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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 51(2): 159-165, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449402

RESUMO

In 2019, the Cancer Cachexia Web Questionnaire Survey(J-EPOCC), conducted among cancer patients, their families and healthcare professionals in Japan showed that nearly half of patients who had experienced appetite loss or weight loss during cancer treatment had not consulted with healthcare professionals about their symptoms, and it meant that patients missed the opportunity to receive medical intervention. Since anamorelin was approved in 2021 fo"r Cancer cachexia in non- small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer", the treatment environment for cancer cachexia has greatly changed. Thus, the second Web Questionnaire Survey(J-EPOCCⅡ)was conducted in June 2022 to investigate changes in the problem awareness of cancer cachexia, especially appetite loss and weight loss, among patients and their family and healthcare professionals. The results showed that there was no apparent change in awareness of appetite loss and weight loss, suggesting many patients may miss treatment opportunities. Further disease awareness is required among patients and their families to enhance the understanding of the significance of therapeutic interventions for appetite loss or weight loss, and to call their attention for early detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/terapia , Japão , Apetite , Redução de Peso , Anorexia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 451-457, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496748

RESUMO

The anorexia of aging is a widespread problem amongst older people, particularly in the hospital setting with up to 60% affected. Despite its high prevalence anorexia often goes undiagnosed in hospital, due to a lack of standardized assessment and evidence-based management, but also lack of knowledge regarding consequences. This review summarizes current evidence for anorexia of aging specific to the hospital setting, giving an overview of correlates of appetite in hospital and consequences of anorexia. It highlights an overall scarcity of research on this important clinical problem for hospitalized cohorts. The few studies point to the importance of anorexia of aging in major health burdens for older people, namely malnutrition, sarcopenia and reduced physical performance, as well as higher mortality. Further research is needed to assess temporal sequence in pathways of causality and to develop effective interventions to combat anorexia.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Idoso , Anorexia/complicações , Anorexia/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/terapia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Hospitais
3.
Eat Weight Disord ; 29(1): 22, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently exhibit Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), yet their co-occurrence is still unclear. To address this issue, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of impairments in interoception in explaining the NSSI phenomenon in AN and BN, providing an explanatory model that considers distal (insecure attachment/IA and traumatic childhood experiences/TCEs) and proximal (dissociation and emotional dysregulation) risk factors for NSSI. METHOD: 130 patients with AN and BN were enrolled and administered self-report questionnaires to assess the intensity of NSSI behaviors, interoceptive deficits, IA, TCEs, emotional dysregulation and dissociative symptoms. RESULTS: Results from structural equation modeling revealed that impairments in interoception acted as crucial mediators between early negative relational experiences and factors that contribute to NSSI in AN and BN, particularly emotional dysregulation and dissociation. Precisely, both aspects of IA (anxiety and avoidance) and various forms of TCEs significantly exacerbated interoceptive deficits, which in turn are associated to the emergence of NSSI behaviors through the increase in levels of dissociation and emotional dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model provided a novel explanation of the occurrence of NSSIs in patients with AN and BN by accounting for the significance of interoception. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V-Cross-sectional observational study.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Interocepção , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(13): e37652, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP), commonly observed in remnant gastric anastomosis, is associated with developing gastric cancer. CASE: This case report describes a patient with GCP in a previously unoperated stomach that mimicked a pyloric submucosal tumor and caused anorexia, which is rare in clinical practice. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 72-year-old woman presented with loss of appetite and weight. DIAGNOSES: Gastroscopy detected a 20 mm diameter submucosal tumor near the pylorus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging identified a cystic lesion, unlike a usual submucosal tumor in the stomach. The diagnosis was difficult, even with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. INTERVENTIONS: Surgery was performed for diagnosis and treatment. The lesion was resected using a submucosal dissection technique after an incision of the gastric wall during open laparotomy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of GCP and revealed no dysplasia or cancer. OUTCOMES: Anorexia resolved after the surgery. Residual or recurrent lesions were not detected during follow-up examinations performed 1 year after surgery. LESSONS: GCP occurring in a previously unoperated stomach as a macroscopic lesion like a submucosal tumor causing some symptoms is rare. GCP is associated with a risk of developing cancer. Therefore, careful evaluation and management during treatment are required.


