Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 803
Filtrar
1.
J Helminthol ; 97: e5, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635102

RESUMO

This study describes changes in oxidative stress (OS) parameters in mice experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis. For this, 28 Swiss mice were used, divided into two groups (G1 and G2), with 14 animals each. Of these, eight were infected with ten infective larvae each, by gavage, and six were used as a control group. Mice from G1 and G2 were euthanized at 14 days and 24 days post-infection, respectively. Tissue samples were used for histopathological analysis and blood (serum) samples were taken to assess the levels of proteins, non-protein thiols (NPTs) and nitric oxide (NO), from centrifugation and subsequent collection of aliquots of the supernatant. Among OS parameters, infected mice in both groups had higher NO levels than the control group, due to the presence of: eosinophil infiltrate in the liver and intestine; pancreatitis; and intestinal granuloma. However, the infected mice of both groups showed a reduction in the levels of NPTs, in relation to the control group, due to the presence of: eosinophilic infiltrate in the liver and intestine; and intestinal granuloma. Our results suggest that A. costaricensis infection has important effects on the intestine, liver and pancreas, and the analyses were performed from the tissue of these organs. The mechanisms for these changes are related to the decrease in the body's main antioxidant defences, as demonstrated by the reduction of NPTs, thus contributing to the development of more severe tissue damage. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological lesions and markers for OS.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Camundongos , Animais , Granuloma , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Parasitol Res ; 122(2): 381-385, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538068

RESUMO

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) is a zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which is endemic in southern Brazil. Humans become infected by ingesting third-stage (L3) larvae and are considered accidental hosts since neither eggs nor first-stage (L1) larvae are found in feces. The definitive diagnosis can be made by histopathologic examination of surgical specimens or intestinal biopsies. The present study assessed the use of PCR to carry out the molecular detection of AA from serum samples. A total of 62 human serum samples were divided into three groups: (i) 28 serum samples from human patients with presumptive histopathological diagnosis of AA; (ii) 23 serum samples from individuals with unknown serology for AA; (iii) 11 serum samples from patients that suffered from different parasitosis were included. The serum samples were initially tested by in-house indirect ELISA and then by PCR. A total of 14 samples were positive by ELISA, and 6 were positive by PCR. Six samples that were negative by ELISA were positive by PCR. Amplicons were sequenced, and Angiostrongylus DNA was confirmed. We conclude that PCR amplification can be used to confirm Angiostrongylus DNA in serum, which is especially important in cases where antibody levels are too low to be detected. It may also serve as a useful target for survey studies.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Humanos , Angiostrongylus/genética , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zoonoses
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 452, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last years, research on feline cardio-pulmonary parasites has considerably increased in Europe. Not only domestic cats (Felis catus), but also European wildcats (Felis silvestris) can serve as definitive hosts for these nematodes. The F. silvestris population in Germany has been growing rapidly within the last decades; therefore, the assessment of its cardio-pulmonary parasite status is of importance to unravel whether the wildcat population serves as a substantial reservoir for these nematodes and might pose a health threat to domestic cats. METHODS: As part of a nature conservation project for European wildcats in the German federal state Rhineland-Palatinate, lungs (n = 128) and hearts (n = 111) of 128 F. silvestris found dead were examined for cardio-pulmonary parasites. All isolated parasites were identified morphologically, and results were confirmed by molecular analysis of a total of 3-11 specimens of each worm species. RESULTS: A total of 70.3% (90/128) wildcats were positive for at least one lungworm species. Angiostrongylus chabaudi was most common (53.1% [68/128]), followed by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (42.2% [54/128]), Troglostrongylus brevior (31.3% [40/128]) and Capillaria spp. (3.1% [4/128]). Of note, about two-thirds of the infected wildcats harboured coinfections. Infection intensities ranged from 1 to 167 nematodes per wildcat. Generalised linear models revealed a strong correlation between A. chabaudi and A. abstrusus infection, and prevalences were higher in adult than in younger wildcats, except for T. brevior. Moreover, the T. brevior prevalence varied significantly with nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that feline cardio-pulmonary nematodes are common parasites in European wildcats in Germany but do not appear to have a serious impact on the overall health of the population. Due to presumed spillover events via prey, cardio-pulmonary nematodes may circulate between the wildcat population and domestic cats and might therefore pose a health risk to individual domestic cats.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Gato , Felis , Metastrongyloidea , Parasitos , Infecções por Strongylida , Gatos , Animais , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Felis/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1003013, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339212

