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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e080393, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) were on the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak. Identifying clinical profiles in COVID-19 might improve patient care and enable closer monitoring of at-risk profiles. OBJECTIVES: To identify COVID-19 profiles in a population of adult primary care patients, and to determine whether the profiles were associated with negative outcomes and persistent symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In a prospective multicentre study, 44 GPs from multiprofessional primary care practices in the Paris area of France recruited 340 consecutive adult patients (median age: 47 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 during the first two waves of the epidemic. METHOD AND OUTCOME: A latent class (LC) analysis with 11 indicators (clinical signs and symptoms) was performed. The resulting profiles were characterised by a 3-month composite outcome (COVID-19-related hospital admission and/or death) and persistent symptoms three and 6 months after inclusion. RESULTS: We identified six profiles: 'paucisymptomatic' (LC1, 9%), 'anosmia and/or ageusia' (LC2, 12.9%), 'influenza-like syndrome with anosmia and ageusia' (LC3, 15.5%), 'influenza-like syndrome without anosmia or ageusia' (LC4, 24.5%), 'influenza-like syndrome with respiratory impairment' (LC5) and a 'complete form' (LC6, 17.7%). At 3 months, 7.4% of the patients were hospitalised (with higher rates in LC5), and 18% had persistent symptoms (with higher rates in LC5 and LC6). At 6 months, 6.4% of the patients had persistent symptoms, with no differences between LCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings might help GPs to identify patients at risk of persistent COVID-19 symptoms and hospital admission and then set up procedures for closer monitoring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Geral , Análise de Classes Latentes , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Paris/epidemiologia , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/epidemiologia
2.
Clin Ter ; 175(3): 154-162, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767072

RESUMO

Background: Rising global concerns about COVID-19 recently gained more research attention due to the ease of person-to-person transmission, various symptoms after healing, and the shortage of effective antiviral therapy. The study aims to analyze post-COVID conditions and clinical manifestations of cardiovascular lesions in patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. Methods: A practical examination of post-COVID conditions manifestation was conducted in a prospective cohort study, involving 250 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between June 1, 2021, and August 31, 2021. The study specifically focused on analyzing the cardiovascular effects of COVID-19, utilizing data from a subgroup of 200 patients previously discharged from the hospital with elevated troponin levels. The cardiovascular variables assessed included tachycardia, ischemia, heart attack, myocarditis, hypertension, blood clots, and heart failure. Results: It has been observed that among surviving patients, the following symptoms persisted: anosmia/ageusia (59%), severe dyspnea (36.7%), palpitations and complaints related to the cardiovascular sys-tem (15.8%), headaches (13.2%), arthralgia (11.7%), myalgia (9.8%), and hair problems (≥5%). By the 60th day, a reduction in symptoms by 5-10% was noted, and by the 90th day, a decrease in activity by 25-35% was observed. Patients aged 40-60 years exhibited the highest percentage of cardiovascular diseases (75%). Conclusions: Consequently, the SARS-CoV-2 virus underscores the critical importance of cardiological attention in patient care. Cardiac screening results in individuals with COVID-19 reveal a significant prevalence of serious heart problems, affecting over half of the patients. This emphasizes the necessity for heightened vigilance and specialized cardiac care when managing patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Anosmia/etiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Artralgia/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia
3.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 89(2): 33-39, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805461