Assuntos
Cistos , Gastrite , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Piloro/patologia , Anorexia/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Cistos/cirurgia , Gastrite/patologia
5.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113933, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460131

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disease, but the neural mechanisms underlying its development are unclear. A subpopulation of amygdala neurons, marked by expression of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ), has previously been shown to regulate diverse anorexigenic signals. Here, we demonstrate that these neurons regulate development of activity-based anorexia (ABA), a common animal model for AN. PKC-δ neurons are located in two nuclei of the central extended amygdala (EAc): the central nucleus (CeA) and oval region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST). Simultaneous ablation of CeAPKC-δ and ovBNSTPKC-δ neurons prevents ABA, but ablating PKC-δ neurons in the CeA or ovBNST alone is not sufficient. Correspondingly, PKC-δ neurons in both nuclei show increased activity with ABA development. Our study shows how neurons in the amygdala regulate ABA by impacting both feeding and wheel activity behaviors and support a complex heterogeneous etiology of AN.


Assuntos
Núcleo Central da Amígdala , Núcleos Septais , Animais , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Anorexia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia
6.
ESMO Open ; 9(3): 102941, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncologists tend to under-report subjective symptoms during cancer treatment. This study describes the under-reporting rate of selected symptoms and explores its association with overall survival (OS). A secondary aim is to test the association of patient-reported symptoms with OS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis on data pooled from 12 randomized trials, promoted by the National Cancer Institute of Naples (Italy), enrolling patients between 2002 and 2019, with published primary analyses. Occurrence and grade of six side-effects (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea and fatigue) reported by physicians were compared with corresponding symptoms reported by patients in quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaires. Under-reporting was defined as the rate of cases reported grade 0 by the physician while grade ≥1 by the patient. Prognostic value was tested in a multivariable model stratified by trial, including age, sex and performance status as confounders. A landmark threshold was defined for OS analyses. RESULTS: 3792 patients with advanced lung, ovarian, pancreatic, breast or colorectal cancer were pooled; 2603 (68.6%) were eligible having at least one toxicity assessment and one QoL questionnaire, before the first planned disease restaging. Concordance between physicians' and patients' reporting was low with Cohen's k coefficients ranging from 0.03 (fatigue) to 0.33 (vomiting). Under-reporting ranged from 52.7% (nausea) to 80.5% (anorexia), and was not associated with OS. Patient-reported anorexia, vomiting and fatigue ('a little' or more) were significantly associated with shorter OS. CONCLUSIONS: Under-reporting of treatment side-effects is frequent, but it does not affect OS. Patients' reported symptoms should be used for prognostic evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Anorexia/complicações , Fadiga/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Prognóstico , Vômito , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 224-234, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453507

RESUMO

Ten cases of small intestinal tympany with or without volvulus were documented in Central American river turtles (Dermatemys mawii). These turtles were under managed care at the Philadelphia Zoo in Philadelphia, PA, USA, with one case followed after transfer to a different institution. The primary clinical presentation was abnormal buoyancy in nearly all cases (9/10) and anorexia in two cases (2/10). Five of 10 turtles with suspected or radiographically confirmed small intestinal tympany recovered (5/10), whereas five cases (5/ 10) resulted in death or euthanasia. In all fatal cases (5/5), small intestinal volvulus was identified at gross necropsy, with concurrent colonic volvulus identified in 2/5 cases. Other notable necropsy findings were hepatic lipidosis (3/5) and thrombosis of intestinal or renal vasculature (2/5). In all fatal cases (5/5), there was short (1 to 2 days) clinical progression from abnormal buoyancy to death or euthanasia. In the majority of cases (6/10), an abrupt change in diet, notably the overfeeding of fresh fruit or excessive amounts of mulberry (Morus spp.) browse, or ingestion of indigestible foreign material, occurred prior to presentation. Temporary suboptimal environmental temperatures were suspected prior to the onset of clinical signs in 4/10 cases. Optimal husbandry conditions including nutrition and environmental temperature appear vital to preventing this condition. Recognition of early clinical signs of this condition, such as abnormal buoyancy and anorexia, and environmental correction or medical therapy, may prevent fatality and result in a better outcome in these cases.