RESUMO

Background: Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis (AEM) is a rare yet emerging disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. Its atypical symptoms may delay the diagnosis and cause fatal outcomes, especially in the early stages of infection and among children. Case presentation: Here we reported the use of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of an 8-year-old boy with severe A. cantonensis infection. The mNGS tests consistently identified the infection of A. cantonensis prior to the detection by the immunologic method and confirmed it as AEM. Owing to the multidisciplinary team (MDT)-administrated treatments and close disease monitoring based on regular clinical tests and sequential mNGS tests, the patients eventually fully recovered from severe infectious conditions. Conclusion: This case demonstrated the advantages of mNGS for early diagnosis of AEM in pediatric patients, highlighting its application for pan-pathogen detection, as well as disease monitoring for severe A. cantonensis infection.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Eosinofilia , Meningite , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Meningite/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 312: 109814, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274434

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a widely distributed cardiopulmonary parasite of canids in Europe. Clinical signs in dogs can be highly variable and diagnostically challenging. A correct and early diagnosis is hence indispensable to adequately manage affected patients. First-stage larvae (L1) are excreted in the faeces of definitive hosts and conventionally identified using the Baermann technique. Moreover, ELISAs for the detection of circulating antigen and specific antibodies have been presented. The current study aimed at i) quantitatively assessing larval migration in the Baermann funnel after 12 h and 24 h; ii) investigating the influence of sample storage at 4 °C over the course of three days on the number of detected L1; iii) evaluating potential associations of adult worm burdens with larval shedding in dogs and ELISA optical density (OD) values for circulating parasite antigen and specific antibodies. Faecal samples were obtained from naturally infected dogs (n = 21) and Baermann funnels were set up in duplicate over the course of four consecutive days (days 0-3) starting with the day of sample collection. Funnels were harvested on days 1-4 after 12 and 24 h, respectively, and the number of L1 per gram faeces (LPG) was determined. The LPG did not differ between larval harvest after 12 h from harvest after 24 h. Storage of faecal samples at 4 °C for two and three days entailed a considerable decrease in LPG. Adult worm burdens and larval excretion data from previous experiments demonstrated a correlation between worm burden and LPG. In contrast, no correlations between worm burden and the level of parasite antigen and specific antibody OD values, respectively, were identified. Thus, OD values of both antigen and antibody ELISA did not allow for conclusions on infection intensity reflected by the number of adult parasites. For the detection of L1 in faeces, 12 or 24 h of larval migration time was not discriminating for A. vasorum positivity. Thus, early processing of faecal samples is essential, since larval detection and hence sensitivity of the approach considerably decreased over the course of three days of storage. Therefore, the common recommendation to collect faecal samples for three consecutive days and to subsequently analyse them needs to be reconsidered. The results of this study can be readily translated into precise recommendations for daily practice to adequately assess A. vasorum infected dogs.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Infecções por Strongylida , Cães , Animais , Larva , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Antígenos de Helmintos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
6.
Can Vet J ; 63(6): 637-640, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656523

RESUMO

Objective: To identify first-stage nematode larvae (L1) recovered from a red fox scat sample and adult female worms recovered from 2 red fox lungs at necropsy, using published molecular methods to confirm a morphological diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum (French heartworm). Animal: Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Procedure: Nematode larvae recovered from a Baermann examination survey of wild canid scats (n = 101) conducted from January 2017 to August 2020, were identified by size and morphology and subjected to PCR and DNA sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, or the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). In addition, these techniques were applied to adult female worms recovered from the heart/lungs of 2 red foxes (obtained from PEI trappers and stored frozen at -20°C since December of 2018 and 2020). Results: Size and morphology of L1 recovered by Baermann examination from a wild canid scat sample (presumed to be red fox) collected near Montague, PEI and adult female worms recovered at necropsy from 2 red fox carcasses were identified as A. vasorum. Molecular analysis confirmed the larvae and adult worms were A. vasorum. Conclusion: These findings indicated that A. vasorum has become endemic in the red fox population on PEI. Clinical relevance: Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is potentially fatal in dogs. Veterinarians and regional diagnostic laboratories in the Maritime provinces should consider the possibility of A. vasorum infection in dogs with clinical signs of cardiopulmonary and/or central nervous system disease or bleeding disorders.