RESUMO

Data on the state of sense of smell in patients who had a new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus are currently reduced because of the impairment of the olfactory nerve system. There are practically no results in studies of disorders in the trigeminal nerve system. OBJECTIVE: Qualitative assessment of olfactory disorders after COVID-19 according to the system of olfactory and trigeminal nerves with a targeted assessment of the functional component of olfactory disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 40 patients aged 19 to 66 who had a coronavirus infection. All patients underwent neurological, otorhinolaryngological examinations, olfactometry, filled out the hospital anxiety and depression scale. RESULTS: Anosmia was diagnosed in 5 (12.5%) patients, hyposmia in 21 (52.5%) patients, and normosmia in 14 (35%) patients. Formed: the 1st group - 14 patients (35%) with normogram according to olfactometry; the 2nd group - 26 patients (65%) with anosmia/hyposmia. In the 1st group, disorders of the anxiety-depressive spectrum were significantly more common. In the 2nd group, a low identification of odors was found, lying in the spectrum of fresh, sharp, unpleasant, irritating, compared with sweet and pleasant or neutral, which indicates a predominant lesion of the trigeminal system. CONCLUSION: In patients with complaints of impaired sense of smell after undergoing COVID-19, the possible functional nature of anosmia/hyposmia should be taken into account, which requires the referral of such patients to psychotherapeutic specialists, and the possible entry of olfactory disorders into the 'trigeminal' spectrum.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Nervo Trigêmeo , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Olfato/fisiologia , Olfatometria/métodos , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/etiologia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/diagnóstico
4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 82(5): 1-6, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor and non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia, which is evaluated through olfactory tests in the clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using the modified Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (mCCCRC) olfactory test and to compare its performance with the Sniffin' Sticks-12 (SS-12, Burghart Messtechnik GmbH, Wedel, Germany) test. METHODS: A transversal case-control study in which the patients were divided into the PD group (PDG) and the control group (CG). The cost and difficulty in handling substances to produce the mCCCRC test kits were evaluated. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, past coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, self-perception of odor sense, and cognition through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were also evaluated. The PDG was scored by part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) and the Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y) scale. Correlations were assessed through the Spearman rank correlation coefficient test (ρ, or rho). RESULTS: The mCCCRC test was easily manufactured and handled at a cost ten times lower compared with the SS-12. The groups (PDG: n = 34; CG: n = 38) were similar in terms of age, sex, level of schooling, smoking habits, and history of COVID-19. The tests results showed moderate correlation (rho = 0.65; p < 0.0001). The CG presented better cognitive performance and scored better in both tests (p < 0.0001). There was a tendency for a negative correlation with age, but good correlation with the MoCA (p = 0.0029). The results of the PDG group showed no correlation with olfactory results and motor performance or disease duration. The self-perception of hyposmia was low in both groups. CONCLUSION: The mCCCRC is an easy-to-apply and inexpensive method that demonstrated a similar performance to that of the SS-12 in evaluating olfaction in PD patients and healthy controls.


ANTECEDENTES: A doença de Parkinson (DP) cursa com sintomas motores e não motores como a hiposmia, que é avaliada por diferentes testes olfativos na prática clínica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do teste olfatório Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center modificado (mCCCRC) e compará-la à do teste Sniffin' Sticks-12 (SS-12, Burghart Messtechnik GmbH, Wedel, Alemanha). MéTODOS: Estudo transversal de caso-controle em que os pacientes foram divididos no grupo DP (GDP) e no grupo controle (GC). O custo e as dificuldades no manuseio das substâncias necessárias para a produção dos kits do teste mCCCRC foram avaliados. Características sociodemográficas, tabagismo, histórico de infecção por doença do coronavírus 2019 (coronavírus disease 2019, COVID-19, em inglês), autopercepção do olfato e cognição pelo Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) também foram avaliados. O GDP foi avaliado pela parte III da Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) e pela escala de Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y). As correlações utilizaram o teste do coeficiente de correlação de postos de Spearman (ρ, ou rho). RESULTADOS: O mCCCRC foi facilmente poroduzido e manipulado com custo dez vezes inferior ao do SS-12. Os grupos (GDP: n = 34; GC: n = 38) eram similares em termos de idade, sexo, escolaridade, tabagismo e histórico de COVID-19. Os resultados obtidos em ambos os testes mostraram excelente correlação (rho = 0.65; p < 0.0001). O GC teve um desempenho cognitivo melhor e pontuou melhor nos dois testes (p < 0.0001). Houve uma tendência a uma correlação negativa com a idade, mas boa correlação com a pontuação no MoCA (p = 0.0029). Os resultados olfativos do GDP não mostraram correlação com desempenho motor ou duração da doença. A autopercepção de hiposmia foi baixa em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSãO: O mCCCRC é um teste de fácil aplicação, baixo custo, e apresentou um desempenho semelhante ao do SS-12 na avaliação olfativa de pacientes com DP e controles saudáveis.


