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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 555, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for new bioactive natural compounds with anticancer activity is still of great importance. Even though their potential for diagnostics and treatment of cancer has already been proved, the availability is still limited. Hypericin, a naphthodianthrone isolated essentially from plant source Hypericum perforatum L. along with other related anthraquinones and bisanthraquinones belongs to this group of compounds. Although it has been proven that hypericin is synthesized by the polyketide pathway in plants, none of the candidate genes coding for key enzymes has been experimentally validated yet. Despite the rare occurrence of anthraquinones in plants, their presence in microorganisms, including endophytic fungi, is quite common. Unlike plants, several biosynthetic genes grouped into clusters (BGCs) in fungal endophytes have already been characterized. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to predict, identify and characterize the anthraquinone BGCs in de novo assembled and functionally annotated genomes of selected endophytic fungal isolates (Fusarium oxysporum, Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Scedosporium apiospermum, Diaporthe eres, Canariomyces subthermophilus) obtained from different tissues of Hypericum spp. The number of predicted type I polyketide synthase (PKS) BGCs in the studied genomes varied. The non-reducing type I PKS lacking thioesterase domain and adjacent discrete gene encoding protein with product release function were identified only in the genomes of C. subthermophilus and D. eres. A candidate bisanthraquinone BGC was predicted in C. subthermophilus genome and comprised genes coding the enzymes that catalyze formation of the basic anthraquinone skeleton (PKS, metallo-beta-lactamase, decarboxylase, anthrone oxygenase), putative dimerization enzyme (cytochrome P450 monooxygenase), other tailoring enzymes (oxidoreductase, dehydrogenase/reductase), and non-catalytic proteins (fungal transcription factor, transporter protein). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide an insight into genetic background of anthraquinone biosynthesis in Hypericum-borne endophytes. The predicted bisanthraquinone gene cluster represents a basis for functional validation of the candidate biosynthetic genes in a simple eukaryotic system as a prospective biotechnological alternative for production of hypericin and related bioactive anthraquinones.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas , Endófitos , Hypericum , Família Multigênica , Policetídeos , Hypericum/microbiologia , Hypericum/genética , Hypericum/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Simulação por Computador , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/metabolismo , Antracenos/metabolismo , Genômica , Filogenia
2.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792257

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive and lethal brain tumor, is a substantial clinical challenge and a focus of increasing concern globally. Hematological toxicity and drug resistance of first-line drugs underscore the necessity for new anti-glioma drug development. Here, 43 anthracenyl skeleton compounds as p53 activator XI-011 analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects. Five compounds (13d, 13e, 14a, 14b, and 14n) exhibited good anti-glioma activity against U87 cells, with IC50 values lower than 2 µM. Notably, 13e showed the best anti-glioma activity, with an IC50 value up to 0.53 µM, providing a promising lead compound for new anti-glioma drug development. Mechanistic analyses showed that 13e suppressed the MDM4 protein expression, upregulated the p53 protein level, and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis based on Western blot and flow cytometry assays.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Apoptose , Glioblastoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Humanos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antracenos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo
3.
Neuropharmacology ; 254: 109994, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750803

RESUMO

Neuronal voltage-gated KCNQ (Kv7) channels, expressed centrally and peripherally, mediate low-threshold and non-inactivating M-currents responsible for the control of tonic excitability of mammalian neurons. Pharmacological opening of KCNQ channels has been reported to generate analgesic effects in animal models of neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the possible involvement of central KCNQ channels in the analgesic effects of retigabine, a KCNQ channel opener. Behaviorally, intraperitoneally applied retigabine exerted analgesic effects on thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice developing neuropathic pain after partial sciatic nerve ligation, which was antagonized by the KCNQ channel blocker XE991 preadministered intraperitoneally and intrathecally. Intrathecally applied retigabine also exerted analgesic effects that were inhibited by intrathecally injected XE991. We then explored the synaptic mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of retigabine in the spinal dorsal horn. Whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices with attached dorsal roots from adult male mice developing neuropathic pain, and the effects of retigabine on miniature and afferent-evoked postsynaptic currents were examined. Retigabine reduced the amplitude of A-fiber-mediated EPSCs without affecting C-fiber-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission. A-fiber-mediated EPSCs remained unaltered by retigabine in the presence of XE991, consistently with the behavioral findings. The frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs were not affected by retigabine. Thus, opening of KCNQ channels in the central terminals of primary afferent A-fibers inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn, most likely contributing to the analgesic effect of retigabine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Antracenos , Carbamatos , Canais de Potássio KCNQ , Fenilenodiaminas , Animais , Masculino , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/efeitos dos fármacos , Antracenos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Células do Corno Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 221: 98-110, 2024 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754743