Objectif: Identifier les larves de nématodes de premier stade (L1) récupérées à partir d'un échantillon d'excréments de renard roux et les vers femelles adultes récupérés à partir de deux poumons de renard roux à l'autopsie, en utilisant des méthodes moléculaires publiées pour confirmer un diagnostic morphologique d'Angiostrongylus vasorum (ver du coeur français). Animal: Renard roux (Vulpis vulpis). Procédure: Les larves de nématodes récupérées lors d'une enquête sur des excréments de canidés sauvages (n = 101) par examen Baermann menée de janvier 2017 à août 2020, ont été identifiées par taille et morphologie et soumises à la PCR et au séquençage de DNA de la petite sous-unité (SSU) du gène de rRNA, de la grande sous-unité (LSU) du gène de rRNA ou du deuxième espaceur interne transcrit (ITS2). De plus, ces techniques ont été appliquées à des vers femelles adultes récupérés du coeur/poumons de deux renards roux (obtenus auprès de trappeurs de l'Î.-P.-É. et conservés congelés à −20 °C depuis décembre 2018 et 2020). Résultats: La taille et la morphologie de L1 récupérées par examen Baermann à partir d'un échantillon d'excréments de canidés sauvages (présumé être du renard roux) prélevé près de Montague, Î.-P.-É. et des vers adultes femelles récupérés des carcasses lors de la nécropsie de deux renards roux ont été identifiés comme étant A. vasorum. L'analyse moléculaire a confirmé que les larves et les vers adultes étaient A. vasorum. Conclusion: Ces résultats indiquent qu'A. vasorum est devenu endémique dans la population de renards roux de l'Î.-P.-É. Pertinence clinique: L'infection à A. vasorum est potentiellement mortelle chez le chien. Les vétérinaires et les laboratoires de diagnostic régionaux des provinces maritimes devraient envisager la possibilité d'une infection à A. vasorum chez les chiens présentant des signes cliniques de maladie cardio-pulmonaire et/ou du système nerveux central ou de troubles de la coagulation.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Strongylida , Angiostrongylus/genética , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Raposas , Pulmão , Ilha do Príncipe Eduardo , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 153, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population of wild felids is large and stable in Romania with many carnivore habitats being protected. Felids can be infected with a wide variety of cardio-pulmonary nematodes and can act as reservoirs of infection for domestic cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and species diversity of cardio-pulmonary nematodes in wild felids from Romania. METHODS: A total of 54 wild felids (7 Lynx lynx and 47 Felis silvestris) were legally collected from different locations in Romania and analysed by complete parasitological necropsy. The entire respiratory tract was longitudinally opened and checked for the presence of nematodes. Detected nematodes were collected and morphologically identified to species level. RESULTS: Two Eurasian lynxes and 29 European wildcats were positive for cardio-pulmonary nematodes. Eurasian lynxes were infected with two species of cardio-pulmonary nematodes, Eucoleus aerophilus and Troglostrongylus brevior, while in wildcats the dominant parasite was E. aerophilus (34.0%) followed by Angiostrongylus chabaudi (23.4%) and T. brevior (14.9%). Dirofilaria immitis and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were each detected in two wildcats (4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The present study expanded the epidemiological knowledge on felid cardiopulmonary nematodes in Romania. We confirmed the presence of A. abstrusus in wildcats and a patent infection with T. brevior in Eurasian lynx.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Felidae , Lynx , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Gatos , Felidae/parasitologia , Romênia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
8.
Parasitology ; 149(8): 1034-1044, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445648

