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1.
Ann Hum Biol ; 51(1): 2310724, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pastoralists live in challenging environments, which may be accompanied by unique activity, energy, and water requirements. AIM: Few studies have examined whether the demands of pastoralism contribute to differences in total energy expenditure (TEE) and water turnover (WT) compared to other lifestyles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Accelerometer-derived physical activity, doubly labelled water-derived TEE and WT, and anthropometric data were collected for 34 semi-nomadic Daasanach adults from three northern Kenyan communities with different levels of pastoralist activity. Daasanach TEEs and WTs were compared to those of other small-scale and industrialised populations. RESULTS: When modelled as a function of fat-free-mass, fat-mass, age, and sex, TEE did not differ between Daasanach communities. Daasanach TEE (1564-4172 kcal/day) was not significantly correlated with activity and 91% of TEEs were within the range expected for individuals from comparison populations. Mean WT did not differ between Daasanach communities; Daasanach absolute (7.54 litres/day men; 7.46 litres/day women), mass-adjusted, and TEE-adjusted WT was higher than most populations worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: The similar mass-adjusted TEE of Daasanach and industrialised populations supports the hypothesis that habitual TEE is constrained, with physically demanding lifestyles necessitating trade-offs in energy allocation. Elevated WT in the absence of elevated TEE likely reflects a demanding active lifestyle in a hot, arid climate.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Água , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Quênia , Exercício Físico , Antropometria
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612572

RESUMO

Fetal programming is a process initiated by intrauterine conditions, leaving a lasting impact on the offspring's health, whether they manifest immediately or later in life. It is believed that children born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) may be at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity later in their adult lives. Substance P is a neurotransmitter associated with obesity development and impairment of insulin signaling. Dysregulation of substance P could lead to several pregnancy pathologies, such as preeclampsia and preterm birth. Our study aimed to compare substance P concentrations in serum and umbilical cord blood in patients with GDM, EGWG, and healthy women with a family history of gestational weight gain. Substance P levels in umbilical cord blood were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to the EGWG and control groups. Substance P levels in serum and umbilical cord blood were positively correlated in all groups and the GDM group. A very interesting direction for future research is the relationship between the concentration of substance P in newborns of diabetic mothers and the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome as a complication of impaired surfactant synthesis. To our knowledge, it is the first study assessing substance P concentration in GDM and EGWG patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Criança , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Substância P , Aumento de Peso , Obesidade , Antropometria
3.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613004

RESUMO

A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with high-rich docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Tridocosahexanoin-AOX® 70%) at 50 mg/kg/day in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) as compared with placebo. The duration of supplementation was 12 months. A total of 22 patients were included, with 11 in the DHA group and 11 in the placebo group. The mean age was 11.7 years. The outcome variables were pulmonary function, exacerbations, sputum cellularity, inflammatory biomarkers in sputum and peripheral blood, and anthropometric variables. In the DHA group, there was a significant increase in FVC (p = 0.004) and FVE1 expressed in liters (p = 0.044) as compared with placebo, and a lower median number of exacerbations (1 vs. 2). Differences in sputum cellularity (predominantly neutrophilic), neutrophilic elastase, and sputum and serum concentrations of resolvin D1 (RvD1), interleukin (IL)-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) between the study groups were not found. Significant increases in weight and height were also observed among DHA-supplemented patients. The administration of the study product was safe and well tolerated. In summary, the use of a highly concentrated DHA supplement for 1 year as compared with placebo improved pulmonary function and reduced exacerbations in pediatric CF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Humanos , Criança , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613092