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive treatment in which specific photosensitizers and light are used to produce high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be employed for targeted tissue destruction in cancer treatment or antimicrobial therapy. However, it remains unknown whether lower amounts of ROS produced by mild photodynamic therapy increase lifespan and stress resistance at the organism level. Here, we introduce a novel photodynamic treatment (PDTr) that uses 20 µM hypericin, a photosensitizer that originates from Hypericum perforatum, and orange light (590 nm, 5.4 W/m2, 1 min) to induce intracellular ROS formation (ROS), thereby resulting in lifespan extension and improved stress resistance in C. elegans. The PDTr-induced increase in longevity was abrogated by N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the hormetic response was driven by prooxidative mechanisms. PDTr activated the translocation of SKN-1/NRF-2 and DAF-16/FOXO, leading to elevated expression of downstream oxidative stress-responsive genes, including ctl-1, gst-4, and sod-3. In summary, our findings suggest a novel PDTr method that extends the lifespan of C. elegans under both normal and oxidative stress conditions through the activation of SKN-1 and DAF-16 via the involvement of many antioxidant genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Longevidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Perileno , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/farmacologia , Antracenos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732141

RESUMO

Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which no curative therapies are yet available. Indeed, no single medication or intervention has proven fully effective thus far. Therefore, the combination of multitarget agents has been appealing as a potential therapeutic approach against FAD. Here, we investigated the potential of combining tramiprosate (TM), curcumin (CU), and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP) as a treatment for FAD. The study analyzed the individual and combined effects of these two natural agents and this pharmacological inhibitor on the accumulation of intracellular amyloid beta iAß; hyperphosphorylated protein TAU at Ser202/Thr205; mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); oxidized protein DJ-1; proapoptosis proteins p-c-JUN at Ser63/Ser73, TP53, and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3); and deficiency in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced transient Ca2+ influx response in cholinergic-like neurons (ChLNs) bearing the mutation I416T in presenilin 1 (PSEN1 I416T). We found that single doses of TM (50 µM), CU (10 µM), or SP (1 µM) were efficient at reducing some, but not all, pathological markers in PSEN 1 I416T ChLNs, whereas a combination of TM, CU, and SP at a high (50, 10, 1 µM) concentration was efficient in diminishing the iAß, p-TAU Ser202/Thr205, DJ-1Cys106-SO3, and CC3 markers by -50%, -75%, -86%, and -100%, respectively, in PSEN1 I417T ChLNs. Although combinations at middle (10, 2, 0.2) and low (5, 1, 0.1) concentrations significantly diminished p-TAU Ser202/Thr205, DJ-1Cys106-SO3, and CC3 by -69% and -38%, -100% and -62%, -100% and -62%, respectively, these combinations did not alter the iAß compared to untreated mutant ChLNs. Moreover, a combination of reagents at H concentration was able to restore the dysfunctional ACh-induced Ca2+ influx response in PSEN 1 I416T. Our data suggest that the use of multitarget agents in combination with anti-amyloid (TM, CU), antioxidant (e.g., CU), and antiapoptotic (TM, CU, SP) actions might be beneficial for reducing iAß-induced ChLN damage in FAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Antracenos , Curcumina , Presenilina-1 , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Antracenos/farmacologia , Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 258: 116342, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705071

