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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131032, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500294

RESUMO

Both microbiological and chemical food spoilages remain to be the major challenges in the food industry's efforts to combat food waste and loss because of the lack of high efficacy food preservatives. In this study, dual-functional conjugates that simultaneously suppress both lipid oxidation and microorganism growth are fabricated by covalently conjugating natural antioxidant gentisic acid (GA) on native antibacterial lysozyme (Lys). The mixing ratio of Lys and GA determines the particle size, morphology, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial performance of the ensuing conjugates. With more of GA being grafted, a drastic decrease in the net surface charge with the concomitant occurrence of aggregations are observed in the conjugates. The maximum antioxidant activity and antibacterial performance of the conjugates is achieved when Lys:GA molar ratio is 1:112. The findings could guide the rational design of future functional food ingredients that combine multiple natural bioactive compounds to effectively intervene food waste and loss.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Alimentos , Gentisatos , Muramidase
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109463, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742143

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds contained in propolis and to evaluate the effect of propolis and its extracts on the antifungal activity, pH, color, and sensory analysis of creamy cheese with thyme (thyme labneh). Ethanolic and water extracts of propolis were evaluated to determine its phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds in propolis were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antifungal activities, color, pH, and sensory evaluation of propolis and its extracts (water and ethanolic) were investigated at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%. The results showed 11 phenolic compounds in the propolis extract. Our findings revealed a significant difference in phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of propolis when compared with the water extract (P < 0.05). Microbial counts in thyme labneh treated with propolis powder and its extracts (ethanolic and water) showed significant differences compared with the control at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%). Propolis powder and ethanolic extracts at concentrations of 1% and 1.5% were limited the rapid growth of mold and yeast, so the results showed no significant difference between 14 and 21 days for these samples. In addition, the 1.5% water extract did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05) between Days 14 and 21. The sensory panel did not detect a significant difference in any sensory attribute in the thyme labneh treated with propolis extracts. This study identified the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial effectiveness of using propolis in dairy products, suggesting its potential as a natural preservative.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Própole , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109444, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749186

RESUMO

"Torta del Casar" is a Spanish soft-ripened cheese made with sheep's raw milk and subjected to a short ripening process, which favors the growth of pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. The development of strategies to control pathogens and minimize health risks associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes in these products is of great interest. In this regard, the anti-Listeria activity of a whey protein hydrolysate (ProH) alone or combined with six lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cheese was evaluated in this study as a biocontrol strategy using a "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium. The most active combinations of lactic acid bacteria assayed induced a reduction higher than two logarithmic units in the growth of L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b) compared to their respective control when they were co-inoculated in "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium at 7 °C for 7 days. In addition, the observed downregulation of some key virulence genes of L. monocytogenes suggests that the strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum B2 alone and combined with the strain Lactiplantibacillus spp. B4 are good candidates to be used as biocontrol agents against L. monocytogenes growth in traditional soft cheeses based on raw milk during their storage at refrigeration temperatures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Queijo/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Ovinos , Virulência , Soro do Leite
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132276, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601372

RESUMO

Phytoconstituents of plants had enormous therapeutic potential against the wounds on skin. Plants like Tecoma stans, Manilkara zapota and Cassia fistula were some which had the ability to heal the wounds. However, there was limited research in Cassia fistula flowers and its synergism with plants on wound healing and its mechanism. Qualitative analysis was performed to confirm the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins and tannins in solvents:aqueous ethanol and methanol. All three components showed their attributes towards wound healing. Results of antimicrobial activity clearly stated that, methanol extract of the Cassia fistula flowers at increasing concentration, showed the maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 100 µl (antibacterial assay) and 18 mm at 100 µl (anti-fungal assay). They had higher potential against the selective microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The combination of C. fistula flowers and C. fistula leaves; C. fistula flowers and M. zapota leaves showed maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 21 mm for anti-bacterial; 22 mm and 23 mm for antifungal at 100 µl respectively. The C. fistula flowers along with the Manilkara zapota leaves and C. fistula leaves enhanced the antimicrobial nature than the individual plants. The antimicrobial properties present in the plants would engage them in future for developing an improved medicine for wound healing. Thus a polyherbal plant solution containing equal proportions of plants, tested for the antibacterial activity, succeeded by showing its higher inhibition of 25 mm at 100 µl.This concluded that the synergism of plants had higher efficiency in microbial activity than the individual samples hence proving the plants attributes towards the wound healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bignoniaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
5.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132174, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826902

RESUMO

Removal of the hazardous and endocrine-disrupting 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from water bodies is crucial to maintain the sanctity of the ecosystem. As a low bandgap material (1.37 eV), NaBiS2 was hydrothermally prepared and used as a potential photocatalyst to degrade 2,4-DCP under visible light irradiation. NaBiS2 appeared to be highly stable and remained structurally undeterred despite thermal variations. With a surface area of 6.69 m2/g, NaBiS2 has enough surface-active sites to adsorb the reactive molecules and exhibit a significant photocatalytic activity. In alkaline pH, the adsorption of 2,4-DCP on NaBiS2 appeared to decrease whereas, the acidic and neutral environments favoured the degradation. An increase in the photocatalyst dosage enhanced the degradation efficiency from 81 to 86 %, because of higher vacant adsorbent sites and the electrostatic attraction between NaBiS2 and 2,4-DCP. The dominant scavengers degraded 2,4-DCP by forming a coordination bond between chlorine's lone pair of electrons and the vacant orbitals of bismuth, following the order hole> OH > singlet oxygen. Being non-toxic to both natural and aquatic systems, NaBiS2 exhibits antifungal properties at higher concentrations. Finally, the electron-rich NaBiS2 is an excellent electrocatalyst that effectively degrades organic pollutants and is a promising material for industrial and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ecossistema , Catálise , Clorofenóis , Cinética , Luz , Fotólise
6.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 107-119, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838246

