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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 339: 122238, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823908

RESUMO

The study aimed to develop a novel, transparent and non-toxic coating with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antifogging properties. The p-coumaric acid-grafted chitosan (CS-PCA) was synthesized via a carbodiimide coupling reaction and then characterized. The CS-PCA coatings were further prepared using the casting method. The CS-PCA coatings obtained exhibited excellent transparency, UV-light barrier ability, and antifogging properties, as confirmed by spectroscopy and antifogging tests. The CS-PCA coatings showed stronger antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Botrytis cinerea compared to CS. The multifunctional coatings were further coated on the polyethylene cling film and their effectiveness was confirmed through a strawberry preservation test. The decay of the strawberries was reduced by CS-PCA coated film at room temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Quitosana , Ácidos Cumáricos , Escherichia coli , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fragaria , Frutas , Propionatos , Staphylococcus aureus , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Propionatos/química , Propionatos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12652, 2024 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825623

RESUMO

Excessive and improper use of antibiotics causes antimicrobial resistance which is a major threat to global health security. Hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest prevalence of antibiotic use. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled point prevalence (PPP) of evidence-based antimicrobial use among hospitalized patients in SSA. Literature was retrieved from CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA version 17. Forest plots using the random-effect model were used to present the findings. The heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using the I2 statistics and Egger's test. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with code CRD42023404075. The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A total of 26, 272 study participants reported by twenty-eight studies published from 10 countries in SSA were included. The pooled point prevalence of antimicrobial use in SSA were 64%. The pooled estimate of hospital wards with the highest antibiotic use were intensive care unit (89%). The pooled prevalence of the most common clinical indication for antibiotic use were community acquired infection (41%). The pooled point prevalence of antimicrobial use among hospitalized patients were higher in SSA. Higher use of antibiotics was recorded in intensive care units. Community acquired infection were most common clinical case among hospitalized patients. Health systems in SSA must design innovative digital health interventions to optimize clinicians adhere to evidence-based prescribing guidelines and improve antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos
3.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(6): E456-462, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833420

RESUMO

Although antimicrobial medications are commonly prescribed to patients at the end of life (EOL), clinicians might not discuss the benefits and harms of antimicrobials with their patients in the advance care planning process. This commentary on a case discusses challenges and strategies in antimicrobial decision making for patients at the EOL. As antimicrobial use can harm some patients, and as antimicrobial resistance remains an urgent public health issue, this article advocates for ethical reasoning to guide antimicrobial decision making for patients at the EOL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Assistência Terminal/ética , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/ética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Masculino
4.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(6): E472-478, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833422

RESUMO

Poor-quality antimicrobial medicines continue to proliferate across supply chains, threatening patients' health and safety, especially in low- and middle-income regions. This article discusses consequences and risks of antimicrobial resistance and other ways in which antimicrobial medicines can be of poor quality and recommends regulatory and policy reforms to help maintain supply chain resilience and quality of antimicrobial medicines.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Política de Saúde
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17241, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854801

RESUMO

Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) is an antimicrobial agent, and hence, its use in fabricating nanoparticles (NP) may be useful in providing more efficacious antimicrobial agents. The current research aimed to test the antimicrobial efficacy of TTO and its TTO-Metal-NPs against oral microbes: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The antimicrobial activity of TTO and zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) and the combined effects of antimicrobial agents were investigated using agar well diffusion assays. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the phyto-constituents of TTO. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scatter (DLS), and zeta potential were utilized to analyze the biogenic nanoparticles' morphology, size, and potential. The antimicrobial mode of action was determined by assessing the morphological changes under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TTO extracts converted Zn and Fe ions to NPs, having an average size of 97.50 (ZnNPs) and 102.4 nm (FeNPs). All tested agents had significant antibacterial efficacy against the tested oral microbes. However, the TTO extract was more efficacious than the NPs. Combination treatment of TTO with antibiotics resulted in partial additive effects against P. gingivalis and partial antagonistic effects against E. faecalis, S. mutans, and common mouthwashes (Oral B and chlorhexidine). TTO and NP-treated bacteria underwent morphological changes on treatment. M. alternifolia phytochemicals could be useful for further research and development of antimicrobial NPs. The current study highlights the variance in activity observed for different types of bacteria and antagonistic effects seen with common mouthwashes, which represent a threat to therapeutic efficacy and heighten the risk of clinical microbial resistance.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans , Óleo de Melaleuca , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Óleo de Melaleuca/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Boca/microbiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Melaleuca/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Humanos , Ferro , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(23): 29867-29875, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825754