Assuntos
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/complicações , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Olfato/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Integr Neurosci ; 23(5): 105, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-Covid, characterized by persistent symptoms following acute Covid-19 infection, represents a complex challenge for the scientific community. Among the most common and debilitating manifestations, cognitive fog is a neurological disorder characterized by mental confusion and cognitive difficulties. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of previous Covid-19 infection on cortical brain activity in patients experiencing cognitive fog symptoms in the medium and long term. METHODS: A total of 40 subjects (20 females and 20 males) aged between 45 and 70 years (mean age (M) = 59.78, standard deviation (SD) = 12.93) participated in this study. This sample included individuals with symptoms of cognitive fog, both with and without anosmia, and a control group comprised of healthy subjects. All electroencephalography (EEG) data were collected in two sessions, 1 month and 8 months after recovery from Covid-19, to measure the neurophysiological parameters of P300 and beta band rhythms. RESULTS: The results revealed significant differences in the neurophysiological parameters of P300 and beta band rhythms in subjects affected by cognitive fog, and these alterations persist even 8 months after recovery from Covid-19. Interestingly, no significant differences were observed between the participants with anosmia and without anosmia associated with cognitive fog. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a significant contribution to understanding the long-term effects of Covid-19 on the brain and have important implications for future interventions aimed at managing and treating brain fog symptoms. The longitudinal assessment of cortical brain activity helps highlight the persistent impact of the virus on the neurological health of Long-Covid patients.


Assuntos
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Córtex Cerebral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Potenciais Evocados P300/fisiologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115970, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810537

RESUMO

Substance use disorder (SUD) exacerbates the impact of Long-COVID, particularly increasing the risk of taste and olfactory disorders. Analyzing retrospective cohort data from TriNetX and over 33 million records (Jan 2020-Dec 2022), this study focused on 1,512,358 participants, revealing that SUD significantly heightens the likelihood of experiencing taste disturbances and anosmia in Long-COVID sufferers. Results indicated that individuals with SUD face a higher incidence of sensory impairments compared to controls, with older adults and women being particularly vulnerable. Smokers with SUD were found to have an increased risk of olfactory and taste dysfunctions. The findings underscore the importance of early screening, diagnosis, and interventions for Long-COVID patients with a history of SUD, suggesting a need for clinicians to monitor for depression and anxiety linked to sensory dysfunction for comprehensive care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Distúrbios do Paladar , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 14(3): 545-556, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669560

RESUMO

Background: REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia were proposed by the Movement Disorder Society as research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease (P-PD). Global cognitive deficit was later added. Objective: To compare non-motor symptoms, focusing on cognition, between a P-PD group and a matched control group. Methods: In this cross-sectional, case-control study, in a first set of analyses, we performed extensive cognitive testing on people with (n = 76) and a control group without (n = 195) probable RBD and hyposmia. Furthermore, we assessed motor and non-motor symptoms related to Parkinson's Disease (PD). After propensity score matching, we compared 62 P-PD with 62 age- and sex-matched controls. In addition, we performed regression analyses on the total sample (n = 271). In a second set of analyses, we used, a.o., the CUPRO to evaluate retrograde procedural memory and visuo-constructive functions. Results: People with P-PD showed significantly poorer performances in global cognition, visuo-constructive and executive functions, mainly in mental flexibility (p < 0.001; p = 0.004; p = 0.003), despite similar educational levels (p = 0.415). We observed significantly more motor and non-motor symptoms (p < 0.001; p = 0.004), higher scores for depression (p = 0.004) and apathy (p < 0.001) as well as lower quality of life (p < 0.001) in P-PD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that global cognitive, executive, and visuo-constructive deficits define the P-PD group. In addition, depression, apathy, and lower quality of life were more prevalent in P-PD. If replicated in other samples, executive and visuo-constructive deficits should be considered in non-motor P-PD. Determining specific patterns will support early recognition of PD, secondary prevention of complications and the development of neuroprotective treatments.


