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1.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(4)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to clarify differences in mood, craving, and treatment response between reward and relief/habit individuals in a study of naltrexone, varenicline, and placebo. We hypothesized that relief/habit individuals would have a poorer mood during early abstinence and higher levels of alcohol craving than reward individuals. We hypothesized that reward individuals would demonstrate better drinking outcomes on naltrexone versus placebo. METHODS: Data were culled from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial of 53 individuals (18F/16M) with alcohol use disorder randomized to varenicline (n = 19), naltrexone (n = 15), or matched placebo (n = 19). In this 6-day practice quit trial, participants attempted to abstain from drinking and completed daily diaries. Participants were classified into reward or relief/habit subgroups based on self-reported motivation for drinking. Multilinear models tested differences in mood and alcohol craving between reward and relief/habit individuals. General linear models tested differences between reward and relief/habit individuals' drinking outcomes on each medication versus placebo. RESULTS: Relief/habit individuals showed decreases in positive mood and increases in negative mood over the quit attempt across medications, compared to reward individuals (P's < .05). Reward individuals' tension decreased on naltrexone, while relief/habit individuals' tension remained stable (F = 3.64, P = .03). Reward individuals in the placebo group had higher percent days abstinent than relief individuals in the placebo group (P < .001). DISCUSSION: This study suggests relief/habit individuals' mood worsens during early abstinence. Our finding that reward individuals' tension decreased on naltrexone and increased on placebo may suggest a clinical response to the medication.


Assuntos
Afeto , Alcoolismo , Fissura , Naltrexona , Recompensa , Vareniclina , Humanos , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Método Duplo-Cego , Adulto , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Addict Biol ; 29(7): e13423, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949205

RESUMO

In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have gained popularity as stylish, safe, and effective smoking cessation aids, leading to widespread consumer acceptance. Although previous research has explored the acute effects of combustible cigarettes or nicotine replacement therapy on brain functional activities, studies on e-cigs have been limited. Using fNIRS, we conducted graph theory analysis on the resting-state functional connectivity of 61 male abstinent smokers both before and after vaping e-cigs. And we performed Pearson correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between alterations in network metrics and changes in craving. E-cig use resulted in increased degree centrality, nodal efficiency, and local efficiency within the executive control network (ECN), while causing a decrease in these properties within the default model network (DMN). These alterations were found to be correlated with reductions in craving, indicating a relationship between differing network topologies in the ECN and DMN and decreased craving. These findings suggest that the impact of e-cig usage on network topologies observed in male smokers resembles the effects observed with traditional cigarettes and other forms of nicotine delivery, providing valuable insights into their addictive potential and effectiveness as aids for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Fissura , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Função Executiva , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Vaping , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiopatologia , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 54(3): 97-99, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993658

RESUMO

NTX is FDA-approved for opiate and alcohol use disorders as anti-craving agent. It has been used successfully off-label in other psychiatric indications. Here, we shed some light on these while examining the extant evidence.


Assuntos
Naltrexona , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes , Animais , Humanos , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Uso Off-Label , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Psicofarmacologia
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49344, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health prevention campaigns often face challenges in reaching their target audience and achieving the desired impact on health behaviors. These campaigns, particularly those aimed at reducing tobacco use, require rigorous evaluation methods to assess their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use immersive virtual reality (iVR) to systematically evaluate recall, attitudinal, and craving responses to antitobacco prevention messages when presented in a realistic virtual environment, thereby exploring the potential of iVR as a novel tool to improve the effectiveness of public health campaigns. METHODS: A total of 121 undergraduate students (mean age 19.6, SD 3.7 years), mostly female (n=99, 82.5%), were invited to take a guided walk in the virtual environment, where they were randomly exposed to a different ratio of prevention and general advertising posters (80/20 or 20/80) depending on the experimental condition. Participants' gaze was tracked throughout the procedure, and outcomes were assessed after the iVR exposure. RESULTS: Incidental exposure to antitobacco prevention and general advertising posters did not significantly alter attitudes toward tobacco. Memorization of prevention posters was unexpectedly better in the condition where advertising was more frequent (ß=-6.15; P<.001), and high contrast between poster types led to a better memorization of the less frequent type. Despite a nonsignificant trend, directing attention to prevention posters slightly improved their memorization (ß=.02; P=.07). In addition, the duration of exposure to prevention posters relative to advertisements negatively affected memorization of advertising posters (ß=-2.30; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although this study did not find significant changes in attitudes toward tobacco after exposure to prevention campaigns using iVR, the technology does show promise as an evaluation tool. To fully evaluate the use of iVR in public health prevention strategies, future research should examine different types of content, longer exposure durations, and different contexts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework E3YK7; https://osf.io/e3yk7.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Publicidade/métodos , Pôsteres como Assunto , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 280, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977700