Assuntos
Volvo Intestinal , Tartarugas , Animais , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico , Volvo Intestinal/veterinária , Anorexia/veterinária , Dieta , América Central
8.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 144(3)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415560

Assuntos
Anorexia , Humanos
9.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 28(3): 100035, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior research suggested that loss of appetite (LOA) among adults with Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) insurance in the United States increased the risk of mortality within 1 year; those findings were not adjusted for risk factors and confounders. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of mortality among Medicare FFS beneficiaries with LOA to a control group without LOA while controlling or adjusting for age, comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), and weight loss. DESIGN: Retrospective and observational analysis of Medicare FFS health insurance claims data from October 1, 2015 to December 31, 2021. SETTING: Claims from all settings (e.g., hospital inpatient/outpatient, office, assisted living facility, skilled nursing facility, hospice, rehabilitation facility, home) were included in these analyses. PARTICIPANTS: The LOA group included all individuals aged 65-115 years with continuous Medicare FFS medical coverage (Parts A and/or B) for at least 12 months before a claim with ICD-10 diagnosis code "R63.0 Anorexia". The control group was drawn from individuals aged 65-115 years with continuous Medicare FFS coverage who did not have a diagnosis of R63.0. Individuals with LOA were matched 1:3 to those in the control group based on age, sex, and race/ethnicity. MEASUREMENTS: Mortality in the LOA group was compared to mortality in the control group using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses and stratified or adjusted in terms of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), claims-based frailty index (CFI), BMI, and weight loss. RESULTS: The study population of 1,707,031 individuals with LOA and 5,121,093 controls without LOA was 61.7% female and 82.2% White. More individuals with LOA compared with the control group had a CCI score 5+ (52.4% vs. 19.4%), CFI score 5+ (31.6% vs. 6.4%), and BMI < 20 kg/m2 (11.2% vs. 2.1%). Median follow-up was 12 months (individuals with LOA) and 49 months (control group). In a matched population, the risk of mortality was significantly higher (unadjusted hazard ratio 4.40, 95% confidence interval 4.39-4.42) for individuals with LOA than the control group. Median survival time was 4 months (individuals with LOA) and 26 months (control group); differences in survival time remained when stratifying by CCI, BMI, and weight loss. CONCLUSION: Individuals with LOA had a substantially increased risk of death even after matching for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and adjusting for comorbidities. These findings highlight the burden of illness in older adults with LOA and the need for therapies.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Medicare , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apetite , Redução de Peso
11.
Appetite ; 196: 107259, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341037

RESUMO

The role of ghrelin metabolism in anorexia of ageing is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine acyl-ghrelin, total ghrelin, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase concentrations when fasted and in responses to feeding in older adults exhibiting anorexia of ageing. Twenty-five older adults (OA; 15f, 74 ± 7 years, 24.5 kg·m-2) and twelve younger adults (YA; 6f, 21 ± 2 years, 24.4 kg·m-2) provided a fasted measure of subjective appetite and fasted blood sample (0 min) before consuming a standardised porridge breakfast meal (450 kcal). Appetite was measured every 30 min for 240 min and blood was sampled at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min while participants rested. At 240 min, an ad libitum pasta-based lunch meal was consumed. Older adults were identified as those with healthy appetite (HA-OA) or low appetite (LA-OA), based on habitual energy intake, self-report appetite, BMI, and ad libitum lunch intake. YA ate more at lunch (1108 ± 235 kcal) than HA-OA (653 ± 133 kcal, p = 0.007) and LA-OA (369 ± 168 kcal; p < 0.001). LA-OA, but not HA-OA, had higher fasted concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin than YA (acyl-ghrelin: 621 ± 307 pg·mL-1 vs. 353 ± 166 pg·mL-1, p = 0.047; total ghrelin: 1333 ± 702 pg·mL-1 vs. 636 ± 251 pg·mL-1, p = 0.006). Acyl-ghrelin (60 min and 90 min) and total ghrelin (90 min) were suppressed to a greater extent for LA-OA than for YA (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in subjective appetite, acyl-to-total ghrelin ratio, or plasma GOAT content (p > 0.1). Higher fasting ghrelin and an augmented ghrelin response to feeding in LA-OA, but not HA-OA, suggests that alterations to ghrelin metabolism are not functions of ageing per se and may be independent causal mechanisms of anorexia of ageing.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Grelina , Humanos , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Ingestão de Energia , Aciltransferases , Estudos Cross-Over
13.
J Adolesc Health ; 74(4): 850-853, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among adolescents seeking gender-affirming care. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 660 gender-diverse adolescents who completed the Branched Eating Disorder Test to measure anorexia and bulimia symptoms. RESULTS: 23.9% (95% CI 20.7-27.4) reported both anorexia symptoms, namely overvaluation of weight and fear of (or recurrent interference with) weight gain. 0.9% (95% CI 0.3-2.0) reported all bulimia symptoms, namely overvaluation of weight, recurrent binge eating, and recurrent compensatory behaviors (e.g., weekly purging). For all symptoms, prevalence was higher among i) adolescents assigned female at birth compared to those assigned male at birth, and ii) adolescents who felt unsure about their gender identity compared to those who identified as trans or nonbinary. DISCUSSION: Clinicians should monitor eating disorder symptoms among adolescents presenting for gender-affirming care, especially among those assigned female at birth or who are unsure about their gender identity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Bulimia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Pessoas Transgênero , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Identidade de Gênero , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Eat Disord ; 57(3): 611-623, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the acceptability of Specialist Psychotherapy with Emotion for Anorexia in Kent and Sussex (SPEAKS), a novel intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN), conducted as a feasibility trial to provide an initial test of the intervention. METHODS: SPEAKS therapy lasting 9-12 months was provided to 34 people with AN or atypical AN by eight specialist eating disorder therapists trained in the model across two NHS Trusts in the UK (Kent and Sussex) during a feasibility trial. All participants were offered a post-therapy interview; sixteen patients and six therapists agreed. All patient participants were adult females. Interviews were semi-structured and asked questions around individuals' experience of SPEAKS, the acceptability of the intervention and of the research methods. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Key areas explored in line with research questions led to 5 overarching themes and 14 subthemes: (1) shift in treatment focus and experience, (2) balancing resources and treatment outcomes, (3) navigating the online treatment environment, (4) therapist adaptation and professional development, and (5) research processes. DISCUSSION: SPEAKS was found to be an acceptable intervention for treating AN from the perspective of patients and therapists. The findings provide strong support for delivery of a larger scale randomized control trial. Recommendations for future improvements, particularly pertaining to therapist understanding of the treatment model are detailed, alongside broader clinical implications. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: We aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a new anorexia nervosa treatment called SPEAKS. Interviews were conducted with patients and therapists involved in the pilot study and responses were analyzed. Results showed that both patients and therapists found SPEAKS to be an acceptable treatment for anorexia nervosa. The study suggests that SPEAKS meets the criteria for moving forward with a larger trial to assess its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia , Projetos Piloto , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Emoções
15.
Biol Sex Differ ; 15(1): 6, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217033