Assuntos
Anosmia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/etiologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Cognição/fisiologia
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 85, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal adenocarcinoma accounts for less than 0.1-4% of all malignancies in the region. It is common among woodworkers and leather workers. Sinonasal adenocarcinoma usually arises from the ethmoid sinus (40%) or nasal cavity (25%). Extension to nearby structures is common, but intracranial spread is very rare. These tumors are usually treated with surgery, with a reported 5-year survival rate of 59% to 80%. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 60-year-old Black African male patient who presented with globalized headache, nasal obstruction with snoring during sleep, anosmia, change in mentation, sometimes agitation and left-side visual loss of one-year duration with worsening his above symptoms over the last one month. He couldn't smell soap bilaterally; in his left eye he could see only hand movement at nearly 30 cm. On brain magnetic resonance imaging, there was a T1 hypo- and T2 hyper-intense anterior cranial fossa mass arising from the left ethmoid sinuses and sphenoid sinuses and compressing the left optic structures, and brain computed tomography demonstrated heterogeneous hypo- to isodense mass. Complete tumor excision achieved and discharged with significant improvement and linked to oncology unit for radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: The management of these patients is multidisciplinary, involving neurosurgeons, otolaryngologists, oncologists, and maxillofacial surgeons. Surgical resection is the main treatment strategy, followed by radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated therapy. Chemotherapy is used in highly advanced, metastatic, and unresectable tumors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fossa Craniana Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/terapia , Anosmia , Encéfalo
9.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14018, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sudden smell loss is one of the early symptoms of COVID-19. Although it is stated that the loss of smell and taste following COVID-19 improves within a few weeks, there are also cases that do not improve for a long time. The aim of this study is to reveal long-term smell loss experiences after COVID-19. METHODS: A qualitative approach was adopted. We conducted semistructured interviews with 11 participants who had smell loss for at least 3 months. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and evaluated using a thematic analysis for qualitative data. RESULTS: Nutrition and appetite, personal hygiene, threats to safety and emotional changes were the main themes created by the authors and were the areas where participant expressions focused. The participants used oral/nasal corticosteroid therapy for smell loss and received short-term olfactory training, but could not find a solution. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term smell loss problems, which were neglected during the pandemic period, should be carefully evaluated due to their negative effects. Understanding and focusing on the negative effects of loss of smell may contribute to the solution of long-term smell loss problems. PATIENT AND PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Eleven participants who experienced long-term loss of smell following COVID-19 contributed to the study. They enriched the study by describing the effects of their experiences. There was no other participation or contribution from the public to the research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Anosmia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Olfato
10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 122: 106072, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Olfactory dysfunction and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are associated with distinct cognitive trajectories in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). The underlying neurobiology for this relationship remains unclear but may involve distinct patterns of neurodegeneration. This study aimed to examine longitudinal cortical atrophy and thinning in early-stage PD with severe olfactory deficit (anosmia) without and with concurrent probable RBD. METHODS: Longitudinal MRI data over four years of 134 de novo PD and 49 healthy controls (HC) from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) cohort were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Patients were categorized into those with anosmia by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score ≤ 18 (AO+) and those without (UPSIT score > 18, AO-). The AO+ group was further subdivided into AO+ with probable RBD (AO+RBD+) and without (AO+RBD-) for subanalysis. RESULTS: Compared to subjects without baseline anosmia, the AO+ group exhibited greater longitudinal declines in both volume and thickness in the bilateral parahippocampal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus. Patients with concurrent anosmia and RBD showed more extensive longitudinal declines in cortical volume and thickness, involving additional brain regions including the bilateral precuneus, left inferior temporal gyrus, right paracentral gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: The atrophy/thinning patterns in early-stage PD with severe olfactory dysfunction include regions that are critical for cognitive function and could provide a structural basis for previously reported associations between severe olfactory deficit and cognitive decline in PD. Concurrent RBD might enhance the dynamics of cortical changes.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos do Olfato , Doença de Parkinson , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/etiologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Atrofia/patologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
11.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 114-119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To review the publications subject to the problem of COVID-19 associated anosmia incidence in pediatric patients as well as its pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment and recovery. The peculiarity of pediatric COVID-19 anosmia is due to children accounting for very low percentage of COVID-19 patients (comparing to one in adults), mostly with milder course of the disease. Awareness of anosmia and its proper diagnostics is crucial in children and adolescents, considering it can be the only manifestation in COVID-19 positive pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: In order to achieve this goal a meta-analysis of information from databases followed by statistical processing and generalisation of the obtained data was carried out. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Publications on COVID-19 anosmia in children and adolescents are less numerous than those concerning adult patients, so it is important to use every single trustworthy one. Anosmia/ageusia may be the only symptom, early identifier and the strongest predictor of COVID-19 infection in pediatric patients. Prospects for further scientific researches. Further researches regarding differential diagnostics of COVID-19 and other infections, including seasonal influenza, manifesting with both olfactory and taste dysfunction as well as anosmia diagnostics in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum and different types of mental disorders are possible.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 24(4): 211-219, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492160