RESUMO

In biological systems, nucleosides play crucial roles in various physiological processes. In this study, we designed and synthesized four achiral anthracene-based tetracationic nanotubes (1-4) as artificial hosts and chiroptical sensors for nucleosides in aqueous media. Notably, different nanotubes exhibit varied chirality sensing on circular dichroism (CD)/circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra through the host-guest complexation, which prompted us to explore the factors influencing their chiroptical responses. Through systematic host-guest experiments, the structure-chirality sensing relationship between achiral anthracene-based tetracationic nanotubes and nucleosides in the host-guest complexation was unraveled. Firstly, the CD response originates from the anthracene rings situated at the side-wall position, resulting from the right-handed (P)- or left-handed (M)-twisted conformation of the macrocyclic structure. Secondly, the CPL signal is influenced by the presence of anthracene rings at the linking-wall position, which results from intermolecular chiral twisted stacking between these anthracene rings. Therefore, these nanotubes can serve as chiroptical sensor arrays to enhance the accuracy of nucleotide recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) analysis based on the diversified CD spectra. This study provides insights for the construction of adaptive chirality from achiral nanotubes with dynamic conformational nature and might facilitate further design of chiral functional materials for several applications.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Dicroísmo Circular , Nanotubos , Nucleosídeos , Antracenos/química , Nanotubos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Nucleosídeos/química , Água/química , Estereoisomerismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 981-988, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621905

RESUMO

The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker(QAMS) was established for 13 chemical components of Epimedii Folium, including neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ, so as to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of this method in evaluating the quality of Epimedii Folium materials from different origins and different varieties. Through the scientific and accurate investigation of the experimental method, the external standard method was used to determine the content of 13 chemical components in epimedium brevieornu. At the same time, icariin was used as the internal standard, and the relative correction factors of icariin with neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ were established, respectively. The contens of neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuosideⅠ in Epimedii Folium were calculated by QAMS. Finally, the difference between the measured value and the calculated value was compared to verify the accuracy and scientific nature of QAMS in the determination. The relative correction factor of each component had better repeatability, and there was no significant difference between the results of the external standard method and those of QAMS. With icariin as the internal standard, QAMS simultaneously determining neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ can be used for quantitative analysis of Epimedii Folium.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácido Clorogênico , Flavonoides/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Epimedium/química
8.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 40-48, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the cytotoxic effect of a menthol-favored E-liquid on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), as well as the underlying mechanism of electronic cigarette (E-cig)-induced cell apoptosis. METHODS: PDLSCs were isolated and cultured from periodontal ligament tissues of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cells in passage 3 were used to detect the surface markers of stem cells by flow cytometry. Then the cells were exposed to different doses of menthol-favored E-liquid (at 59 mg/L nicotine concentration) in the culture median (the final nicotine concentrations were 0.1 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively) for different period of times (24, 48 and 72 h). The cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry (7-AAD and Annexin V staining) and TUNEL assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected with fluorescence probe DCFH-DA by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein expression levels associated with ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis(p-JNK, JNK, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved-caspase 3) were analyzed by Western blot. Immunocytofluorescense staining was applied to evaluate the expression level of p-JNK. After addition of NAC, a ROS scavenger, and MAPK/JNK specific blocker SP600125, their effects on E-cig-induced cell apoptosis were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with Graph Pad 5.0 software package. RESULTS: Human PDLSCs were successfully isolated and cultured and flow cytometry assay showed the mesenchymal stem cell surface biomarkers (CD73, CD90 and CD105) were positively expressed. CCK8 assay indicated cell viability was significantly(P<0.001) different among all concentration groups at various time points (24, 48 or 72 h), and the difference in apoptosis rate among all concentration groups was also statistically significant (P<0.001). After exposure to E-liquid with nicotine concentration ≥50 µg/mL, cell viability was significantly reduced, and the proportion of apoptotic cells and the cellular ROS level was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner as compared with the control group(0.0 mg/mL). Western blot assay showed E-cig exposure could promote MAPK/JNK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Either NAC or SP600125 could partially rescue the E-cig-induced cell apoptosis via reversing up-regulation of p-JNK and cleaved caspase 3. CONCLUSIONS: ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis is involved in menthol-favored E-liquid-induced apoptosis of hPDLSCs.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 3/farmacologia , Mentol/farmacologia , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Apoptose , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134386, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663297