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on decision-making capabilities in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD), alongside potential underlying psychological mechanisms. Employing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and computational modeling techniques, we assessed the decision-making processes of 50 male MUD participants (24 underwent rTMS treatment, 26 received no treatment) and 39 healthy controls (HC). We compared pre- and post-rTMS treatment alterations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Results revealed inferior performance in the IGT among the MUD group, characterized by aberrant model parameters in the Value-Plus-Perseverance (VPP) model, including heightened learning rate, outcome sensitivity, and reinforcement learning weight, alongside diminished response consistency and loss aversion. RTMS treatment demonstrated efficacy in reducing craving scores, enhancing decision-making abilities, and partially restoring normalcy to certain model parameters in the MUD cohort. Nonetheless, no linear relationship between changes in model parameters and craving was observed. These findings lend support to the somatic marker hypothesis, implicating the dlPFC in the decision-making deficits observed in MUD, with rTMS potentially ameliorating these deficits by modulating the function of these brain regions. This study not only offers novel insights and methodologies for MUD rehabilitation but also underscores the necessity for further research to corroborate and refine these findings. Trial Registration www.chictr.org.cn Identifier: No. ChiCTR17013610.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Tomada de Decisões , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Metanfetamina , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Masculino , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fissura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
6.
Appetite ; 200: 107575, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38908407

RESUMO

Food cue reactivity (FCR) is an appetitive trait associated with overeating and weight gain. We developed a laboratory craving assessment to objectively evaluate cognitive aspects of FCR. This study examined the preliminary construct and criterion validity of this craving assessment and evaluated 4 different interventions, 2 of which incorporated cue-exposure treatment for food, on craving over treatment and follow-up. 271 treatment-seeking adults with overweight/obesity (body mass index = 34.6[5.2]; age = 46.5[11.8]; 81.2% female; 61.6% non-Latinx White) completed the Food Cue Responsivity Scale and the laboratory craving assessment, during which they alternated holding and smelling a highly craved food and provided craving ratings over 5 min. Participants were subsequently randomized to 26 treatment sessions over 12-months of ROC, Behavioral Weight Loss (BWL), a combined arm (ROC+) and an active comparator (AC), and repeated the craving assessment at post-treatment and 12-month follow-up. Linear mixed-effects models assessed associations between trial type (holding vs. smelling), trial number, pre-treatment FCR, treatment arm, assessment time point, and craving. Cravings were greater when smelling vs. holding food (b = 0.31, p < 0.001), and cravings decreased over time (b = -0.02, p < 0.001). Participants with higher pre-treatment FCR reported elevated cravings (b = 0.29, p < 0.001). Longitudinally, we observed a significant 3-way interaction in which treatment arm modified the relationship between pre-treatment FCR and craving over time (F(17,5122) = 6.88, p < 0.001). An attenuated FCR-craving relationship was observed in ROC+ and BWL from baseline to post-treatment but was only sustained in BWL at follow-up. This attenuation was also observed in ROC and AC from post-treatment to follow-up. The preliminary validity of this laboratory craving assessment was supported; however, greater craving reductions over time in ROC/ROC+ compared to BWL and AC were not consistently observed, and thus do not appear to fully account for the moderating effect of FCR on weight losses observed in the trial.