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common chronic pain disorder and often occurs as a concomitant disease in rheumatological diseases. Managing FMS takes a complex approach and often involves various non-pharmacological therapies. Fasting interventions have not been in the focus of research until recently, but preliminary data have shown effects on short- and medium-term pain as well as on physical and psychosomatic outcomes in different chronic pain disorders. This single-arm observational study investigated the effects of prolonged fasting (3-12 days, <600 kcal/d) embedded in a multimodal treatment setting on inpatients with FMS. Patients who were treated at the Department of Internal Medicine and Nature-Based Therapies of the Immanuel Hospital Berlin, Germany, between 02/2018 and 12/2020 answered questionnaires at hospital admission (V0) and discharge (V1), and then again three (V2), six (V3), and 12 (V4) months later. Selected routine blood and anthropometric parameters were also assessed during the inpatient stay. A total of 176 patients with FMS were included in the study. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score dropped by 13.7 ± 13.9 (p < 0.001) by V1, suggesting an improvement in subjective disease impact. Pain (NRS: reduction by 1.1 ± 2.5 in V1, p < 0.001) and quality of life (WHO-5: +4.9 ± 12.3 in V1, p < 0.001) improved, with a sustainable effect across follow-up visits. In contrast, mindfulness (MAAS: +0.3 ± 0.7 in V1, p < 0.001), anxiety (HADS-A: reduction by 2.9 ± 3.5 in V1, p < 0.0001), and depression (HADS-D: reduction by 2.7 ± 3.0 in V1, p < 0.0001) improved during inpatient treatment, without longer-lasting effects thereafter. During the study period, no serious adverse events were reported. The results suggest that patients with FMS can profit from a prolonged therapeutic fasting intervention integrated into a complex multimodal inpatient treatment in terms of quality of life, pain, and disease-specific functional parameters. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03785197.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Fibromialgia/terapia , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Jejum , Dor , Antropometria
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1033, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare anthropometric indices to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among first-degree relatives of diabetic patients in the Iranian community. METHODS: In this study, information on 3483 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of diabetic patients was extracted from the database of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Overall, 2082 FDRs were included in the analyses. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and the odds of having diabetes. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to estimate the optimal cutoff point based on the sensitivity and specificity of each index. In addition, the indices were compared based on the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes was 15.3%. The optimal cutoff points for anthropometric measures among men were 25.09 for body mass index (BMI) (AUC = 0.573), 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (AUC = 0.648), 0.91 for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC = 0.654), 0.08 for a body shape index (ABSI) (AUC = 0.599), 3.92 for body roundness index (BRI) (AUC = 0.648), 27.27 for body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC = 0.590), and 8 for visceral adiposity index (VAI) (AUC = 0.596). The optimal cutoff points for anthropometric indices were 28.75 for BMI (AUC = 0.610), 0.55 for the WHtR (AUC = 0.685), 0.80 for the WHR (AUC = 0.687), 0.07 for the ABSI (AUC = 0.669), 4.34 for the BRI (AUC = 0.685), 39.95 for the BAI (AUC = 0.583), and 6.15 for the VAI (AUC = 0.658). The WHR, WHTR, and BRI were revealed to have fair AUC values and were relatively greater than the other indices for both men and women. Furthermore, in women, the ABSI and VAI also had fair AUCs. However, BMI and the BAI had the lowest AUC values among the indices in both sexes. CONCLUSION: The WHtR, BRI, VAI, and WHR outperformed other anthropometric indices in predicting T2DM in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of diabetic patients. However, further investigations in different populations may need to be implemented to justify their widespread adoption in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Adiposidade , Obesidade
6.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(2): 108-115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616366