RESUMO

Antimicrobial surfaces limit the spread of infectious diseases. To date, there is no antimicrobial coating that has widespread use because of short-lived and limited spectrum efficacy, poor resistance to organic material, and/or cost. Here, we present a paint based on waterborne latex particles that is supramolecularly associated with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The optimal supramolecular pairing was first determined by immobilizing selected ions on self-assembled monolayers exposing different groups. The QAC surface loading density was then increased by using polymer brushes. These concepts were adopted to develop inexpensive paints to be applied on many different surfaces. The paint could be employed for healthcare and food production applications. Its slow release of QAC allows for long-lasting antimicrobial action, even in the presence of organic material. Its efficacy lasts for more than 90 washes, and importantly, once lost, it can readily be restored by spraying an aqueous solution of the QAC. We mainly tested cetyltrimethylammonium as QAC as it is already used in consumer care products. Our antimicrobial paint is broad spectrum as it showed excellent antimicrobial efficiency against four bacteria and four viruses.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Pintura , Propriedades de Superfície , Látex/química , Látex/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(23): 16529-16539, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828872

RESUMO

This study reports on the effects of conformationally controlled amphiphilicity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on their ability to coat TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and boost the photocatalytic antimicrobial effects of such NPs. For this, TiO2 NPs were combined with AMP EFK17 (EFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV), displaying a disordered conformation in aqueous solution but helix formation on interaction with bacterial membranes. The membrane-bound helix is amphiphilic, with all polar and charged amino acid residues located at one side and all non-polar and hydrophobic residues on the other. In contrast, the d-enantiomer variant EFK17-d (E(dF)KR(dI)VQR(dI)KD(dF)LRNLV) is unable to form the amphiphilic helix on bacterial membrane interaction, whereas the W-residues in EFK17-W (EWKRWVQRWKDFLRNLV) boost hydrophobic interactions of the amphiphilic helix. Circular dichroism results showed the effects displayed for the free peptide, to also be present for peptide-coated TiO2 NPs, causing peptide binding to decrease in the order EFK17-W > EFK17 > EFK17-d. Notably, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the TiO2 NPs was essentially unaffected by the presence of peptide coating, for all the peptides investigated, and the coatings stabilized over hours of UV exposure. Photocatalytic membrane degradation from TiO2 NPs coated with EFK17-W and EFK17 was promoted for bacteria-like model bilayers containing anionic phosphatidylglycerol but suppressed in mammalian-like bilayers formed by zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Structural aspects of these effects were further investigated by neutron reflectometry with clear variations observed between the bacteria- and mammalian-like model bilayers for the three peptides. Mirroring these results in bacteria-like model membranes, combining TiO2 NPs with EFK17-W and EFK17, but not with non-adsorbing EFK17-d, resulted in boosted antimicrobial effects of the resulting cationic composite NPs already in darkness, effects enhanced further on UV illumination.


Assuntos
Titânio , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Catálise , Nanopartículas/química , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
8.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831400

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Optimal exploitation of the huge amounts of agro-industrial residuals that are produced annually, which endangers the ecosystem and ultimately contributes to climate change, is one of the solutions available to produce value-added compounds. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at the economic production and optimization of surfactin. Therefore, the production was carried out by the microbial conversion of Potato Peel Waste (PPW) and Frying Oil Waste (FOW) utilizing locally isolated Bacillus halotolerans. Also, investigating its potential application as an antimicrobial agent towards some pathogenic strains. RESULTS: Screening the bacterial isolates for surfactin production revealed that the strain with the highest yield (49 g/100 g substrate) and efficient oil displacement activity was genetically identified as B. halotolerans. The production process was then optimized utilizing Central Composite Design (CCD) resulting in the amelioration of yield by 11.4% (from 49 to 55.3 g/100 g substrate) and surface tension (ST) by 8.3% (from 36 to 33 mN/m) with a constant level of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 125 mg/L. Moreover, the physiochemical characterization studies of the produced surfactin by FTIR, 1H NMR, and LC-MS/MS proved the existence of a cyclic lipopeptide (surfactin). The investigations further showed a strong emulsification affinity for soybean and motor oil (E24 = 50%), as well as the ability to maintain the emulsion stable over a wide pH (4-10) and temperature (10-100 °C) range. Interestingly, surfactin had a broad-spectrum range of inhibition activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: Subsequently, the screening of the isolates and the utilized food-processing wastes along with the extraction technique resulted in a high yield of surfactin characterized by acceptable ST and CMC levels. However, optimization of the cultural conditions to improve the activity and productivity was achieved using Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) and Central Composite Design (CCD). In contrast, surface activity recorded a maximum level of (33 mN/n) and productivity of 55.3 g/100 g substrate. The optimized surfactin had also the ability to maintain the stability of emulsions over a wide range of pH and temperature. Otherwise, the obtained results proved the promising efficiency of the surfactin against bacterial and fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Resíduos Industriais , Lipopeptídeos , Solanum tuberosum , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/biossíntese , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos Cíclicos/biossíntese , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura/métodos
9.
World J Emerg Surg ; 19(1): 23, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851757