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often present sleep disorders and circadian hormonal dysregulation. The role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the regulation of feeding behavior has emerged during the last decades but its relationships with the circadian rhythm remains poorly documented. Thus, we aimed to characterize the circadian clock genes expression in peripheral and central tissues in the activity-based anorexia mouse model (ABA), as well as the dynamics of the gut-microbiota composition. METHODS: From day 1 to day 17, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were submitted or not to the ABA protocol (ABA and control (CT) groups), which combines a progressive limited access to food and a free access to a running wheel. At day 17, fasted CT and ABA mice were euthanized after either resting (EoR) or activity (EoA) phase (n = 10-12 per group). Circadian clock genes expression was assessed by RT-qPCR on peripheral (liver, colon and ileum) and central (hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus or SCN) tissues. Cecal bacterial taxa abundances were evaluated by qPCR. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by post-tests. RESULTS: ABA mice exhibited a lower food intake, a body weight loss and an increase of diurnal physical activity that differ according with the sex. Interestingly, in the SCN, only ABA female mice exhibited altered circadian clock genes expression (Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2). In the intestinal tract, modification of clock genes expression was also more marked in females compared to males. For instance, in the ileum, female mice showed alteration of Bmal1, Clock, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2 and Rev-erbα mRNA levels, while only Per2 and Cry1 mRNAs were affected by ABA model in males. By contrast, in the liver, clock genes expression was more markedly affected in males compared to females in response to ABA. Finally, circadian variations of gut-bacteria abundances were observed in both male and female mice and sex-dependent alteration were observed in response to the ABA model. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that alteration of circadian clock genes expression at both peripheral and central levels occurs in response to the ABA model. In addition, our data underline that circadian variations of the gut-microbiota composition are sex-dependent.


Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder with a female predominance. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Patients with anorexia nervosa often show alterations in circadian rhythm, including sleep disorders and modifications in hormone circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is controlled in the central nervous system, particularly in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but clocks have also been described in peripheral tissues. To better understand the putative role of circadian rhythm in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa, we have conducted an experimental study in a rodent model of anorexia nervosa called "activity-based anorexia" on both males and females. Interestingly, we observed that the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm is affected by the activity-based anorexia model in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues, such as the small intestine and liver. In addition, gut­microbiota also shows circadian variation. Interestingly, the anorexia-induced alterations of circadian variations (clock genes expression and gut­microbiota composition) are sex- and tissue-dependent. For instance, female mice exhibited more marked alterations in the ileum, whereas, in males, modifications were more pronounced in the liver. This study highlights sex-dependent alterations of circadian clock genes expression and of gut­microbiota in response to the anorexia rodent model. Further experiments should be performed to investigate the contribution of these mechanisms in the etiology of anorexia nervosa and the higher prevalence in females.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Microbiota , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Anorexia , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas CLOCK
16.
JAMA Oncol ; 10(3): 305-314, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206631

RESUMO

Importance: Currently there is no standard therapy to improve cancer-related anorexia, hampering survival. Mirtazapine has been suggested as a feasible option in this context. Objectives: To assess the effect of mirtazapine on appetite and energy consumption in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including adults was performed in a tertiary cancer care center from August 2018 to May 2022 with a follow-up of 8 weeks. Overall, 134 patients were screened; 114 were assessed for eligibility and 28 were excluded. Interventions: Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive mirtazapine, 15 mg, or placebo for 2 weeks followed by a dose escalation to 30 mg until week 8 or placebo. Both groups received nutritional assessment and dietary advice. Main outcomes and measures: Appetite was assessed by the Anorexia Cachexia Scale and energy intake. Dietary parameters were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, with a 24-hour dietary recall, and energy quantification based on the Mexican system of nutritional equivalents. Results: A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomized to the placebo (n = 43) or the mirtazapine group (n = 43). The mean (SD) age was 63.5 (11.2) years, 41 were women (57.7%) and had adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scale score of 1, stage IV NSCLC, and were receiving first-line treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There was no difference in appetite scores in patients who received mirtazapine or placebo after 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, mirtazapine significantly increased energy intake (379.3 kcal; 95% CI, 1382.6-576.1; P < .001) including proteins (22.5 g; 95% CI, 11.5-33.4; P = .001), carbohydrates (43.4 g; 95% CI, 13.1-73.8; P = .006), and fats (13.2 g; 95% CI, 6.0-20.4; P = .006). Fats intake was significantly higher in patients in the mirtazapine group (14.5 g vs 0.7 g; P = .02) after 8 weeks. The mirtazapine group significantly decreased the proportion of patients with sarcopenia (82.8% vs 57.1%, P = .03) at 8 weeks. Patients on mirtazapine tolerated the treatment well, but reported a higher perception of nightmares at 2 weeks based on a 10 cm VAS score (0 [25th-75th percentile, 0-1] vs 0 [25th-75th percentile, 0-0] in the control group; P = .009) but this finding was nonsignificant after 4 and 8 weeks. Conclusion and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of patients with advanced NSCLC, there was no difference in appetite scores in all patients who received mirtazapine or placebo, but the mirtazapine group had a significant increase in energy intake through the 4- and 8-week follow-up, mainly in fat intake, which is a better and crucial source of energy. The addition of mirtazapine in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC and anorexia may help these patients achieve their energy requirements and improve health-related quality of life, specifically emotional and cognitive functioning. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04748523.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Anorexia/etiologia , Estimulantes do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mirtazapina/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto
17.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 16, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain occurs in 20% of geriatric patients who visit the emergency department (ED). Geriatric patients usually have more severe conditions and a higher mortality rate. We aimed to determine the factors associated with serious abdominal conditions in geriatric patients who visit the ED with abdominal pain. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2021. The inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥ 65 years and presented at the ED with acute abdominal pain. Significantly associated factors for serious abdominal conditions were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1221 patients were included in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the significant factors associated with serious abdominal conditions were male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.29, 95% CI:1.3-4.04; p = 0.004), anorexia (AOR 2.16, 95% CI:1.08-4.32; p = 0.03), NEWS 5-6 (AOR 2.96, 95% CI:1.35-6.49; p = 0.007), SBP 100-125 mmHg (AOR 1.5, 95% CI:0.75-2.99; p ≤ 0.001), guarding (AOR 6.92, 95% CI:3.39-14.12; p ≤ 0.001), WBC ≥ 14,000 cells/mm3 (AOR 2.08, 95% CI:1.06-4.09; p = 0.034), ED length of stay (EDLOS) 4-8 h (AOR 2.17, 95% CI:1.08-4.36; p = 0.03), and EDLOS ≥ 8 h (AOR 3.22, 95% CI:1.15-9; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The statistically significant factors associated with serious abdominal conditions in geriatric patients were male, anorexia, NEWS 5-6, SBP 100-125 mmHg, guarding, WBC ≥ 14,000 cells/mm3, EDLOS 4-8 h, and EDLOS ≥ 8 h.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 59: 176-180, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A previous study reported an association between sarcopenia and anorexia determined by the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) in community-dwelling older adults. However, it is unclear in the community-dwelling older adults who are using outpatient rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia as judged by SNAQ in community-dwelling older adults using outpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: This study included 120 older adults (72.5% female). Subjects were provided outpatient rehabilitation one to three times a week. The main outcome was sarcopenia as determined using the Asian working group for sarcopenia 2019. The simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) was used to assess anorexia. The SNAQ total score range from 4 (worst) to 20 (best), with 13 score and lower considered to indicate anorexia. Statistical analysis was performed by forced-entry logistic regression analysis with sarcopenia as the dependent variable, body mass index (BMI), food intake level scale, anorexia, and propensity score calculated using age, sex, number of medications, updated Charlson comorbidity index as the independent variable. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was observed in 79 of 120 subjects (65.8%). Anorexia was observed in 28 subjects (23.3%). Logistic regression analysis revealed BMI (odds ratio: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.61-0.84]), anorexia (odds ratio: 5.35 [95% CI: 1.24-23.2]) were extracted as a significant variable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that anorexia as determined by the SNAQ is associated with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults using outpatient rehabilitation. This indicates the importance of understanding anorexia in assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults who are using outpatient rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Anorexia/complicações , Apetite , Vida Independente , Estudos Transversais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(4): e36997, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277537