RESUMO

AIMS: Considering the impact of sarcopenia on mortality, and the difficulty to assessment of body composition, the hypothesis of the study is that calf circumference (CC) is closely related to mortality in older patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the potential role of CC to predict mortality in old individuals at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from hospital. METHODS: Patients aged >65 years were recruited for this retrospective study from September 2021 to March 2022. Their physical and body composition characteristics (including Body Mass Index-BMI and Mini Nutritional Assessment-MNA) were measured; data on mortality at 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months after discharge were recorded. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the 2019 European Consensus criteria. RESULTS: Participants were 192 older adults (92 women), with a mean age of 82.8±7.0 years. Sarcopenic people were 41. The mortality rate was higher in sarcopenic people only at T3 and T6. CC had comparable validity in predicting mortality to that of MNA and ASMMI (Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass), and was better than BMI and serum albumin at each time point. Youden's index showed that the best cut-off for CC for predicting mortality was 30.6 cm both at T3 (sensitivity: 74%; specificity: 75%) and T6 (sensitivity: 75%; specificity: 67%). At the Cox regression model for mortality, high values of CC (HR 0.73, CI95% 0.60-0.89/p<0.001) and ADL scores (HR 0.72, CI95% 0.54-0.96/p=0.04) were protective factors at T6 and T12 respectively; at T12 high comorbidity rate was a risk factor (HR 1.28, IC95% 1.02-1.62/p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: CC has a validity comparable to MNA and ASMMI in predicting mortality at 3, 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Moreover, it can be considered an independent predictor of medium-term mortality in the hospitalized older population. CC can be an effective method for the prognostic stratification of these patients, due to its simplicity and immediacy.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Composição Corporal
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 378-382, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557514

RESUMO

The present anthropometric study was designed to construct data of 5-10 years aged Bangladeshi children regarding foot breadth and an attempt has been made out to grow interest among the researchers for future study and also to compare the data with the data of the people of other races. This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic type study was conducted among 5-10 years aged 109 Bangladeshi children (70 male and 39 female) at different areas of Mymensingh district (Fulpur, Muktagacha, Fulbaria, Trisal and Haluaghat), Bangladesh from January 2016 to December 2016. Non-random purposive sampling technique was taken for sample collection. Any kind of foot deformity due to either from congenital or physical injury was excluded to construct standard measurement. Foot breadth was measured using slide caliper. The children were asked to stand with weight distributed equally on both feet. The legs were perpendicular to the feet. The mean foot breadth of right side of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 years aged male children were 7.08±.61 cm, 7.11±.30 cm, 7.61±.45 cm, 7.44±.43 cm, 8.12±.38 cm and 8.17±.44 cm respectively and those of female children were 6.55±.64 cm, 7.17±.27 cm, 7.04±.70 cm, 7.62±.54 cm, 7.48±.88 cm and 7.85±.72 cm respectively. The mean foot breadth of left side of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 years aged male children were 7.04±.60 cm, 7.03±.30 cm, 7.52±.47 cm, 7.36±.45 cm, 8.03±.38 cm and 8.08±.43 cm respectively and those of female children were 6.46±.63 cm, 7.10±.31 cm, 6.95±.71 cm, 7.54±.52 cm, 7.37±.89 cm and 7.77±.71 cm respectively. Comparison of foot breadth between male and female children was done by Unpaired Students 't' test and the differences of means were statistically non-significant. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Microsoft excel and SPSS software. The results of present study would be useful in anatomy, orthopedics, forensic science, plastic surgery, radiology, podiatry, archeology, anthropology and nutrition science.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Etnicidade , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Bangladesh
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 212, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is significantly link to abdominal obesity. This study aimed to assess the association between anthropometric indices of abdominal obesity, including body roundness index (BRI), conicity index (CI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and UI risk in adult females. METHODS: We analyzed data from 10, 317 adult females in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database (2005-2018). Weighted multivariable-adjusted regression analysis was conducted to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between BRI, CI, WHtR, and UI. Stratified analyses revealed the association based on the population type. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive value of UI. RESULTS: All indices of abdominal obesity investigated were positively and independently associated with the prevalence and severity of three types of UI. After adjusting for all relevant confounding variables, a significantly positive association between BRI and the prevalence of UI were observed (OR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: urge UI (UUI): 1.93, 95% CI 1.61-2.30; stress UI (SUI): 2.29, 95% CI 1.94-2.70; mixed UI (MUI): 2.26, 95% CI 1.82-2.82; all P < 0.0001, P for trend < 0.0001, respectively), as well as WHtR and CI, which particularly prominent for female in premenopausal. Moreover, a one-unit increment of BRI was significantly associated with an increased severity index of UUI (ß: 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09, P < 0.0001), SUI (ß: 0.10, 95% CI 0.07-0.13, P < 0.0001) and MUI (ß: 0.07, 95% CI 0.04-0.10, P < 0.0001), which this trend was also observed in each subtype of UI for WHtR and CI. Furthermore, the ROC analysis demonstrated a higher diagnostic efficacy of BRI and WHtR compared with BMI in discriminating UI with an AUC of 0.600 for SUI, 0.617 for UUI, and 0.622 for MUI (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An increased BRI, CI, and WHtR are significantly associated with higher prevalence and severity of UI in females.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Incontinência Urinária , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco
9.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2337739, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study aims to validate the efficacy of the conventional non-invasive score in predicting significant fibrosis in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and to develop a non-invasive prediction model for MAFLD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 7701 participants with MAFLD from August 2018 to December 2023. All participants were divided into a training cohort and a validation cohort. The study compared different subgroups' demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory examination indicators and conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the correlation between independent variables and liver fibrosis. Nomograms were created using the logistic regression model. The predictive values of noninvasive models and nomograms were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Four nomograms were developed for the quantitative analysis of significant liver fibrosis risk based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis results. The nomogram's area under ROC curves (AUC) was 0.710, 0.714, 0.748, and 0.715 in overall MAFLD, OW-MAFLD, Lean-MAFLD, and T2DM-MAFLD, respectively. The nomogram had a higher AUC in all MAFLD participants and OW-MAFLD than the other non-invasive scores. The DCA curve showed that the net benefit of each nomogram was higher than that of APRI and FIB-4. In the validation cohort, the AUCs of the nomograms were 0.722, 0.750, 0.719, and 0.705, respectively. CONCLUSION: APRI, FIB-4, and NFS performed poorly predicting significant fibrosis in patients with MAFLD. The new model demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy and clinical applicability in identifying significant fibrosis in MAFLD.