RESUMO

Anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a widespread environmental pollutant that poses potential risks to human health. Exposure to anthracene can result in various adverse health effects, including skin-related disorders. Photo exposure sufficiently removes the anthracene from the environment but also generates more degradation products which can be more toxic. The goal of this study was to assess the change in anthracene dermotoxicity caused by photodegradation and understand the mechanism of this change. In the present study, over 99.99% of anthracene was degraded within 24 h of sunlight exposure, while producing many intermediate products including 9,10-anthraquinone and phthalic acid. The anthracene products with different durations of photo exposure were applied to 2D and 3D human keratinocyte cultures. Although the non-degraded anthracene significantly delayed the cell migration, the cell viability and differentiation decreased dramatically in the presence of the photodegraded anthracene. Anthracene photodegradation products also altered the expression patterns of a number of inflammation-related genes in comparison to the control cells. Among these genes, il1a, il1b, il8, cxcl2, s100a9, and mmp1 were upregulated whereas the tlr4 and mmp3 were downregulated by the photodegraded anthracene. Topical deliveries of the photodegraded and non-degraded anthracene to the dorsal skin of hairless mice showed more toxic effects by the photodegraded anthracene. The 4-hour photodegradation products of anthracene thickened the epidermal layer, increased the dermal cellularity, and induced the upregulation of inflammatory markers, il1a, il1b, s100a9, and mmp1. In addition, it also prevented the production of a gap junction protein, Connexin-43. All the evidence suggested that photodegradation enhanced the toxicities of anthracene to the skin. The 4-hour photodegradation products of anthracene led to clinical signs similar to acute inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis. Therefore, the potential risk of skin irritation by anthracene should be also considered when an individual is exposed to PAHs, especially in environments with strong sunlight.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Queratinócitos , Fotólise , Pele , Antracenos/toxicidade , Antracenos/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz Solar , Camundongos Pelados , Antraquinonas/toxicidade , Antraquinonas/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 83(6): 588-601, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547517

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant global health threat that imposes a substantial burden on both individuals and societies. CKD frequently correlates with cardiovascular events, particularly left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which contributes to the high mortality rate associated with CKD. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone primarily involved in regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism, has been identified as a major risk factor for LVH in CKD patients. Elevated serum FGF23 levels are known to induce LVH and myocardial fibrosis by activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) signal pathway. Therefore, targeting FGFR4 and its downstream signaling pathways holds potential as a treatment strategy for cardiac dysfunction in CKD. In our current study, we have discovered that Hypericin, a key component derived from Hypericum perforatum , has the ability to alleviate CKD-related LVH by targeting the FGFR4/phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCγ1) signaling pathway. Through in vitro experiments using rat cardiac myocyte H9c2 cells, we observed that Hypericin effectively inhibits FGF23-induced hypertrophy and fibrosis by suppressing the FGFR4/PLCγ1/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT3) signaling pathway. In addition, our in vivo studies using mice on a high-phosphate diet and rat models of 5/6 nephrectomy demonstrated that Hypericin has therapeutic effects against CKD-induced LVH by modulating the FGFR4/PLCγ1/calcineurin/NFAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our research highlights the potential of Hypericin as a candidate for the treatment of CKD-induced cardiomyopathy. By suppressing the FGFR4/PLCγ1 signaling pathway, Hypericin shows promise in attenuating LVH and myocardial fibrosis associated with CKD.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos 23 , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos , Perileno , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Antracenos/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Camundongos
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(3)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530134

RESUMO

Introduction. Cryptococcal biofilms have been associated with persistent infections and antifungal resistance. Therefore, strategies, such as the association of natural compounds and antifungal drugs, have been applied for the prevention of biofilm growth. Moreover, the Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenicity model has been used to investigate the capacity to inhibit the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto.Hypothesis. Anthraquinones and antifungals are associated with preventing C. neoformans sensu stricto biofilm formation and disrupting these communities. Antraquinones reduced the C. neoformans sensu stricto pathogenicity in the C. elegans model.Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro interaction between aloe emodin, barbaloin or chrysophanol and itraconazole or amphotericin B against growing and mature biofilms of C. neoformans sensu stricto.Methodology. Compounds and antifungal drugs were added during biofilm formation or after 72 h of growth. Then, the metabolic activity was evaluated by the MTT reduction assay, the biomass by crystal-violet staining and the biofilm morphology by confocal laser scanning microscopy. C. neoformans sensu stricto's pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Finally, pathogenicity inhibition by aloe emodin, barbarloin and chrysophanol was investigated using this model.Results. Anthraquinone-antifungal combinations affected the development of biofilms with a reduction of over 60 % in metabolic activity and above 50 % in biomass. Aloe emodin and barbaloin increased the anti-biofilm activity of antifungal drugs. Chrysophanol potentiated the effect of itraconazole against C. neoformans sensu stricto biofilms. The C. elegans mortality rate reached 76.7 % after the worms were exposed to C. neoformans sensu stricto for 96 h. Aloe emodin, barbaloin and chrysophanol reduced the C. elegans pathogenicity with mortality rates of 61.12 %, 65 % and 53.34 %, respectively, after the worms were exposed for 96 h to C. neoformans sensu stricto and these compounds at same time.Conclusion. These results highlight the potential activity of anthraquinones to increase the effectiveness of antifungal drugs against cryptococcal biofilms.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Itraconazol , Virulência , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Biofilmes
12.
Environ Int ; 185: 108531, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428193

