for infective larvae to autonomously escape dead snails. From a human and veterinary medicine viewpoint, the mode of infection needs to be considered; whether that be through ingestion of an infected gastropod, or via drinking water contaminated with escaped larvae.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Gastrópodes , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Ratos , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Larva , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
19.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 82: e39163, maio 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, CONASS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1517759

RESUMO

A identificação precisa de nematódeos de interesse médico-veterinário em amostras de solo ou alimentos é uma ação complexa, devido à grande diversidade de nematódeos no ambiente. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar a caracterização morfológica e morfométrica de diferentes estágios larvários de ancilostomídeos, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides venezuelensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis e Angiostrongylus costaricensis, e desenvolver um estudo de similaridade entre espécies do mesmo gênero, a fim de orientar o diagnóstico diferencial com os nematódeos ambientais. As larvas foram fixadas e diversos parâmetros corporais foram mensurados, para os quais foi realizada estatística descritiva e estudo de similaridade. Os resultados médios das larvas padrões foram compatíveis com os descritos para as espécies, com variabilidade em alguns parâmetros. S. stercoralis e S. venezuelensis demonstraram similaridade de 59% para L1 e 79% para L3, com maior diferenciação entre os grupos em relação à extremidade anterior e ao primórdio genital. No pool de larvas de ancilostomídeos, verificou-se uma grande variação nos parâmetros avaliados, especialmente quanto ao comprimento total do corpo. A. cantonensis e A. costaricensis apresentaram 48% de similaridade entre L1 e 76% para L3. Por meio da análise morfométrica e de similaridade verificou-se a possibilidade do aprimoramento do diagnóstico diferencial de nematódeos de origem ambiental. (AU)


Due to the enormous diversity of nematodes in the environment, identifying nematodes of medical and veterinary significance within soil or food samples can be challenging. To facilitate the differential diagnosis with environmental nematodes, this study aimed morphologically and morphometrically characterize various larval stages of hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides venezuelensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensi and Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Additionally, a similarity study was conducted among species within the same genus. The larvae were fixated and several body parameters were measured for the analysis, which included a comparison using descriptive statistics. Despite some parameter fluctuation, the average results for standard larvae were consistent with those of the respective species as a whole. The similarity between S. stercoralis and S. venezuelensis was 59% for L1 and 79% for L3, with more pronounced differences observed in the anterior extremity and the genital primordium. The examined parameters exhibited significant variation among the pool of hookworm larvae, particularly concerning the total length of the body. The similarities between A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis larvae ranged from 48% for L1 to 76% for L3. Analyses of morphometric and similarity data provided support for the potential improvement of differentiation between nematodes with environmental origins. This research contributes to enhancing the accuracy of identifying medically and veterinary relevant nematodes present in soil. (AU)


Assuntos
Achados Morfológicos e Microscópicos , Helmintos , Larva , Nematoides , Strongyloides , Angiostrongylus
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