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurogenesis occurring in the olfactory epithelium is critical to continuously replace olfactory neurons to maintain olfactory function, but is impaired during chronic type 2 and non-type 2 inflammation of the upper airways. In this review, we describe the neurobiology of olfaction and the olfactory alterations in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (type 2 inflammation) and post-viral acute rhinosinusitis (non-type 2 inflammation), highlighting the role of immune response attenuating olfactory neurogenesis as a possibly mechanism for the loss of smell in these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have provided relevant insights into the role of basal stem cells as direct participants in the progression of chronic inflammation identifying a functional switch away from a neuro-regenerative phenotype to one contributing to immune defense, a process that induces a deficient replacement of olfactory neurons. The interaction between olfactory stem cells and immune system might critically underlie ongoing loss of smell in type 2 and non-type 2 inflammatory upper airway diseases. In this review, we describe the neurobiology of olfaction and the olfactory alterations in type 2 and non-type 2 inflammatory upper airway diseases, highlighting the role of immune response attenuating olfactory neurogenesis, as a possibly mechanism for the lack of loss of smell recovery.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Anosmia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Doença Crônica
13.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 51(3): 443-449, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory and gustatory functions are important sensory aspects in humans. Although they are believed to influence each other, their interrelationship is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the olfactory and gustatory functions based on the results of a large-scale epidemiological study (Iwaki Health Promotion Project) of the general local population. METHODS: We analyzed 565 participants who underwent taste and olfactory tests in the 2019 Iwaki Project. Gustatory function was tested for four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) using whole-mouth taste tests. Olfactory function was tested using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test modified for Japanese (UPSIT-J). We evaluated sex-related differences between olfactory and gustatory functions and the effects of various factors on olfactory identification using multivariate analysis. Furthermore, we compared the percentage of accurate UPSIT-J responses between the normal and hypogeusia groups. We also analyzed the effects of taste and olfactory functions on eating. RESULTS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were lower in men than in women. Among the four taste qualities, salty taste was the most closely associated with olfactory identification ability, with lower olfactory scores of salty taste in the hypogeusia group than in the normal group. Moreover, the hyposmia group had higher daily salt intake than the normal olfaction group in women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that olfactory identification tests may be useful in predicting elevated salt cognitive thresholds, leading to a reduction in salt intake, which may contribute to hypertension prevention.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Japão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia
14.
Chem Senses ; 492024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401152

RESUMO

Clinical assessment of an individual's sense of smell has gained prominence, but its resource-intensive nature necessitates the exploration of self-administered methods. In this study, a cohort of 68 patients with olfactory loss and 55 controls were assessed using a recently introduced olfactory test. This test involves sorting 2 odorants (eugenol and phenylethyl alcohol) in 5 dilutions according to odor intensity, with an average application time of 3.5 min. The sorting task score, calculated as the mean of Kendall's Tau between the assigned and true dilution orders and normalized to [0,1], identified a cutoff for anosmia at a score ≤ 0.7. This cutoff, which marks the 90th percentile of scores obtained with randomly ordered dilutions, had a balanced accuracy of 89% (78% to 97%) for detecting anosmia, comparable to traditional odor threshold assessments. Retest evaluations suggested a score difference of ±0.15 as a cutoff for clinically significant changes in olfactory function. In conclusion, the olfactory sorting test represents a simple, self-administered approach to the detection of anosmia or preserved olfactory function. With balanced accuracy similar to existing brief olfactory tests, this method offers a practical and user-friendly alternative for screening anosmia, addressing the need for resource-efficient assessments in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Anosmia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Sensorial , Olfato
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3455, 2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342941