RESUMO

Given the importance of angiostrongyliasis as an emerging infectious disease of humans, companion animals, and wildlife, the current study focused on the transmission dynamics of first- and third-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The migration of infective larvae and their subsequent distribution within the Lymnaeidae snail, Bullastra lessoni, were investigated over time using microscopic examination of histological sections and fresh tissue. Snails were divided into four anatomical regions: (i) anterior and (ii) posterior cephalopedal masses, (iii) mantle skirt and (iv) visceral mass. The viability of free-swimming third-stage larvae, after their release from snail tissues, was evaluated in vitro by propidium iodide staining and infectivity by in vivo infection of Wistar rats. Snails were sequentially dissected over time to assess the number and anatomical distribution of larvae within each snail and hence infer their migration pathway. Herein, ongoing larval migratory activity was detected over 28 days post-infection. A comparison of infection rates and the larval distribution within the four designated snail regions demonstrated a significant relationship between anatomical region and density of infective larvae, with larvae mostly distributed in the anterior cephalopedal mass (43.6 ± 10.8%) and the mantle skirt (33.0 ± 8.8%). Propidium iodide staining showed that free-swimming third-stage larvae retained viability for between 4 and 8 weeks when stored under laboratory conditions. In contrast to viability, larval infectivity in rats remained for up to 2 weeks only. Knowledge gained from the current work could provide information on the development of new approaches to controlling the transmission of this parasite.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Larva , Propídio , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
9.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 51(1): 70-76, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylosis is an emerging canine parasitic disease that often causes polyclonal hyperglobulinemia. In the authors' experience, we have seen what could be a typical serum protein electrophoretic pattern characterized by a large, symmetrical beta-2 peak in dogs with angiostrongylosis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of this pattern in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum compared with a randomly selected canine population. METHODS: Serum protein capillary zone electrophoreses (CZEs) from dogs with angiostrongylosis were assigned to Group 1. The CZE pattern was classified as normal, nonspecific polyclonal, or polyclonal with a typical beta-2 peak. The frequency of this latter pattern in Group 1 was compared with the frequency of similar findings in a randomly selected canine sera group (Group 2). RESULTS: Groups 1 and 2 included 22 and 3687 cases, respectively. Thirteen of 22 (59.1%) dogs in Group 1 had this peak in the beta-2 region. A similar CZE pattern was observed in 43 dogs in Group 2 (1.2%). The remaining dogs in Group 1 had a nonspecific polyclonal hyperglobulinemia (six cases), a normal tracing (one case), or an ambiguous tracing (two cases). CONCLUSIONS: Dogs with angiostrongylosis commonly have polyclonal hyperglobulinemia, frequently characterized by a large and symmetrical beta-2 peak on CZE, which is uncommon in the canine population. Additional studies are needed to identify the protein composition of this peculiar beta fraction.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eletroforese Capilar/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100641, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879952

RESUMO

Canine angiostrongylosis is a potentially lethal parasitic disease that can manifest itself with a broad spectrum of clinical signs, including respiratory distress, neurological and bleeding disorders, or non-specific signs. The occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum is widely reported in Europe, but very little is known about its presence in Austria. In this first large-scale survey, 1279 sera were collected from Austrian dogs and tested by an ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum (sensitivity: 95.7%, specificity 94.0%) and by a separate ELISA detecting specific antibodies (sensitivity 81.0%, specificity 98.8%). Furthermore, 1040 faecal samples were tested for the presence of lungworm first stage larvae (L1). One dog (0.1%, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.0-0.4%) was positive in both ELISAs, while 1.2% (n = 15, CI: 0.7-1.9%) of the tested dogs were antigen-positive and 1.5% (n = 19, CI: 0.9-2.3%) were positive for specific antibodies. Overall, 13 dogs (1.3%; CI: 0.7-2.1%) were positive for A. vasorum L1 while 31 dogs were positive for Crenosoma vulpis L1 (3.0%; CI: 2.0-4.2%). One dog shed L1 from both A. vasorum and C. vulpis (0.1%, CI: 0.0-0.5%). Dogs positive for A. vasorum originated from northeast, southeast and south Austria (antigen and/or antibody detection), but also from north, west and southwest Austria (antibody detection) and from northeast and west Austria (L1 detection). One of 88 blood samples (1.1%, CI: 0.0-6.2%) submitted from the eastern part of Austria was positive by a rapid assay for A. vasorum antigen detection (Angio Detect™). Crenosoma vulpis positive samples originated from northwest, north, northeast, south and west Austria. These results confirm the very sporadic occurrence of A. vasorum in the investigated areas of the country. However, due to the substantial infectious pressure from the surrounding countries and the free circulation of dogs and foxes acting as wildlife reservoirs and due to clinical relevance for infected dogs, it is crucial to maintain disease awareness also in areas where the parasite has not yet been detected.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Antígenos de Helmintos , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100642, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879953