Assuntos
Nomogramas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Antropometria , Área Sob a Curva , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
10.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 59(2): [101434], Mar-Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231162

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Determinar la asociación de fuerza prensil de mano y extensores de rodilla con el estado nutricional de adultos mayores de la comunidad. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal. Se analizó peso y talla de 847 adultos mayores según índice de masa corporal y se clasificaron en cuatro categorías nutricionales según el Ministerio de Salud de Chile. Se evaluó la fuerza prensil de mano y extensores de rodilla para ambas extremidades. La fuerza fue normalizada por masa corporal y se utilizó la correlación de Spearman entre índice de masa corporal y fuerza muscular. Resultados: La muestra fue de 582 mujeres y 265 hombres con edad promedio de 71,72±7,09. Las mujeres presentaron un índice de masa corporal de 30,03±5,48 y los hombres 27,64±4,05, la categoría más numerosa fue normopeso (n = 288) y la menor bajo peso (n = 74). La fuerza prensil de mano presentó mayor correlación que extensores de rodilla, específicamente, fuerza prensil de mano derecha (r: -0,40). La mayor correlación y significancia la presentó la categoría obesa para todas las mediciones de fuerza, resultando la fuerza prensil de mano derecha como la más alta (r: -0,29). Conclusiones: El aumento del estado nutricional de los adultos mayores influye negativamente sobre la fuerza muscular. La mejor asociación entre índice de masa corporal y fuerza muscular fue la prensión de mano derecha. Resalta el hallazgo del aumento de la esperanza de vida a medida que disminuye el IMC de la muestra. Futuros estudios deberían generar percentiles y valores normalizados en población chilena.(AU)