RESUMO

Recent literature indicates that post-COVID-19 patients suffer from a plethora of complications, including chemosensory dysfunction. However, little attention has been given to understand the interactions between chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions in these patients. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and combinations of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions, (2) to identify the odorants/tastants that are compromised, and (3) to explore possible associations between the four dysfunctions in post-COVID-19 patients. One hundred post-COVID-19 patients and 76 healthy controls (pre-COVID-19) were included in this cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Participants' smell, taste, trigeminal, and salivary functions were assessed. The patients had a significantly higher prevalence of parosmia (80.0%), hyposmia (42.0%), anosmia (53.0%), dysgeusia (34.0%), complete ageusia (3.0%), specific ageusia (27.0%), dysesthesia (11.0%) and dry mouth (18.0%) compared to controls (0.0% for all parameters, except 27.6% for hyposmia). Complete loss of bitter taste was the most prevalent specific ageusia (66.7%) and coffee was the most common distorted smell (56.4%). Seven different combinations of dysfunction were observed in the patients, the most common being a combination of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (48.0%). These findings indicate that post-COVID-19 patients experience a range of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary disturbances, occurring in various combinations.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia , Estudos Transversais , SARS-CoV-2 , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Olfato
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 129: 111599, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment, particularly hyposmia and anosmia, has emerged as a distinctive early symptom of SARS-CoV-2. Drawing on the historical association of autoimmune diseases with olfactory function, this study delves into the connections between COVID-19, autoimmunity, and persistent olfactory dysfunctions, focusing on individuals experiencing long-lasting smell disorders (3-18 months post-SARS-CoV-2 infection). METHODS: The study comprised 36 Long Covid patients with persistent olfactory dysfunctions, alongside two control groups. Olfactory functionality was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks extended test. Non-invasive olfactory mucosa brushing and nasal secretions were processed for nasal samples, while serum samples were obtained through peripheral venous sampling. A panel of autoantibodies, including Immunocirculating Complexes, ANA, ENA, and AECA, was investigated in serum and brush supernatant samples. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the absence of traditional autoantibodies challenges the proposed autoimmune etiology of Long Covid-associated olfactory dysfunction. However, the presence and potential pathogenic role of AECA suggest viral cytopathic and inflammatory involvement in specific anatomical districts. One hypothesis explores the impact of inflammation and cytokine release induced by the viral infection, altering neuronal signaling and contributing to persistent hyposmia. CONCLUSION: This research contributes to our understanding of the complex relationships between autoimmunity, olfactory impairment, and COVID-19. The absence of classical autoantibodies challenges prevailing theories, while the prominence of AECA hints at unique viral-induced pathogenic mechanisms. By unraveling these complexities, this study enhances our comprehension of post-acute sequelae, offering valuable perspectives on immune-mediated responses in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Anosmia , Autoanticorpos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia
17.
J Neurol Sci ; 458: 122932, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) shows cardiac sympathetic denervation (SD) in 123I-metaiodobezylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Recently, SD in the major salivary glands (MSG-SD) was introduced as a possible radiological feature of PD. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical characteristics of patients with PD with reduced MSG and cardiac MIBG uptake (dual-SD) compared with those with reduced MSG or cardiac MIBG uptake only (single-SD). METHODS: We recruited 90 patients with PD and 30 controls and evaluated their non-motor (e.g., hyposmia, autonomic dysfunction) and motor (e.g., Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) features. We also assessed MIBG uptake in the MSG and heart using a quantitative semi-automatic method, and compared MIBG uptakes between PD and controls. We set cut-off values for optimal sensitivity and specificity, and compared the clinical characteristics of patients with PD between dual- and single-SD groups. RESULTS: MSG and cardiac MIBG uptakes were significantly reduced in PD. Sixty-one patients had dual-SD, 25 had single-SD, and four had non-SD. In patients with PD with normal cardiac SD, 76.5% (13/17) of whom showed abnormalities only in MSG-SD. When clinical characteristics were compared between the dual-SD and single-/non-SD groups, patients in the dual-SD group were older and had more severe hyposmia and autonomic dysfunction, except motor features. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age as an important confounder. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PD with dual-SD have more severe non-motor features than other patients. Autonomic dysfunction might progress independently from dopaminergic degeneration. Furthermore, our findings indicate that aging is a crucial factor in PD progression.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , 3-Iodobenzilguanidina , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Anosmia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 118: 78-89, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367845