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasite that can cause life-threatening disease in dogs. In recent years, A. vasorum has been reported spreading into new areas, in particular towards northeastern Europe. Despite being detected in wildlife in Estonia, no studies have focused on A. vasorum in domestic dogs in the country. We conducted a multi-center study in 2018-2019: at eight small animal clinics, altogether 115 dogs that had clinical signs that could be suggestive of canine angiostrongylosis were enrolled for testing using a commercial A. vasorum antigen detection test. In addition, we collected information on potential risk behaviors for acquiring A. vasorum infection - eating potential intermediate hosts and paratenic hosts - among the dogs, using a questionnaire for dog owners. Moreover, we surveyed knowledge about A. vasorum among veterinarians authorized to work in Estonia. None (0.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0-2.6) of the 114 dogs included in the study tested A. vasorum antigen positive. Two (2.0%) of the 102 dogs included in the risk behavior analysis had been seen to eat slugs and/or snails, and this behavior was considered possible for further 17 (16.7%) of the dogs. Four (3.9%) of the dogs had been seen to eat frogs, and this behavior was considered possible for further 14 (13.7%) of the dogs. Thirty-eight (90.5%) of the 42 veterinarians who participated in the questionnaire survey selected the correct host and 28 (66.7%) selected the correct vectors of the parasite, from the provided options. Our results indicate that A. vasorum was either not established or not common in dogs in Estonia in 2018-2019, but this needs to be interpreted with caution due to the limited sample size, possible false negative results in recently infected dogs and the limited sensitivity of the test applied. Most local veterinarians seemed to know the parasite, and this awareness and knowledge among veterinarians should be maintained and further improved. Taken the presence of the parasite in local wildlife, it is prudent to include A. vasorum infection in the list of differential diagnoses for dogs with clinical signs that could be suggestive of canine angiostrongylosis in Estonia.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Estônia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100650, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879961

RESUMO

Canine angiostrongylosis is a gastropod-borne parasitosis caused by the cosmopolitan nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum. It is associated with cardiorespiratory disorders and eventually fatal coagulopathies. A 6-months-old female dog previously diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and pneumothorax, treated accordingly without success, was hospitalized for further treatment. Complementary diagnostics confirmed previous findings plus pneumomediastinum, thoracic exudate, leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercoagulability, and hyperglobulinemia. Coprological analysis showed a severe patent A. vasorum infection. After the third daily fenbendazole administration, all A. vasorum larvae were found dead in follow-up coprological analyses while in intensive care. Upon release, the dog was monitored until full clinical recovery 3 months later. Up to date, A. vasorum infection-related pneumothorax was rarely described, particularly with full recovery of such a young patient. Thus, a parasitological aetiology should be considered for dogs with severe bronchopneumonia or pneumothorax, especially in Europe and South America where increasing numbers of canine angiostrongylosis cases call for enhanced awareness of veterinary practitioners.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Pneumotórax , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Pneumotórax/complicações , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 753320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796127