RESUMO

Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are common surgical emergencies and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings, particularly if poorly managed. The cornerstones of effective IAIs management include early diagnosis, adequate source control, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and early physiologic stabilization using intravenous fluids and vasopressor agents in critically ill patients. Adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy in patients with IAIs is of paramount importance because inappropriate antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor outcomes. Optimizing antimicrobial prescriptions improves treatment effectiveness, increases patients' safety, and minimizes the risk of opportunistic infections (such as Clostridioides difficile) and antimicrobial resistance selection. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms has caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially regarding Gram-negative bacteria. The Multidisciplinary and Intersociety Italian Council for the Optimization of Antimicrobial Use promoted a consensus conference on the antimicrobial management of IAIs, including emergency medicine specialists, radiologists, surgeons, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, clinical pharmacologists, hospital pharmacists, microbiologists and public health specialists. Relevant clinical questions were constructed by the Organizational Committee in order to investigate the topic. The expert panel produced recommendation statements based on the best scientific evidence from PubMed and EMBASE Library and experts' opinions. The statements were planned and graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) hierarchy of evidence. On November 10, 2023, the experts met in Mestre (Italy) to debate the statements. After the approval of the statements, the expert panel met via email and virtual meetings to prepare and revise the definitive document. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference and comprises three sections. The first section focuses on the general principles of diagnosis and treatment of IAIs. The second section provides twenty-three evidence-based recommendations for the antimicrobial therapy of IAIs. The third section presents eight clinical diagnostic-therapeutic pathways for the most common IAIs. The document has been endorsed by the Italian Society of Surgery.


Assuntos
Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13201, 2024 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851845

RESUMO

Sugar esters display surface-active properties, wetting, emulsifying, and other physicochemical phenomena following their amphipathic nature and recognize distinct biological activity. The development of nutritional pharmaceuticals and other applications remains of great interest. Herein, three novel homologous series of several N-mono-fatty acyl amino acid glucosyl esters were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties and biological activities were evaluated. The design and preparation of these esters were chemically performed via the reaction of glucose with different fatty acyl amino acids as renewable starting materials, with the suggestion that they would acquire functional characteristics superior and competitive to certain conventional surfactants. The synthesized products are characterized using FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Further, their physicochemical properties, such as HLB, CMC, Γmax, γCMC, and Amin, were determined. Additionally, their antimicrobial and anticancer efficiency were assessed. The results indicate that the esters' molecular structure, including the acyl chain length and the type of amino acid, significantly influences their properties. The measured HLB ranged from 8.84 to 12.27, suggesting their use as oil/water emulsifiers, wetting, and cleansing agents. All esters demonstrate promising surface-active characteristics, with moderate to high foam production with good stability. Notably, compounds 6-O-(N-dodecanoyl, tetradecanoyl cysteine)-glucopyranose (34, 35), respectively and 6-O-(N-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoyl cysteine)-glucopyranose (38) display superior foamability. Wetting efficiency increased with decreasing the chain length of the acyl group. The storage results reveal that increasing the fatty acyl hydrophobe length enhances the derived emulsion's stability for up to 63 days. Particularly, including cysteine in these glucosyl esters improves wetting, foaming, and emulsifying potentialities. Furthermore, the esters exhibit antibacterial activity against several tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, they show significant antiproliferative effects on some liver tumor cell lines. For instance, compounds 6-O-(N-12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoylglycine)-glucopyranose (28), 6-O-(N-dodecanoyl, hexadecanoyl, 9-octadecenoyl and 12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoylvaline)- glucopyranose (29, 31, 32 and 33), respectively in addition to the dodecanoyl, hexadecanoyl, 9-octadecenoyl and 12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoyl cysteine glucopyranose (34, 36, 37 and 38), respectively significantly inhibit the examined cancer cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Tensoativos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ésteres/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Aminoácidos/química
11.
AAPS J ; 26(4): 67, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862870