Assuntos
Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Redução de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Trials ; 25(1): 417, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937776

RESUMO

CONTEXT: According to the World Health Organization, alcohol is a major global public health problem, leading to a significant increase in illness and death. To treat alcohol use disorders, new therapeutic tools are being promoted, among which virtual reality (VR) shows promise. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of VR in reducing alcohol cravings in patients, but there is a lack of data on its effectiveness in maintaining abstinence or reducing consumption in recently abstinent individuals. The E-Reva study aims to compare the efficacy of a treatment strategy combining virtual reality cue exposure therapy (VR-CET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with conventional CBT in reducing alcohol consumption and craving in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition to this primary objective, the study will compare the effects of VR-CET combined with CBT on anxiety, depression, rumination, and feelings of self-efficacy versus conventional CBT. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial will be conducted over 8 months in four addiction departments in France. It includes two parallel groups: i) the VR-CET + CBT group, and ii) the CBT-only group, which serves as a control group. Participants will be recruited by the investigating doctor in the addiction centers. The sample will consist of 156 patients diagnosed with AUD and abstinent for at least 15 days. Both treatment groups will participate in four group CBT sessions followed by four individual sessions: i) the VR-CET group will be exposed to virtual environments associated with alcohol-related stimuli, ii) the CBT-only group will receive traditional CBT sessions. After completion of the 8 sessions, patients will be followed up for 6 months. The primary outcome is the cumulative number of standard drinks consumed at 8 months, assessed using the TLFB method. DISCUSSION: Despite the promise of VR-CET to reduce the desire to drink, the effect on alcohol consumption remains uncertain in the existing literature. Our protocol aims to address the limitations of previous research by increasing sample size, targeting consumption reduction, and incorporating neutral environments. E-Reva aims to enrich the literature on the use of VR in the treatment of AUD and open new perspectives for future interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT06104176, Registered 2023/11/13 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT06104176?id=NCT06104176&rank=1 ). N° IDRCB: 2022-A02797-36. Protocol version 1.0, 12/05/2023.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Fissura , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Alcoolismo/terapia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Abstinência de Álcool , França , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sinais (Psicologia) , Realidade Virtual , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos
8.
Trials ; 25(1): 421, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cocaine craving is a central symptom of cocaine use disorders (CUD). Virtual reality cue-exposure therapy for craving (VRCET) allows more immersive, realistic, and controllable exposure than traditional non-VR cue-exposure therapy (CET), whose efficacy is limited in treating substance use disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of VRCET, as a stand-alone and add-on intervention (i.e., combined with cognitive therapy), compared to a picture-based CET (PCET), in reducing self-reported cocaine craving in inpatients hospitalized for CUD. METHODS: Fifty-four inpatients hospitalized for CUD will be randomized in one of two intensive 3-week treatment arms: 10 meetings/2-week treatment of VRCET plus 5 meetings/1-week treatment of memory-focused cognitive therapy (MFCT; experimental arm), or 15 meetings/3-week treatment of PCET (active control arm). The Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ - F & S) will be used to assess the primary outcome, i.e., the post-treatment decrease of self-reported cocaine craving frequency (within the past 2 weeks) and intensity scores (in VR exposure to cocaine cues). Secondary endpoints include urinary, physiological, and self-reported cocaine use-related measures. Assessments are scheduled at pretreatment, after 2 weeks of treatment (i.e., VRCET vs. PCET), post-treatment (3 weeks, i.e., VRCET + MFCT vs. PCET), and at 1-month follow-up. Acceptability will be evaluated via (i) the Spatial Presence for Immersive Environments - Cybersickness along VRCET and (ii) the Client Satisfaction Questionnaires after 2 weeks of treatment and post-treatment. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of VRCET for CUD, as a psychotherapeutic add-on, to reduce both cocaine craving frequency and intensity. Additionally, this study will provide evidence about the specific interest of VRCET, compared to a non-VR-based CET, as a cue reactivity and exposure paradigm for treating substance use disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05833529 [clinicaltrials.gov]. Prospectively registered on April 17, 2023.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 338: 115995, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852478