Aim: To determine the association of hand grip strength and knee extensor strength with the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults. Material and methods: Observational cross-sectional study. Weight and height of 847 older adults were analyzed according to body mass index and classified into four nutritional categories according to the Chilean Ministry of Health. Hand grip and knee extensors strength for both extremities were evaluated. Strength was normalized by body mass. Spearman's correlation between body mass index and muscle strength was used. Results: The sample was 582 women, 265 men and an average age of 71.72±7.09. The women had a BMI of 30.03±5.48 and the men of 27.64 ± 4.05, the most numerous category was normal weight (n = 288) and the lowest low weight (n = 74). Hand grip strength presented a higher correlation than knee extensors, specifically, right hand grip strength (r: −0.40). The highest correlation and significance were presented by the obese category for all strength measurements, with right hand grip strength being the highest (r: −0.29). Conclusions: The increase in the nutritional status of older adults has a negative influence on muscle strength. The best association between body mass index and muscle strength was the right hand grip. The finding of the increase in life expectancy as the nutritional status of the sample decreases stands out. Future studies are needed to generate percentiles and normalized values in the Chilean population.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estado Nutricional , Antropometria , Força Muscular , Índice de Massa Corporal , Força da Mão , Estudos Transversais , Saúde do Idoso , Chile , Envelhecimento
11.
Schizophr Res ; 266: 216-226, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a reduced life expectancy mainly due to medical-related pathologies which might have been initiated due to stressful events during fetal development. Indeed, intra-uterus growth patterns predict anthropometric measures in adulthood, describing risk factors for schizophrenia and metabolic disorders. We aim to evaluate anthropometric values in two cohorts of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode episode psychosis (FEP) and correlated them with surrogate markers of the fetal environment such as birth weight (BW) and season of birth. METHODS: BW, season of birth, and anthropometric values from 2 cohorts of FEP patients (Barcelona and Santander) were evaluated. In cohort B, 91 patients, and 110 controls while in cohort S, 644 and 235 were included respectively. RESULTS: Patients were shorter, slimmer, and with lower BMI compared with controls. In both cohorts, patients, and female patients born in winter displayed the shortest height. Regarding BW, height was significantly associated with the interaction of diagnosis and BW in the whole sample and the male subsample. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm reduced anthropometric features in FEP at onset while suggesting the influence of winter birth and BW, highlighting the role of early life events in the later outcome of FEP with sex differences.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Antropometria , Peso ao Nascer
12.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 24(1): 20-27, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38434465

RESUMO

Objectives: Globally, and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, overweight and obesity have become serious public health concerns. This scoping review aimed to identify and summarise the available data on the determinants of overweight and obesity among MENA nationalities. Methods: An extensive search of electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed and ProQuest, for articles published from 2007 until 2022 was conducted. A total of 10 articles, of the 333 that were found in the original search, met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were applied to each of the selected studies. Results: There is an intricate interplay of anthropometric, behavioural, sociodemographic and environmental factors that caused overweight and obesity in this population. Conclusions: A thorough synthesis of the factors influencing overweight and obesity in MENA nationalities was provided by this scoping review.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1304277, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435281

RESUMO

Objective: Among adolescents, amenorrhea is a common reason for medical consultation. Despite the variety of underlying etiologies, the prevalence of the causes is incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the demographic and etiological factors among patients with amenorrhea treated in a single specialist unit of adolescent gynecology. Design: Retrospective register study. Methods: Medical records of 438 girls evaluated for primary or secondary amenorrhea in a single tertiary care center between 2015 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. In all, 423 patients-171 with primary amenorrhea and 252 with secondary amenorrhea-were included in the study. Data on underlying conditions, anthropometric variables, and selected hormonal markers were analyzed. Results: Functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was the most frequent reason for primary (56%) and secondary (78%) amenorrhea. It was mostly explained by lifestyle-related functional hypothalamic amenorrhea caused by disordered eating, intense exercise, energy deficiency, psychological stress, and their combinations. Conclusion: Menstrual pattern is a significant indicator of overall health and well-being among adolescent girls and young women. Functional reasons behind primary and secondary amenorrhea are important to recognize. Treatment often requires long-term lifestyle modifications. The frequency of functional causes also implies that most amenorrhea cases are preventable.