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a cardiopulmonary nematode of canids and is, among others, associated with bleeding disorders in dogs. The pathogenesis of such coagulopathies remains unclear. A deep proteomic characterization of sex specific A. vasorum excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) and of cuticular surface proteins was performed, and the effect of ESP on host coagulation and fibrinolysis was evaluated in vitro. Proteins were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and functionally characterized through gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis. In total, 1069 ESP (944 from female and 959 from male specimens) and 1195 surface proteins (705 and 1135, respectively) were identified. Among these were putative modulators of host coagulation, e.g., von Willebrand factor type D domain protein orthologues as well as several proteases, including serine type proteases, protease inhibitors and proteasome subunits. The effect of ESP on dog coagulation and fibrinolysis was evaluated on canine endothelial cells and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). After stimulation with ESP, tissue factor and serpin E1 transcript expression increased. ROTEM revealed minimal interaction of ESP with dog blood and ESP did not influence the onset of fibrinolysis, leading to the conclusion that Angiostrongylus vasorum ESP and surface proteins are not solely responsible for bleeding in dogs and that the interaction with the host's vascular hemostasis is limited. It is likely that coagulopathies in A. vasorum infected dogs are the result of a multifactorial response of the host to this parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Cães , Células Endoteliais , Feminino , Masculino , Proteoma , Proteômica
14.
J Helminthol ; 95: e40, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353407

RESUMO

This study describes changes in haematological parameters, cytokine profile, histopathology and cortisol levels in Swiss mice experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis. Twenty-eight Swiss mice were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of 14 animals each. In each group, eight animals were infected orally with ten third-stage larvae of A. costaricensis and six were used as a control group. The mice of groups G1 and G2 were sacrificed 14 and 24 days after infection, respectively. Samples were collected for histopathological and haematological analyses and determination of the cytokine profile and cortisol levels. Granulomatous reaction, eosinophilic infiltrate and vasculitis in the intestinal tract, pancreas, liver and spleen were observed with varying intensity in infected animals. Our results showed that the mice developed normocytic and hypochromic anaemia, and that the histopathological lesions caused by the experimental infection influenced increases in cortisol, neutrophil and monocyte levels. In addition to this, we detected increased interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha levels in the infected animals.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Intestinos , Larva , Camundongos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 374, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294132

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode described for the first time in 1971 by Pedro Morera and Rodolfo Céspedes in Costa Rica. This parasite causes an infection known as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, affecting mainly school-aged children and young adults. Infection with A. costaricensis has been associated with a myriad of rodent and mollusk species in the Americas and the Caribbean, as its natural hosts and reservoirs. In this commemorative review, we highlight the extensive research collected through a 50-year journey, which includes ecological, pathological, and molecular studies on A. costaricensis and its implicated disease. We also identify major knowledge gaps in its evolutionary history, the ecological role of imported and invasive mollusk species, and immune response. We propose that the advent of -omics analyses will allow us to gather novel information regarding A. costaricensis biology and infection dynamics, as well as to promote the design of much-needed sensitive and specific diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Moluscos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , América/epidemiologia , Angiostrongylus/genética , Angiostrongylus/imunologia , Angiostrongylus/fisiologia , Animais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Imunidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Roedores , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia , Zoonoses
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2671-2680, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180003

RESUMO

The presence of zoonotic relevant Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections has recently been reported in rat final hosts and gastropod intermediate hosts in Tenerife, Spain. However, data on A. cantonensis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus prevalences in endemic gastropods for other islands of the Macaronesian Archipelago are still missing. In order to fill this gap, we conducted an epidemiological study on terrestrial native slug (Plutonia lamarckii) and snail (Cornu aspersum, Theba pisana, Rumina decollata) species in 27 selected locations of Tenerife, Gran Canaria, El Hierro, Lanzarote, La Palma and Fuerteventura. Overall, 131 terrestrial gastropods were collected in winter/spring season 2018/2019 and examined for the presence of metastrongyloid lungworm larvae via artificial digestion. The current data revealed a total prevalence of 4.6% for A. vasorum, 3.8% for A. abstrusus and 0.8% for A. cantonensis. In Tenerife, three lungworm species were detected, thereby re-confirming A. cantonensis endemicity for this island. Prevalences of snails (C. aspersum) originating from El Hierro were 5% for A. abstrusus and 15% for A. vasorum, respectively, with larval burdens up to 290 larvae per specimen. This epidemiological study indicates the presence of human, canine and feline lungworm species in Macaronesia, Spain. The current data-particularly those on anthropozoonotic A. cantonensis-call for a regular large-scale monitoring on intermediate hosts, paratenic hosts and definitive hosts to prevent further spread of lungworm-related diseases in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/classificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
18.
Genomics ; 113(4): 2695-2701, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118383