RESUMO

The use of methamphetamine in the United States is increasing, contributing now to the "fourth wave" in the national opioid epidemic crisis. People who suffer from methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) have a higher risk of death. No pharmacological interventions are approved by the FDA and psychosocial interventions are only moderately effective. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a relatively novel FDA-cleared intervention for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Several lines of research suggest that TMS could be useful for the treatment of addictive disorders, including MUD. We will review those published clinical trials that show potential effects on craving reduction of TMS when applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) also highlighting some limitations that affect their generalizability and applicability. We propose the use of the Koob and Volkow's neurocircuitry model of addiction as a frame to explain the brain effects of TMS in patients with MUD. We will finally discuss new venues that could lead to a more individualized and effective treatment of this complex disorder including the use of neuroimaging, the exploration of different areas of the brain such as the frontopolar cortex or the salience network and the use of biomarkers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Metanfetamina , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Fissura/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 261: 111353, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions offer opportunities to expand access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, collect objective real-time data, and deliver just-in-time interventions: however implementation has been limited. RAE (Realize, Analyze, Engage) Health is a digital tool which uses continuous physiologic data to detect high risk behavioral states (stress and craving) during SUD recovery. METHODS: This was an observational study to evaluate the digital stress and craving detection during outpatient SUD treatment. Participants were asked to use the RAE Health app, wear a commercial-grade wrist sensor over a 30-day period. They were asked to self-report stress and craving, at which time were offered brief in-app de-escalation tools. Supervised machine learning algorithms were applied retrospectively to wearable sensor data obtained to develop group-based digital biomarkers for stress and craving. Engagement was assessed by number of days of utilization, and number of hours in a given day of connection. RESULTS: Sixty percent of participants (N=30) completed the 30-day protocol. The model detected stress and craving correctly 76 % and 69 % of the time, respectively, but with false positive rates of 33 % and 28 % respectively. All models performed close to previously validated models from a research grade sensor. Participants used the app for a mean of 14.2 days (SD 10.1) and 11.7 h per day (SD 8.2). Anxiety disorders were associated with higher mean hours per day connected, and return to drug use events were associated with lower mean hours per day connected. CONCLUSIONS: Future work should explore the effect of similar digital health systems on treatment outcomes and the optimal dose of digital interventions needed to make a clinically significant impact.


Assuntos
Fissura , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Fissura/fisiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847535

RESUMO

Given the widespread use and relapse of methamphetamine (METH), it has caused serious public health burdens globally. However, the neurobiological basis of METH addiction remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate changes in brain networks and their connection to impulsivity and drug craving in abstinent individuals with METH use disorder (MUDs). A total of 110 MUDs and 55 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional MRI and T1-weighted imaging scans, and completed impulsivity and cue-induced craving measurements. We applied independent component analysis to construct functional brain networks and multivariate analysis of covariance to investigate group differences in network connectivity. Mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships among brain-network functional connectivity (FC), impulsivity, and drug craving in the patients. MUDs showed increased connectivity in the salience network (SN) and decreased connectivity in the default mode network compared to HCs. Impulsivity was positively correlated with FC within the SN and played a completely mediating role between METH craving and FC within the SN in MUDs. These findings suggest alterations in functional brain networks underlying METH dependence, with SN potentially acting as a core neural substrate for impulse control disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Encéfalo , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Impulsivo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Adulto , Fissura/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 260, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897999