Assuntos
Amenorreia , Terapia Comportamental , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Amenorreia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antropometria , Exercício Físico
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6551, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504109

RESUMO

World Athletics use maximum allowable standing height (MASH) equations for para-athletes with bilateral lower extremity amputations to estimate stature and limit prosthesis length since longer prostheses can provide running performance advantages. The equations were developed using a white Spanish population; however, validation for other races and geographical groups is limited. This study aimed to determine the validity of the MASH equations for Black and white Americans and whether bias errors between calculated and measured stature were similar between these populations. Sitting height, thigh length, upper arm length, forearm length, and arm span of 1899 male and 1127 female Black and white Americans from the Anthropometric Survey of US Army Personnel database were input into the 6 sex-specific MASH equations to enable comparisons of calculated and measured statures within and between Black and white groups. Two of 12 MASH equations validly calculated stature for Black Americans and 3 of 12 equations were valid for white Americans. Bias errors indicated greater underestimation or lesser overestimation of calculated statures in 10 equations for Black compared to white Americans and in 2 equations for white compared to Black Americans. This study illustrates that race and geography impact the validity of MASH equations.


Assuntos
Estatura , Paratletas , Esportes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antropometria , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Amputação Cirúrgica , Próteses e Implantes , Brancos
15.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 25(3): 454-462, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In vehicle frontal collisions, it is crucial that the lap belt is designed to engage with the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) of occupants for a reliable restraint. This study aims to understand the influence of different seated postures on the geometrical relationship of the seat belt and the pelvis for various occupants using 3D upright and supine computed tomography (CT) systems. METHODS: The 3D shapes of bones and soft tissues around the pelvis were acquired through a CT scan for 30 participants. They were seated in a rigid seat equipped with a lap belt simulating the front seat of a small car, and wore a lap belt in three seated postures: upright, slouched and reclined. Parameters related to the likelihood of submarining occurrences, such as belt-ASIS overlap (an index for assessing the potential engagement of the lap belt with the ASIS) and the belt-pelvis angle (the difference between the belt angle and the normal direction of the anterior edge of the ilium) were compared. RESULTS: It was observed that the pelvis angle tilted rearward as the hip point was positioned forward and seatback angle increased. This can be seen in the slouched and reclined posture. The belt-pelvis angle was comparable between the slouched and the reclined postures, and was closer to zero (indicating that the lap belt path is closer to perpendicular to the anterior edge of the ilium) compared to the upright posture. In contrast, the belt-ASIS overlap increased with an increasing flesh margin of the ASIS and shallower belt angle. This suggests that the belt-pelvis angle is influenced by the seated posture whereas the belt-ASIS overlap is dependent more on an individual's anthropometry. The plot of belt-pelvis angle and belt-ASIS overlap exhibited significant variability among participants. CONCLUSIONS: The belt-pelvis angle and the belt-ASIS overlap of individuals will provide valuable information for understanding the current belt-fit location and predicting submarining occurrences for individuals in various postures when designing restraint systems.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Cintos de Segurança , Humanos , Antropometria/métodos , Postura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tomografia
16.
Nutrition ; 122: 112388, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, little evidence exists on the relationships between body composition and health-related physical fitness; in particular, musculoskeletal fitness. Bioimpedance index phase angle (bioelectrical impedance analysis raw variables) is a candidate predictor of health-related fitness, a marker of fat-free and body cell mass, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition, raw bioelectrical impedance analysis variables, and health-related fitness in young adults and investigate their mutual relationships to identify predictors of muscle strength. METHODS: The study included 229 young adults (115 men and 114 women; 24.2 ± 3 y; body mass index 19-30 kg/m²). Anthropometry was measured with standardized procedures. Whole-body BIA (50 kHz) was performed for impedance and phase angle. Predictive equations estimated fat-free mass and percentage body fat. The bioimpedance index was calculated as stature²/impedance. Musculoskeletal fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, standing broad jump, squat jump, and countermovement jump. RESULTS: In both sexes, health-related fitness had stronger associations with body composition than stature or weight. Handgrip strength was related to fat-free mass and bioimpedance index, while an inverse association with percent body fat emerged for standing broad jump, squat jump and countermovement jump. Phase angle is directly correlated with handgrip strength, standing broad jump, squat jump, and countermovement jump. In multiple regression analysis phase angle was an independent predictor of all health-related fitness tests, along with fat-free mass (or bioimpedance index) for handgrip strength, and with sex and percent body fat for the three jump tests. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided consistent information on the relationships between body composition and health-related fitness in young adults. Phase angle emerged as a significant predictor of all health-related fitness measures and might be useful for a more consistent assessment of musculoskeletal fitness.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Aptidão Física , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Antropometria , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7537, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553523