RESUMO

Gadani is internationally renowned for its extensive ship-breaking operations, positioning it as one of the globe's primary ship-breaking hubs. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the presence of organic contaminants in the air within Gadani, encompassing the areas surrounding ship-breaking facilities, proximate residential settlements, and adjacent roadways. Passive air samplers were employed to collect a total of 30 air samples. The analytical results unveiled a notably elevated concentration of specific organic compounds, with a pronounced prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the ship-breaking yard. Notably, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and DDE were detected at substantially lower levels. In particular, sites in close proximity to ship-breaking activities exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (Σ7PCB 0.065429 to 7.345714 ng/sample), PAHs (Σ8PAH 2.44 to 134.23 ng/sample), and SCCPs (0.18 to 25.6 ng/sample). Conversely, DDTs and DDE demonstrated higher concentrations near residential settlements. The evaluation of Molecular Diagnostic Ratios for PAHs revealed anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene ratios of 0.88, 0.69, and 0.5 for ship-breaking areas, roadside locations, and community surroundings, respectively. Furthermore, the benz[a]anthracene/benz-[a]anthracene + chrysene molecular ratios were measured at 0.77 (ship-breaking sites), 0.82 (roadside), and 0.83 (community), respectively. The molecular ratio of fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene at ship-breaking sites was 0.23, while roadside and community ratios were 0.36 and 0.89, respectively. These findings underscore the significant contribution of ship-recycling activities to the atmospheric release of SCCPs, PCBs, and PAHs, emphasizing the global imperative for responsible ship recycling practices.


Assuntos
Fluorenos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Navios , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Antracenos , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
13.
Steroids ; 205: 109395, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461962

RESUMO

Drug release from hyperbranched Janus dendrimer-drug conjugates and their subsequent activity are influenced by the different drugs in each dendron and the linker. To understand these effects, we synthetized new Janus-type dendrimers of first and second generation. One dendron with 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid functionalized with ibuprofen and the second dendron was obtained with 3-aminopropanol-amidoamine and prednisone. The dendrimers were obtained by copper(I)-catalyzed Click azide-alkyne cycloaddition for the formation of a triazole as a dendrimeric nucleus of Janus dendrimer conjugates are reported. The influence of ibuprofen, prednisone, and spacer on cancer activity of Janus dendrimers conjugates is reported. The IC50 values of the anticancer activity on cancer cell lines the Janus dendrimer of second generation was higher in comparison to the first generation dendrimer. Similarly, the anticancer activity was higher compared to the dendron conjugates. Also, no cytotoxic effects of dendrons and dendrimers on non-cancerous kidney COS-7 cell line was observed. The interesting anticancer activity of the prepared prednisone-ibuprofen Janus dendrimer conjugates suggest that the dendrimers could be of potential use as new anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Antineoplásicos , Dendrímeros , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Ibuprofeno , Prednisona , Cobre/química
14.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474641