RESUMO

Functional inhibition is known to improve treatment outcomes in substance use disorder (SUD), potentially through craving management enabled by underlying cerebral integrity. Whereas treatment is challenged by a multitude of substances that patients often use, no study has yet unraveled if inhibition and related cerebral integrity could prevent relapse from multiples substances, that is, one's primary drug of choice and secondary ones. Individuals with primary alcohol, cannabis, or tobacco use disorders completed intensive Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) coupled with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to characterize the extent to which inhibition and cerebral substrates interact with craving and use of primary and any substances. Participants were 64 patients with SUD and 35 healthy controls who completed one week EMA using Smartphones to report 5 times daily their craving intensity and substance use and to complete Stroop inhibition testing twice daily. Subsamples of 40 patients with SUD and 34 control individuals underwent rs-fMRI. Mixed Model Analysis revealed that reported use of any substance by SUD individuals predicted later use of any and primary substance, whereas use of the primary substance only predicted higher use of that same substances. Craving and inhibition level independently predicted later use but did not significantly interact. Preserved inhibition performance additionally influenced use indirectly by mediating the link between subsequent uses and by being linked to rs-fMRI connectivity strength in fronto-frontal and cerebello-occipital connections. As hypothesized, preserved inhibition performance, reinforced by the integrity of inhibitory neurofunctional substrates, may partake in breaking an unhealthy substance use pattern for a primary substance but may not generalize to non-target substances or to craving management.


Assuntos
Fissura , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(3): 221-229, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Addiction behaviors are primary contributors to mental health issues among adolescents, often utilized as coping mechanisms or emotional regulation tools. This study aimed to establish the content validity of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) for Colombian adolescents, recognized for its representation of the cognitive-emotional aspects of craving. METHODOLOGY: This quantitative research focused on instrument validation. Seven subject matter experts evaluated the scale in terms of pertinence, relevance, usefulness, sufficiency, clarity, and appearance. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22, calculating internal consistency and the Content Validity Index. Qualitative feedback from experts was compiled in an Excel matrix, facilitating grammatical and semantic adjustments to the instrument. RESULTS: Cronbach's Alpha values for each item and the scale exceeded 0.8. Content Validity Index scores exceeded 0.7 in four out of five evaluated criteria. These results supported retaining all scale items in the Colombian version. CONCLUSIONS: The content validation process yielded an instrument that satisfied expert opinion regarding conceptual constructs and explanatory power for the Colombian adolescent population.


Assuntos
Fissura , Humanos , Adolescente , Colômbia , Masculino , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico
14.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892593