RESUMO

Addressing the intertwined challenges of antimicrobial resistance and impaired wound healing in diabetic patients, an oil/water emulsion-based nano-ointment integrating phenylpropanoids-Eugenol and Cinnamaldehyde-with positively-charged silver nanoparticles was synthesized. The process began with the synthesis and characterization of nano-silver, aimed at ensuring the effectiveness and safety of the nanoparticles in biological applications. Subsequent experiments determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against pathogens such as Streptococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These MIC values of all three active leads guided the strategic formulation of an ointment base, which effectively integrated the bioactive components. Evaluations of this nano-ointment revealed enhanced antimicrobial activity against both clinical and reference bacterial strains and it maintained stability after freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, the ointment demonstrated superior in-vitro diabetic wound healing capabilities and significantly promoted angiogenesis, as shown by enhanced blood vessel formation in the Chorioallantoic Membrane assay. These findings underscore the formulation's therapeutic potential, marking a significant advance in the use of nanotechnology for topical wound care.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pomadas , Prata , Cicatrização , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/administração & dosagem , Acroleína/farmacologia , Acroleína/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Humanos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Lasers Med Sci ; 39(1): 155, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865020

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis (SRM) was to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjunctive use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) in subjects with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and periodontitis. This SRM was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42023410180) and followed the guidelines of PRISMA 2020. Searches were performed in different electronic databases. Risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2.0) for randomized clinical trials (RCT). Meta-analysis was performed using Rev Man software. The mean difference (MD) measure of effect was calculated, the random effect model was applied with a 95% confidence interval, and heterogeneity was tested by the I2 index. The certainty of the evidence was rated using GRADE. A total of 1118 records were screened, and four studies were included. There was a greater reduction in the microbial load of periodontopathogens after NSPT with aPDT. Meta-analysis showed that probing depth (post 3 and 6 months) and clinical attachment loss (post 6 months) were lower for the aPDT-treated group than the NSPT alone: MD -0.39 [-0.74; -0.05], p = 0.02; MD -0.70 [-0.99; -0.41], p < 0.0001; MD -0.84 [-1,34; -0.34], p = 0.0001, respectively. Overall, the studies had a low risk of bias and, the certainty of evidence was rated as moderate. It is suggested that aPDT is a promising adjuvant therapy, showing efficacy in the reduction of the microbial load and in some clinical parameters of individuals with periodontitis and HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Periodontite , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/terapia , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12997, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844768

RESUMO

Herbal medicine combined with nanoparticles has caught much interest in clinical dental practice, yet the incorporation of chitosan with Salvadora persica (S. persica) extract as an oral care product has not been explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effectiveness of Salvadora persica(S. persica) and Chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) against oropharyngeal microorganisms. Agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimal lethal concentration assays were used to assess the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of S. persica and ChNPs against selected fungal strains, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria. A mixture of 10% S. persica and 0.5% ChNPs was prepared (SChNPs) and its synergistic effect against the tested microbes was evaluated. Furthermore, the strain that was considered most sensitive was subjected to a 24-h treatment with SChNPs mixture; and examined using SEM, FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. S. persica extract and ChNPs exhibited concentration-dependent antimicrobial activities against all tested strains. S. persica extract and ChNPs at 10% were most effective against S. pneumoni, K. pneumoni, and C. albicans. SEM images confirmed the synergistic effect of the SChNPs mixture, revealing S. pneumonia cells with increased irregularity and higher cell lysis compared to the individual solutions. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of SChNPs showed many active antimicrobial phytocompounds and some additional peaks, respectively. The synergy of the mixture of SChNPs in the form of mouth-rinsing solutions can be a promising approach for the control of oropharyngeal microbes that are implicated in viral secondary bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Extratos Vegetais , Salvadoraceae , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salvadoraceae/química , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Orofaringe/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12892, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839785