RESUMO

The aims of the study were: 1) to evaluate the changes in anthropometric variables, body composition, somatotype and body proportions of elite basketball players throughout the pre-season period; 2) to evaluate the changes in anthropometric variables, body composition, somatotype and body proportions of elite basketball players throughout the in-season period; and 3) to observe if the age and position influenced the variables analyzed. A total of 17 players belonging to the men's ACB league team competing in the Euroleague (age = 23.42 ± 5.28 years-old) participated in the study. The players underwent an anthropometric measurement before and after the pre-season, as well as four evaluations throughout the in-season. Anthropometric indices, somatotype components according to Heath and Carter, and adiposity were calculated. The results show that during the pre-season, body mass, BMI, sum of 6 and 8 skinfolds, waist/hip ratio, adipose tissue (kg), adipose tissue percentage, and endomorphy decreased, while ectomorphy increased. However, no significant changes were found in the variables analyzed throughout the season; except for endomorphy, which increased along the in-season. Playing position and age did not have a significant influence on the changes in the anthropometric variables throughout the pre-season and the in-season. In conclusion, while changes in the anthropometric variables in the pre-season were observed, these remained the same during the in-season.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Somatotipos , Estações do Ano , Estatura , Antropometria , Composição Corporal
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e083558, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite international efforts, the number of individuals struggling with obesity is still increasing. An important aspect of obesity prevention relates to identifying individuals at risk at early stage, allowing for timely risk stratification and initiation of countermeasures. However, obesity is complex and multifactorial by nature, and one isolated (bio)marker is unlikely to enable an optimal risk stratification and prognosis for the individual; rather, a combined set is required. Such a multicomponent interpretation would integrate biomarkers from various domains, such as classical markers (eg, anthropometrics, blood lipids), multiomics (eg, genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), lifestyle and behavioural attributes (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep patterns), psychological traits (mental health status such as depression) and additional host factors (eg, gut microbiota diversity), also by means of advanced interpretation tools such as machine learning. In this paper, we will present a protocol that will be employed for a scoping review that attempts to summarise and map the state-of-the-art in the area of multicomponent (bio)markers related to obesity, focusing on the usability and effectiveness of such biomarkers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Embase databases will be searched using predefined key terms to identify peer-reviewed articles published in English until January 2024. Once downloaded into EndNote for deduplication, CADIMA will be employed to review and select abstracts and full-text articles in a two-step procedure, by two independent reviewers. Data extraction will then be carried out by several independent reviewers. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies guidelines will be followed. Combinations employing at least two biomarkers from different domains will be mapped and discussed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required; data will rely on published articles. Findings will be published open access in an international peer-reviewed journal. This review will allow guiding future directions for research and public health strategies on obesity prevention, paving the way towards multicomponent interventions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Obesidade , Humanos , Antropometria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547211