RESUMO

The catalytic properties of cytochrome c (Cc) have captured great interest in respect to mitochondrial physiology and apoptosis, and hold potential for novel enzymatic bioremediation systems. Nevertheless, its contribution to the metabolism of environmental toxicants remains unstudied. Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with impactful diseases, and animal models have unveiled concerning signs of PAHs' toxicity to mitochondria. In this work, a series of eight PAHs with ionization potentials between 7.2 and 8.1 eV were used to challenge the catalytic ability of Cc and to evaluate the effect of vesicles containing cardiolipin mimicking mitochondrial membranes activating the peroxidase activity of Cc. With moderate levels of H2O2 and at pH 7.0, Cc catalyzed the oxidation of toxic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene, and the cardiolipin-containing membranes clearly increased the PAH conversions. Our results also demonstrate for the first time that Cc and Cc-cardiolipin complexes efficiently transformed the PAH metabolites 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxypyrene. In comparison to horseradish peroxidase, Cc was shown to reach more potent oxidizing states and react with PAHs with ionization potentials up to 7.70 eV, including pyrene and acenaphthene. Spectral assays indicated that anthracene binds to Cc, and docking simulations proposed possible binding sites positioning anthracene for oxidation. The results give support to the participation of Cc in the metabolism of PAHs, especially in mitochondria, and encourage further investigation of the molecular interaction between PAHs and Cc.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Citocromos c , Cardiolipinas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Antracenos
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 393: 110950, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479715

RESUMO

It is well known that anthracene is a persistent organic pollutant. Among the four natural polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading strains, Comamonas testosterone (CT1) was selected as the strain with the highest degradation efficiency. In the present study, prokaryotic transcriptome analysis of CT1 revealed an increase in a gene that encodes tryptophane-2,3-dioxygenase (T23D) in the anthracene and erythromycin groups compared to CK. Compared to the wild-type CT1 strain, anthracene degradation by the CtT23D knockout mutant (CT-M1) was significantly reduced. Compared to Escherichia coli (DH5α), CtT23D transformed DH5α (EC-M1) had a higher degradation efficiency for anthracene. The recombinant protein rT23D oxidized tryptophan at pH 7.0 and 37 °C with an enzyme activity of 2.42 ± 0.06 µmol min-1·mg-1 protein. In addition, gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) analysis of anthracene degradation by EC-M1 and the purified rT23D revealed that 2-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde is an anthracene metabolite, suggesting that it is a new pathway.


Assuntos
Comamonas testosteroni , Dioxigenases , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Comamonas testosteroni/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Triptofano , Antracenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116280, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518574

RESUMO

The utilization of chemical dispersants as a way of mitigating of oil spills in marine eco-system has been extensively documented worldwide. Hence, in this research we have successfully synthesized two amphiphilic asymmetric Dicaionic Ionic Liquids (DILs). The efficacy of these synthesized DILs as dispersants was assessed using the baffled flask test (BFT). The results indicated a dispersant effectiveness ranging from 47.98 % to 79.76 % for the dispersion of heavy crude oil across various temperature ranges (10-30 °C). These dispersant-to-oil ratios (DOR) were maintained at 3: 100 (V%), showcasing promising dispersant capabilities for mitigating heavy crude oil spills. Additionally, acute toxicity tests conducted on Nile tilapia and Oreochromis niloticus have demonstrated the relatively low toxicity of the IL-dispersants, with Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) values exceeding 100 ppm after 96 h. This suggests a practically slight toxic effect on the tested fish. In summary, the newly developed IL-dispersants are considered to be conducive to environmentally benign oil spill remediation.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Líquidos Iônicos , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade
17.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 45(10): e2300658, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362957

RESUMO

The problem of plastic waste in the environment calls for the development of new polymeric materials designed specifically for easy recycling at the end of their life cycle. Herein, a green polymer system comprising a series of necklace-shaped polydimethylsiloxanes bearing anthracene dimer units is developed. The polymers have low environmental impact and are easily recycled. Further, their flexibility and glass transition temperatures are easy to control. These necklace-shaped inorganic polymers are synthesized by photopolymerizing (dimerizing) anthracene-terminated oligo-dimethylsiloxane monomers. A key achievement of the present work is the successful chemical recovery of the monomers from the polymers through thermal depolymerization, enabling monomer-polymer recycling. By applying equilibrium polymerization with base catalysts, monomers with a controlled distributed chain length are synthesized from monomers with a constant chain length. The necklace-shaped polymers synthesized from these randomized monomers have amorphous structures and readily form transparent films. It is possible to modulate the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymers by controlling the average chain length of the polydimethylsiloxane between the anthracene dimers. This investigation presents a method for the synthesis and cyclic utilization of polymer materials with a wide range of applications, including plastics and elastomers.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Polimerização , Antracenos/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Dimerização , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Reciclagem
18.
J Basic Microbiol ; 64(6): e2300680, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381060