RESUMO

Antimicrobials are molecules that prevent the formation of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The necessity to detect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) using machine learning and deep learning arises from the need for efficiency to accelerate the discovery of AMPs, and contribute to developing effective antimicrobial therapies, especially in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance. This study introduced AMP-RNNpro based on Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), an innovative model for detecting AMPs, which was designed with eight feature encoding methods that are selected according to four criteria: amino acid compositional, grouped amino acid compositional, autocorrelation, and pseudo-amino acid compositional to represent the protein sequences for efficient identification of AMPs. In our framework, two-stage predictions have been conducted. Initially, this study analyzed 33 models on these feature extractions. Then, we selected the best six models from these models using rigorous performance metrics. In the second stage, probabilistic features have been generated from the selected six models in each feature encoding and they are aggregated to be fed into our final meta-model called AMP-RNNpro. This study also introduced 20 features with SHAP, which are crucial in the drug development fields, where we discover AAC, ASDC, and CKSAAGP features are highly impactful for detection and drug discovery. Our proposed framework, AMP-RNNpro excels in the identification of novel Amps with 97.15% accuracy, 96.48% sensitivity, and 97.87% specificity. We built a user-friendly website for demonstrating the accurate prediction of AMPs based on the proposed approach which can be accessed at http://13.126.159.30/ .


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/química , Aprendizado de Máquina , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aprendizado Profundo
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e944255, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843112

RESUMO

Orthodontic treatments, while essential for achieving optimal oral health, present challenges in infection control due to the propensity for bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on orthodontic appliances. Silver-coated orthodontic materials have emerged as a promising solution, leveraging the potent antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Antibacterial coatings are used in orthodontics to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms. This systematic review evaluated the literature on antimicrobial silver coatings on fixed orthodontic appliances, including archwires, brackets, and microimplants. Two evaluators, working independently, rigorously conducted a comprehensive search of various databases, including PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science. This systematic review comprehensively examined in vitro studies investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-coated orthodontic archwires, brackets, and microimplants. The review registered in PROSPERO CRD42024509189 synthesized findings from 18 diverse studies, revealing consistent and significant reductions in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and colony counts with the incorporation of AgNPs. Key studies demonstrated the effectiveness of silver-coated archwires and brackets against common oral bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Microimplants coated with AgNPs also exhibited notable antimicrobial activity against a range of microorganisms. The systematic review revealed potential mechanisms underlying these antimicrobial effects, highlighted implications for infection prevention in orthodontic practice, and suggested future research avenues. Despite some study heterogeneity and limitations, the collective evidence supports the potential of silver-coated orthodontic materials in mitigating bacterial complications, emphasizing their relevance in advancing infection control measures in orthodontics.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Prata , Prata/farmacologia , Humanos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquetes Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Fios Ortodônticos/microbiologia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303095, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776281

RESUMO

The growing burden of expired medicines contributes to environmental contamination and landfill waste accumulation. Medicinal honey, with its non-toxic nature and potentially long shelf-life, represents a promising and underutilised therapeutic that avoids some of these issues. However, limited knowledge on how its antimicrobial properties change over time combined with a lack of reliable processes in the honey industry for measuring antimicrobial potential, hinder its clinical adoption. Using a diverse selection of 30 Australian honey samples collected between 2005 and 2007, we comprehensively evaluated their antibacterial and antifungal activity and pertinent physical and chemical properties with the aims of assessing the effect of long-term storage on activity, pinpointing factors associated with antimicrobial efficacy, and establishing robust assessment methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays proved superior to the standard phenol equivalence assay in capturing the full range of antimicrobial activity present in honey. Correlations between activity and a range of physical and chemical properties uncovered significant associations, with hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant content, and water activity emerging as key indicators in non-Leptospermum honey. However, the complex nature and the diverse composition of honey samples precludes the use of high-throughput chemical tests for accurately assessing this activity, and direct assessment using live microorganisms remains the most economical and reliable method. We provide recommendations for different methods of assaying various honey properties, taking into account their accuracy along with technical difficulty and safety considerations. All Leptospermum and fourteen of seventeen non-Leptospermum honey samples retained at least some antimicrobial properties after 15-17 years of storage, suggesting that honey can remain active for extended periods. Overall, the results of this study will help industry meet the growing demand for high-quality, medicinally active honey while ensuring accurate assessment of its antimicrobial potential.