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasitic nematode of canids and causes respiratory distress, bleeding, and other signs in dogs. Despite its clinical importance, the molecular toolbox allowing the study of the parasite is incomplete. To address this gap, we have sequenced its nuclear genome using Oxford nanopore sequencing, polished with Illumina reads. The size of the final genome is 280 Mb comprising 468 contigs, with an N50 value of 1.68 Mb and a BUSCO score of 93.5%. Ninety-three percent of 13,766 predicted genes were assigned to putative functions. Three folate carriers were found exclusively in A. vasorum, with potential involvement in host coagulopathy. A screen for previously identified vaccine candidates, the aminopeptidase H11 and the somatic protein rHc23, revealed homologs in A. vasorum. The genome sequence will provide a foundation for the development of new tools against canine angiostrongylosis, supporting the identification of potential drug and vaccine targets.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Infecções por Strongylida , Angiostrongylus/genética , Animais , Cães , Coração , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 307, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastrongyloid parasites Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infect wild and domestic canids and are important pathogens in dogs. Recent studies indicate that gastropod intermediate hosts infected with various metastrongyloids spontaneously shed infective third-stage larvae (L3) into the environment via feces and mucus under laboratory conditions. Shed L3 retain motility up to 120 days, but whether they retain infectivity was unknown. METHODS: To assess the infectivity of shed L3, the heart/lungs of six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were obtained from trappers in Newfoundland, Canada. Lungs were examined for first-stage larvae (L1) by the Baermann technique. A high number of viable A. vasorum L1 and a low number of C. vulpis L1 were recovered from one fox; these were used to infect naïve laboratory-raised Limax maximus. L3 recovered from slugs by artificial digestion were fed to two naïve purpose-bred research beagles (100 L3/dog). L1 shed by these two dogs was used to infect 546 L. maximus (2000-10,000 L1/slug). L3 shedding was induced by anesthetizing slugs in soda water and transferring them into warm (45 °C) tap water for at least 8 h. Shed L3 recovered from slugs were aliquoted on romaine lettuce in six-well tissue culture plates (80-500 L3/well) and stored at 16 °C/75% relative humidity. Four naïve research beagles were then exposed to 100 L3/dog from larvae stored for 0, 2, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, after shedding. RESULTS: All four dogs began shedding C. vulpis L1 by 26-36 days post-infection (PI). All four dogs began shedding A. vasorum L1 by 50 days PI. CONCLUSIONS: L3 infectivity for the definitive host was retained in both metastrongyloids, indicating the potential for natural infection in dogs through exposure from environmental contamination. As an additional exposure route, eating or licking plant or other material(s) contaminated with metastrongyloid L3 could dramatically increase the number of dogs at risk of infection from these parasites.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/fisiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 583-588, May-June 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278349

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diseases in free-ranging wild canids that were roadkill on highways in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. PCR tests were performed for the detection of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. in the spleen. Morphological evaluation and identification of parasites was performed in the liver and lung. Twenty specimens of C. thous were necropsied at the Animal Pathology Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. There was no PCR amplification of genomic DNA sequences of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. using DNA extracted from the spleen as template. Histologically, lesions associated with parasitism by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. were observed in the liver and lung, respectively. This is the first report of Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. parasitism in C. thous in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Therefore, this study demonstrated parasitism of crab-eating foxes by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. Importantly, no evidence of infection with Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. was obtained by PCR analysis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de doenças em canídeos silvestres de vida livre que foram atropelados em rodovias no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Testes de PCR foram realizados para a detecção de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. no baço. A avaliação morfológica e a identificação de parasitas foram realizadaa no fígado e no pulmão. Vinte espécimes de C. thous foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Animal do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Amostras de tecido foram processadas para exame histopatológico e análise de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Não houve amplificação por PCR das sequências de DNA genômico de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. usando-se DNA extraído do baço como modelo. Histologicamente, lesões associadas ao parasitismo por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. foram observadas no fígado e no pulmão, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro relato de Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. parasitismo em C. thous no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Portanto, este estudo demonstrou parasitismo de cachorro-do-mato por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. É importante detacar que não há evidências de infecção por Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. por análise de PCR.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Canidae/sangue , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Autopsia/veterinária , Baço/virologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...