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Previous studies have shown that acetaminophen has the potential to induce hepatotoxicity in patients, rendering it a prominent drug implicated in the development of acute hepatic failure. However, there is currently no available literature reporting the impact of ibuprofen-sustained release capsules on liver failure. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old man was presented with a 4-day history of tea-colored urine with oil avoidance, jaundiced skin, and anorexia, and impaired liver function. One ibuprofen-sustained release capsule was taken on the day before the onset of the disease due to "headache." DIAGNOSES: A diagnosis of this patient was made of liver failure due to taking ibuprofen-sustained release capsules. INTERVENTIONS: Initially, the patient discontinued the use of hepatotoxic drugs in order to prevent further exposure. Subsequently, the patient underwent a standard therapeutic regimen, which encompassed the administration of hepatoprotective agents, nutritional support drugs, correction of acid-base imbalances, and electrolyte abnormalities, as well as other relevant treatments. OUTCOMES: After 9 days of hepatoprotective and nutritional supplement therapy, the patient saw notable improvement in symptoms, reporting an absence of discomfort, subsided skin jaundice, clear urine, and liver function tests returning to a near normal range. The patient was granted permission to be discharged from the hospital while being prescribed drugs. After 2 weeks of follow-up, the patient reported an absence of discomfort and exhibited normal results in the liver function test. CONCLUSIONS: Liver failure caused by ibuprofen-sustained release capsules has not been reported. It is worth noting that conventional treatments such as suspending offending agents, and administration of hepatoprotective agents and nutritional support drugs have proven to be successful. LESSON: There is currently no known peer-reviewed literature indicating that the administration of ibuprofen-sustained release capsules leads to liver failure. When patients taking ibuprofen-sustained release capsules encounter symptoms such as anorexia, skin jaundice, lack of appetite, and nausea, it is recommended that they undertake a cardiac and liver function tests. In the event that ibuprofen-sustained release capsules induce liver injury, it is imperative to administer timely and immediate medical intervention.


Assuntos
Icterícia , Falência Hepática , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Anorexia , Cápsulas , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente
20.
Food Funct ; 15(3): 1431-1442, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224462

RESUMO

Probiotic intervention, already showing promise in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders like depression, emerges as a potential therapy for anorexia nervosa (AN) with minimal side effects. In this study, we established an activity-based anorexia (ABA) model to probe the pathogenesis of AN and assess the impact of probiotics on ABA mice. ABA resulted in a compensatory increase in duodenal ghrelin levels, impairing the regulation of feeding and the brain reward system. Intervention with Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus CCFM1312 ameliorated these ABA-induced effects, and the activation of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) was observed following probiotic administration, revealing the advantageous role of probiotics in AN through the vagus nerve. Furthermore, our metabolomics analysis of cecal contents unveiled that S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus CCFM1312 modulated gut microbiota metabolism and thereby regulated intestinal ghrelin levels.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Resiliência Psicológica , Streptococcus salivarius , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Grelina , Anorexia , Streptococcus thermophilus
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