RESUMO

Among the numerous long COVID symptoms, olfactory dysfunction persists in ∼10 % of patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 induced anosmia. Among the few potential therapies, corticoid treatment has been used for its anti-inflammatory effect with mixed success in patients. In this study, we explored its impact using hamster as an animal model. SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters lose their smell abilities and this loss is correlated with damage of the olfactory epithelium and persistent presence of innate immunity cells. We started a dexamethasone treatment 2 days post infection, when olfaction was already impacted, until 11 days post infection when it started to recover. We observed an improvement of olfactory capacities in the animals treated with corticoid compared to those treated with vehicle. This recovery was not related to differences in the remaining damage to the olfactory epithelium, which was similar in both groups. This improvement was however correlated with a reduced inflammation in the olfactory epithelium with a local increase of the mature olfactory neuron population. Surprisingly, at 11 days post infection, we observed an increased and disorganized presence of immature olfactory neurons, especially in persistent inflammatory zones of the epithelium. This unusual population of immature olfactory neurons coincided with a strong increase of olfactory epithelium proliferation in both groups. Our results indicate that persistent inflammation of the olfactory epithelium following SARS-CoV-2 infection may alter the extent and speed of regeneration of the olfactory neuron population, and that corticoid treatment is effective to limit inflammation and improve olfaction recovery following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Animais , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato/fisiologia , Anosmia/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Corticosteroides , Inflamação
19.
Laryngoscope ; 134(5): 2341-2348, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-reported olfactory dysfunction is an assessment component criterion for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) disease control of the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS). No studies have objectively explored olfactory function across different psychophysical olfactory domains among patients with uncontrolled CRS. We aimed to investigate the patterns of olfactory impairment in patients with uncontrolled CRS with Sniffin' Sticks test. METHODS: A total of 79 patients with CRS were prospectively recruited and assessed for disease control based on the EPOS criteria. Sniffin' Sticks test scores, olfactory cleft computed tomography (CT) scores, olfactory cleft endoscopy scale (OCES), questionnaire of olfactory disorders-negative statements (QOD-NS), and sinonasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22) were obtained. Multiple logistic regression was applied to explore risk factors of uncontrolled CRS. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of patients with CRS presented with uncontrolled status. The odor threshold (OT) (p = 0.005), odor identification (OI) (p = 0.041), and thresholds-discrimination-identification (TDI) (p = 0.029) scores were significantly lower in patients with uncontrolled CRS when compared with patients with controlled CRS. Furthermore, patients with uncontrolled CRS presented with a significantly increased percentage of anosmia (p = 0.014), olfactory cleft CT score (p = 0.038), OCES (p = 0.016), QOD-NS(p = 0.008), and SNOT-22 (p < 0.001) scores than patients with controlled CRS. After adjusting for patient demographics, as for the subdomain of olfaction, only the OT score was an independent risk factor for uncontrolled CRS (odds ratio = 0.604; p = 0.030). The OT scores less than 5.950 were the best predictor of uncontrolled CRS. CONCLUSION: Patients with uncontrolled CRS demonstrated distinct patterns of olfactory impairment, and a reduced olfactory threshold was highly associated with uncontrolled CRS. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 134:2341-2348, 2024.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Transtornos do Olfato , Rinite , Rinossinusite , Sinusite , Humanos , Rinite/complicações , Doença Crônica , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Olfato , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Anosmia
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 103(1_suppl): 164S-170S, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411125

RESUMO

Aim: To systematically review the cases of anosmia or ageusia after receiving the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and PubMed, to identify any published study that evaluated the anosmia or ageusia after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, including case reports, case series, letter to editor articles with reported cases regarding our topic, or observational studies with at least 1 eligible patient consisted with our criteria. We excluded the studies that reported anosmia or ageusia due to COVID-19 infection and non-COVID-19 vaccines. Results: Five studies consisting of 11 patients were included in this systematic review. Of the 11 patients, 5 patients had received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine and 6 patients received the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, of which 6 patients developed symptoms after the first dose of vaccination and 5 patients were symptomatic after the second vaccine dose. Most of the patients developed symptoms within 1 week after the vaccination. The disorders of the patients included partial or total anosmia, parosmia, phantosmia, hyposmia, ageusia, and dysgeusia. Also, the patients had symptoms other than smell or taste disorders, including arthralgia, fever, chills, rhinorrhea, myalgia, abdominal pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, altered bowel pattern, aural fullness, tinnitus, and headache. Most of the evaluated patients did not receive any treatment as for their disorders. However, in some cases, treatment with oral corticosteroids or dietary supplementation was required. Conclusion: Anosmia and ageusia are important symptoms of COVID-19 vaccination. These symptoms will resolve without any treatment in most cases, although some interventions may be needed in some patients.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Anosmia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/induzido quimicamente , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/induzido quimicamente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/complicações , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Vacina BNT162/efeitos adversos , Idoso
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