RESUMO

Decreased sleep quality and duration is associated with an array of negative health outcomes. Evidence suggests athletes are susceptible to sleep inadequacies that may in turn affect their health and dietary behaviours. This study aimed to explore the sleep profile of both male and female Gaelic games players, at an elite and sub-elite level and compare how poor sleep relates to subjective health complaints and food cravings. One hundred and seventy Gaelic games players completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SHC) and Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-Reduced (FCQ-T-r). Participants were categorised into two groups: poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5) and good sleepers (PSQI < 5). Outcome measures of health and food cravings were analysed across the groups, Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess differences, and Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to determine relationships between variables. Sixty-seven % of athletes were categorised as poor sleepers. There were no significant differences in PSQI scores across genders (p = 0.088) or playing level (p = 0.072). Poor sleepers experienced significantly increased SHC (p < 0.001) and female athletes had significantly more SHC compared to males (p < 0.001). Female athletes experienced more food cravings than males (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences in food cravings between good and poor sleepers (p = 0.104). The findings suggest a high prevalence of poor sleepers amongst GAA athletes. Furthermore, a significant relationship exists between poor sleep and health complaints with females at a higher risk of worsened health complaints and higher food cravings. Sleep screening and education interventions to enhance sleep in GAA athletes are advocated.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento Alimentar , Sono , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Sono/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Qualidade do Sono , Adolescente , Fissura , Dieta , Nível de Saúde
15.
J Psychopharmacol ; 38(6): 541-550, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health issue, posing harmful consequences for individuals and society. Recent advances in addiction research have highlighted the therapeutic potential of ketamine-assisted therapy for AUD. However, the exact mechanisms underlying its effectiveness remain unknown. AIMS: This double-blind, pilot study aimed to investigate esketamine combined with mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to examine whether esketamine enhances engagement in MBI for individuals with alcohol misuse problems and whether enhanced engagement has any impact on alcohol-related outcomes. METHODS: In all, 28 individuals with alcohol problems were randomly assigned to receive sublingual esketamine hydrochloride (AWKN002: 115.1 mg) or vitamin C (placebo) in an oral thin film and took part in 2 weeks of daily MBI. Participants were assessed on various self-report measures, including mindfulness, engagement in MBI (physical and psychological), alcohol cravings and consumption. RESULTS: Esketamine enhanced psychological engagement with a daily MBI, compared to placebo, and led to transient decreases in alcohol cravings. Esketamine also resulted in significantly greater mystical experiences and dissociative states compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that esketamine may improve treatment outcomes when combined with mindfulness-based therapies through its ability to increase engagement with meditative practice.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Fissura , Ketamina , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Masculino , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Adulto , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(10): 1455-1463, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craving is a core feature of addiction. Rumination and depression play a crucial role in the process of methamphetamine addiction. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between rumination, depression and craving in methamphetamine patients, which has not been explored yet. METHODS: A total of 778 patients with methamphetamine user disorder (MUD) at the Xinhua Drug Rehabilitation Center, located in Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. We used a set of self-administered questionnaires that included socio-demographic, detailed drug use history, rumination, depression and craving information. The Rumination Response Scale (RRS) was used to measure rumination, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure depression and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure craving. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between rumination and craving, or depression, and between depression and craving. Furthermore, depression mediated between rumination and craving, with a mediation effect of 160%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is a close interrelationship between rumination, craving and depression in MUD patients, and that depression may play a mediating role between rumination and craving.


This is the first study to investigate the relationship between rumination and craving during withdrawal in methamphetamine dependent patients and the mediating role of depression.Among methamphetamine patients, it was found that reflection was positively correlated with rumination and depression, depression and craving, rumination and craving, and depression plays the mediating role between rumination and craving.These findings suggest that interventions to reduce depression and rumination may also be effective for withdrawal and relapse reduction in methamphetamine patients, providing further rationale for the treatment of methamphetamine patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Fissura , Depressão , Metanfetamina , Ruminação Cognitiva , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , China , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , População do Leste Asiático
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 260: 111312, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to pilot test newly developed personalized imagery procedures to investigate the impact of racial stress on alcohol craving and emotional and physiological response in Black adults with alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Twenty Black adults (45% women, meanage=37.05, SDage=13.19) with AUD participated in two sessions. In the first, participants described a stressful personal event involving their race and a neutral relaxing situation and these descriptions were used to develop scripts for the subsequent laboratory exposure session. The second session was an experimental provocation session in which participants reported on alcohol craving and emotional response before and after imagined exposure to stress and neutral conditions using personalized racial stress and neutral/relaxing scripts. Conditions were randomized and counterbalanced across subjects, and heart rate and blood pressure were assessed before and after each image. RESULTS: Alcohol craving and negative emotions significantly increased, and positive emotions decreased following the racial stress script relative to the neutral/relaxing script. We found no differences in physiological response. Exploratory analyses found that increase in alcohol craving was correlated with racial identity exploration but not racial identity commitment, men reported greater reductions in anger than women in the neutral condition only, and income was correlated with fear in the racial stress condition only. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that personalized racial stress procedures elicit a stress response and increases alcohol craving and emotional response but not physiological response among Black adults with AUD. These findings warrant replication in a larger study.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Fissura , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Fissura/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Racismo/psicologia
18.
Addict Behav ; 156: 108075, 2024 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between past-year internalizing symptoms and the time to first report of signs of nicotine dependence among young people. METHODS: Secondary analysis using data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) (Waves 1-5; 2013-2019). The study included 2,102 (N = 5,031,691) young people (age 12-23 years) who reported past-30-day (P30D) e-cigarette use in one or more waves. Kaplan Meier curves, stratified by past year internalizing symptoms were used to estimate the time to the first report of three nicotine dependence symptoms (i.e., use within 30 min of waking, cravings, and really needing to use) following the first P30D e-cigarette use. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (AHR), comparing any past year internalizing symptoms to no past year internalizing symptoms. RESULTS: We found no significant differences between past year internalizing symptoms and the time to the first report of cravings (AHR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 92-1.85), really needing to use (AHR = 1.31; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.89) and use within 30 min of waking for follow-up times 0-156 weeks (AHR = 0.84; 95 % CI = 0.55-1.30) and > 156 weeks (AHR = 0.41; 95 % CI = 0.04-4.67) respectively. CONCLUSION: Past year internalizing symptoms did not modify the time to the first report of nicotine dependence among youth with P30D e-cigarette use. Further research is needed to understand how changing internalizing symptoms and e-cigarette use frequency influence nicotine dependence over time and, how this relationship impacts cessation behavior.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Vaping , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Criança , Fatores de Tempo , Fissura , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia
19.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725398