RESUMO

The anthracene biodegradation potential of Serratia quinivorans HP5 was studied under a controlled laboratory environment. The green TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized from Paenibacillus sp. HD1PAH was used to accelerate the biodegradation process. The synergistic application of TiO2 NPs and S. quinivorans HP5 resulted in a reduction of anthracene concentration by 1.2 folds in liquid-medium and 1.5 folds in contaminated soil. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometric investigation showed the production of four anthracene derivatives, namely 1,2-anthracene dihydrodiol, 6,7-benzocoumarin, anthrone, and 9,10-anthraquinoneat the termination of experimental periods. Furthermore, bacterial biomass increased by 23.3 folds in the presence of TiO2 NPs, and overall soil enzyme activities were enhanced by 4.2 folds in the treated samples. In addition, there was a negative correlation observed between the biomass of S. quinivorans HP5 and the concentrations of anthracene, suggesting the involvement of bacterium in anthracene biodegradation processes. The degradation pathway of anthracene revealed its transformation into the less toxic compound 9,10-anthraquinone. Overall, this study elucidates a novel biodegradation pathway for anthracene and highlights the potential of nano-assisted bacterial remediation as a promising approach for environmental cleanup.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Antraquinonas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Serratia , Titânio , Antracenos/metabolismo , Serratia/metabolismo , Titânio/química , Titânio/metabolismo , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Antraquinonas/química , Biomassa , Nanopartículas/química , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 1): 118454, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387488

RESUMO

The oncogenic and genetic properties of anthracene, a member of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) family, pose a significant health threat to humans. This study aims to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of anthracene under various conditions, such as different concentrations of PAHs, varying amounts of NiO (nickel oxide) nanoparticles, and different pH levels under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles showed surface plasma resonance at 230 and 360 nm, while XRD and SEM analysis confirmed the nanoparticles were cubic crystalline in structure with sizes ranging between 37 and 126 nm. NiO nanoparticles exhibited 79% degradation of pyrene at 2 µg/mL of anthracene within 60 min of treatment. NiO at 10 µg/mL concentration showed significant adsorption of 57%, while the adsorption method worked efficiently (72%) at 5 pH. Photocatalytic degradation was confirmed by isotherm and kinetic studies through monolayer adsorption and pseudo-first-order kinetics. Further, the absorption process was confirmed by performing GC-MS analysis of the NiO nanoparticles. On the other hand, NiO nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, the present work is one of its kind proving the dual application of NiO nanoparticles, which makes them suitable candidates for bioremediation by treating PAHs and killing pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Níquel , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Níquel/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Catálise , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta , Nanopartículas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Antracenos/química , Adsorção
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(9): 6252-6265, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377559

RESUMO

Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) is often limited in treating solid tumors due to hypoxic conditions that impede the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for therapeutic efficacy. To address this issue, a fractionated PDT protocol has been suggested, wherein light irradiation is administered in stages separated by dark intervals to permit oxygen recovery during these breaks. However, the current photosensitizers used in fractionated PDT are incapable of sustaining ROS production during the dark intervals, leading to suboptimal therapeutic outcomes (Table S1). To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel photosensitizer based on a triple-anthracene derivative that is designed for prolonged ROS generation, even after the cessation of light exposure. Our study reveals a unique photodynamic action of these derivatives, facilitating the direct and effective disruption of biomolecules and significantly improving the efficacy of fractionated PDT (Table S2). Moreover, the existing photosensitizers lack imaging capabilities for monitoring, which constraints the fine-tuning of irradiation parameters (Table S1). Our triple-anthracene derivative also serves as an afterglow imaging agent, emitting sustained luminescence postirradiation. This imaging function allows for the precise optimization of intervals between PDT sessions and aids in determining the timing for subsequent irradiation, thus enabling meticulous control over therapy parameters. Utilizing our novel triple-anthracene photosensitizer, we have formulated a fractionated PDT regimen that effectively eliminates orthotopic pancreatic tumors. This investigation highlights the promise of employing long-persistent photodynamic activity in advanced fractionated PDT approaches to overcome the current limitations of PDT in solid tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antracenos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
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