Assuntos
Mel , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mel/análise , Austrália , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise
18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(15): e9778, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782744

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Illegal addition of anti-infective drugs to cosmetics at low concentrations has been found. The illicit addition of anti-infective drugs encompasses a wide variety of medications. The current sample purification methods are inadequate to detect all these compounds. A sensitive, wide-coverage, and weak-matrix-effect measurement method needs to be established to address this issue. METHODS: Samples were extracted using acetonitrile, diluted 25 times, and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect 111 anti-infective drugs. The method was validated and assessed for matrix effect before being applied to cosmetic products. RESULTS: The calibration curves for the analytes exhibited a strong correlation coefficient (r > 0.995). The limit of detection ranged from 0.006 to 0.6 mg/kg. Matrix effects were significantly improved after a 25-fold dilution. The method was successfully applied to various cosmetics. Two of 82 samples tested contained lincomycin and miconazole, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method is quick and reliable to analyze anti-infective drugs in cosmetics, with potential for both qualitative and quantitative analyses. It is a valuable tool for cosmetic research and development, contributing to safer and more effective cosmetic products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cosméticos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cosméticos/química , Cosméticos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e17328, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770094

RESUMO

Nanotechnology and nanoparticles have gained massive attention in the scientific community in recent years due to their valuable properties. Among various AgNPs synthesis methods, microbial approaches offer distinct advantages in terms of cost-effectiveness, biocompatibility, and eco-friendliness. In the present research work, investigators have synthesized three different types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), namely AgNPs-K, AgNPs-M, and AgNPs-E, by using Klebsiella pneumoniae (MBC34), Micrococcus luteus (MBC23), and Enterobacter aerogenes (MBX6), respectively. The morphological, chemical, and elemental features of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). UV-Vis absorbance peaks were obtained at 475, 428, and 503 nm for AgNPs-K, AgNPs-M, and AgNPs-E, respectively. The XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the synthesized AgNPs, having peaks at 26.2°, 32.1°, and 47.2°. At the same time, the FTIR showed bands at 599, 963, 1,693, 2,299, 2,891, and 3,780 cm-1 for all the types of AgNPs indicating the presence of bacterial biomolecules with the developed AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs varied from 10 nm to several microns and exhibited spherical to porous sheets-like structures. The percentage of Ag varied from 37.8% (wt.%) to 61.6%, i.e., highest in AgNPs-K and lowest in AgNPs-M. Furthermore, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited potential for environmental remediation, with AgNPs-M exhibiting the highest removal efficiency (19.24% at 120 min) for methyl orange dye in simulated wastewater. Further, all three types of AgNPs were evaluated for the removal of methyl orange dye from the simulated wastewater, where the highest dye removal percentage was 19.24% at 120 min by AgNPs-M. Antibacterial potential of the synthesized AgNPs assessment against both Gram-positive (GPB) Bacillus subtilis (MBC23), B. cereus (MBC24), and Gram-negative bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MBP13) revealed promising results, with AgNPs-M, exhibiting the largest zone of inhibition (12 mm) against GPB B. megaterium. Such investigation exhibits the potential of the bacteria for the synthesis of AgNPs with diverse morphology and potential applications in environmental remediation and antibacterial therapy-based synthesis of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Micrococcus luteus , Prata , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos Azo/química , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Micrococcus luteus/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Enterobacter aerogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter aerogenes/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia
20.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 27(4): 224-233, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812114

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> is a common plant in the Mekong Delta and is widely used in many Vietnamese folk remedies. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of roots, stems, leaves of <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> as antioxidant, antimicrobial, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase associated with diabetes. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-Azino-Bis-(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power (RP) assays. The antibacterial activity of extracts from <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. <b>Results:</b> The root extract of <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> has more polyphenols (32.49±0.72 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (15.48±1.32 mg QE/g extract) than the other parts. Simultaneously, the root extract of <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> has antioxidant activity (IC<sub>50</sub> values range from 117.67±2.82 to 569.20±7.68 µg/mL), inhibiting amylase (IC<sub>50</sub> = 266.72±10.58 µg/mL) and glucosidase (IC<sub>50</sub> = 147.13±3.58 µg/mL) enzymes more effectively than the other parts. Research results also show that extracts from <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> are capable of inhibiting <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 1280 to 10240 mg/mL. <b>Conclusion:</b> These results highlighted the potential using of <i>Ruellia tuberosa</i> extracts as natural antioxidant, antimicrobial, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors agents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , alfa-Amilases , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
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