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to compare reward, relief, and habit treatment-seeking individuals on recent drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD) phenomenology, and mood. The second aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive validity of reward, relief, and habit profiles. METHOD: Treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD (n = 169) were recruited to participate in a medication trial for AUD (NCT03594435). Reward, relief, and habit drinking groups were assessed using the UCLA Reward Relief Habit Drinking Scale. Group differences at baseline were evaluated using univariate analyses of variance. A subset of participants were enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled medication trial (n = 102), and provided longitudinal drinking and phenomenology data. The predictive validity of group membership was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, individuals who drink primarily for relief had higher craving and negative mood than those who drink for reward and habit. Prospectively, membership in the relief drinking group predicted greater alcohol use, greater heavy drinking, and fewer days abstinent compared to those in the reward drinking group. Membership in the relief drinking group also predicted greater alcohol craving, more alcohol-related consequences, and more anxiety symptoms over 12 weeks compared to those in the reward drinking group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for reward and relief drinking motive profiles in treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD. Membership in the relief drinking motive group was predictive of poorer drinking outcomes and more negative symptomology over 12 weeks, indicating that individuals who drink for relief may be a particularly vulnerable sub-population of individuals with AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Hábitos , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alcoolismo/terapia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Duplo-Cego , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Afeto , Fissura
20.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(4)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The popularity of temporary abstinence challenges (TACs) concerning alcohol consumption is increasing. Support is found to be essential for participants to help them get through a challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the additional effect of a self-help guide, based on health behaviour theories and behaviour change techniques, on (i) successful completion of a TAC and (ii) changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), behavioural automaticity, craving, and alcohol consumption. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed (OSF registries: OSF.IO/B95VU). NoThanks participants received a questionnaire before the TAC (T0) and 8 months after the TAC (T1). Out of a subgroup of 1308 respondents who were interested in additional support, 652 were randomly assigned to receive the guide (experimental group), and 656 did not receive any additional support (control group). Logistic regressions and (generalized) linear mixed model analyses were used. RESULTS: After 8 months, all participants showed a significant decrease in behavioural automaticity, craving, and alcohol consumption, irrespective of group assignment. No significant changes were observed in the DRSE. This degree of change over time in behavioural automaticity, craving, and alcohol consumption did not differ between the experimental and control group. Sensitivity analyses with participants in the experimental group, who differed in exposure to the guide, did not show differences either. CONCLUSION: The self-help guide, and how it was designed, added no value to the TAC. Future research should focus on more bottom-up, customized support and explore what (different subgroups of) participants think they need as extra support during a TAC.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Fissura , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia
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