RESUMO

Undernutrition in children with cancer is associated with complications during cancer therapy. The study objective was to determine the association between specific anthropometric parameters and short-term chemotherapy-related complications and mortality. This was a hospital-based, prospective cohort study of children, age ≤12 years, with a new cancer diagnosis at the Paediatric Oncology Unit, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Socio-demographic information, cancer characteristics and anthropometric measurements were obtained at enrolment. Participants were followed up for twelve weeks from commencement of chemotherapy and selected treatment-related complications such as anaemia and thrombocytopenia requiring transfusions, prolonged neutropenia resulting in treatment delays, febrile neutropenia, mucositis and death were recorded. A total of 133 participants were recruited with a median age of 4.5 years. Eighty-one (60.9%) were diagnosed with solid tumours, 31 (23.3%) had leukaemias and 21 (15.8%) had lymphomas. Of the anthropometric parameters assessed, only arm anthropometry using upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were associated with complications. Participants with wasting were more likely to develop anaemia and mucositis. However, the incidence of prolonged neutropenia was significantly higher among participants with average UAMA (p = 0.043) and low average UAMA (p = 0.049) compared to those with low UAMA. Risk of neutropenia was also significantly less among those with wasting by MUAC compared to those well-nourished (p = 0.045). Twenty-three participants (17.3%) died with a greater proportion (11/44; 25%) occurring in those who were wasted using MUAC. These findings underscore the need for nutritional surveillance at diagnosis and during chemotherapy, particularly where co-morbid disease is prevalent.


Assuntos
Anemia , Desnutrição , Mucosite , Neoplasias , Neutropenia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Gana/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Hospitais de Ensino , Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299262, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427631

RESUMO

Little is known about the difference of anthropometry and physical fitness between the finalist and eliminated player in the NBA all star slam dunk contest. This study aimed to compare the difference on anthropometric and physical fitness indicator in the combine draft between finalist and eliminated player in the national basketball association all star slam dunk contest. Draft data of 32 basketball players (N = 32, age in draft year: 20.69±2.28 years old, height without shoes: 196.75±8.68 cm, weight: 96.85±10 kg, body fat percentage: 6.07±1.23%) participating in the 2000-2015 draft and 2003-2023 slam dunk contest was selected from national basketball association database. It was classified into finals group (FG) (N = 16) and elimination group (EG) (N = 16). Independent sample t-test with cohen's d was adopted for evaluating the statistical significance of intergroup difference and its effect size. The result indicates that Finalist group was significant less than elimination group on height without shoes (FG vs EG: 193.43±9.47 cm vs 200.06±6.52 cm, P<0.05), standing reach (FG vs EG: 257.66±12.32 cm vs 268.29±10.03 cm, P<0.05) and weight (FG vs EG: 93.38±7.37 kg vs 100.33±11.25 kg, P<0.05). Conversely, compared to elimination group,finalist group has significant better performance on three quarter court sprint (FG vs EG: 3.15±0.1 s vs 3.26±0.12 s, P<0.05), standing vertical jump (FG vs EG: 84.88±5.13 cm vs 78.83±4.9 cm, P<0.05) and max vertical jump (FG vs EG: 102.39±6.47 cm vs 94.79±8.34 cm, P<0.05). However, effect size analysis indicated that height without shoes,standing reach,weight (cohen's d = 0.73-0.959, 0.7≤cohen's d<1.3, moderate) from the anthropometric indicator and three quarter court sprint, standing vertical jump, and max vertical jump (cohen's d = 0.97-1.21, 0.7≤cohen's d<1.3, moderate) from physical fitness indicator has moderate effect size, whereas effect size of body fat percentage, wingspan and lane agility time (cohen's d = 0.31-0.67, 0.3≤cohen's d<0.7, small) was small. To conclude, specific anthropometric and physical fitness indicator shows clear difference between finals group and elimination group. Height without shoes, standing reach,weight in anthropometry and three quarter court sprint, standing vertical jump, and max vertical jump in physical fitness are key indicator to slam dunk performance. In line with the result in the study, NBA staff can select suitable rookies for slam dunk contest. Similiarly, coach from NBA or other basketball league, who want to improve the player's slam dunk performance, should use specific training programs to develop the slam dunk-related indicator.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Humanos , Antropometria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Aptidão Física , Sapatos
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