RESUMO

Advances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity (relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a defined environment. Microorganisms within a microbiome interact with each other as well as with the host. A microbiome is dynamic and may change over time as conditions within the defined environment become altered. In oral health, neither gingivitis nor periodontitis is present, and the host and microbiome coexist symbiotically without evoking an inflammatory response. The circumstances that cause a shift from immune tolerance to a proinflammatory response remain unknown, and a unified, all-encompassing hypothesis to explain how and why periodontal disease develops has yet to be described. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current understanding of the role played by the oral microbiome in dogs and cats, describe how the microbiome changes in periodontal disease, and offer guidance on the utility of systemic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of periodontitis in companion animals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Disbiose/veterinária , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária
7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132271, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547560

RESUMO

In this study, novel biogenic silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were developed using a green approach with Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract. The optimization of synthesis conditions for the best outcomes was conducted. The prepared materials were characterized and their applicability in catalysis, antibacterial and chemical sensing was comprehensively evaluated. The GL-AgNPs crystals were formed in a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm, while GL-AuNPs exhibited multi-shaped structures with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. As a catalyst, the synthesized nanoparticles showed excellent catalytic activity (>98% in 9 min) and reusability (>95% after five recycles) in converting 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. As an antimicrobial agent, GL-AuNPs were low effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria, while GL-AgNPs expressed strong antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. The highest growth inhibition activity of GL-AgNPs was observed against B. subtilis (14.58 ± 0.35 mm), followed by B. cereus (13.8 ± 0.52 mm), P. aeruginosa (12.38 ± 0.64 mm), E. coli (11.3 ± 0.72 mm), and S. aureus (10.41 ± 0.31 mm). Besides, GL-AgNPs also demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity in the colorimetric detection of Fe3+ in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 1.85 nM. Due to the suitable thickness of the protective organic layer and the appropriate particle size, GL-AgNPs validated the triple role as a high-performance catalyst, antimicrobial agent, and nanosensor for environmental monitoring and remediation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catálise , Colorimetria , Escherichia coli , Compostos Férricos , Ouro , Química Verde , Íons , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , Prata , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 19-40, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453323

RESUMO

Eleocharis dulcis, an aquatic plant belonging to Cyperaceae family, is indigenous to Asia, and also occurs in tropical Africa and Australia. The edible corm part of E. dulcis is a commonly consumed aquatic vegetable with a planting area of 44.46 × 103 hm2 in China. This work aims to explore the potential of E. dulcis corm for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits by reviewing its nutrients, phytochemicals, functions, processing and food products. Eleocharis dulcis corm contains starches, dietary fibers, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, phenolics, sterols, puchiin, saponins, minerals and vitamins. Among them, phenolics including flavonoids and quinones could be the major bioconstituents that largely contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and hypolipidemic functions. Peel wastes of E. dulcis corm tend to be enriched in phenolics to a much higher extent than the edible pulp. Fresh-cut E. dulcis corm can be consumed as a ready-to-eat food or processed into juice for beverage production, and anti-browning processing is a key to prolonging shelf life. Present food products of E. dulcis corm are centered on various fruit and vegetable beverages, and suffer from single categories and inadequate development. In brief, underutilized E. dulcis corm possesses great potential for use as a new food source for sufficient nutrients and health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eleocharis/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 366: 130606, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311233

RESUMO

A natamycin-based non-migratory antimicrobial packaging for extending shelf-life of yogurt drink (Doogh) was developed. Firstly, the surface of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) was modified with acrylic acid at different times of UV exposure (0-10 min) to produce carboxylic functional groups. Then, natamycin was applied to the UV-treated films to bind covalently with the pendent functional groups. The maximum grafting efficiency (81.96%) was obtained for the 6 min treated film. Moreover, surface properties of films were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antifungal activity of different treatments of natamycin grafted film was evaluated against two common spoilage yeasts of Doogh including Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that 6 min treated film provides maximum anti-yeast activity and can be applied to control fungal growth in Doogh. Natamycin-grafted film postponed the yeast spoilage in Doogh and prolonged its shelf-life to 23 days.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Natamicina , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Rhodotorula , Iogurte
10.
Food Chem ; 367: 130677, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343803

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical properties and 3D structure of Macadamia integrifolia antimicrobial protein 2 (MiAMP2) and its interaction with palmitoleic acid (POA) or oleic acid (OA) in macadamia oil. The 3D structure of MiAMP2 was constructed for the first time by ab initio modelling using the TrRosetta server. The results showed that MiAMP2 was highly hydrophilic and had seven disulfide bonds and higher α-helix and ß-sheet/turn contents. Molecular simulation showed that the hydrophobic pocket of MiAMP2 created a favourable environment for the binding of POA and OA. Free energy landscape and independent gradient model (IGM) analyses revealed that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the major driving forces stabilizing complexes formed by MiAMP2 and POA or OA. The present study provides a theoretical basis and new insight for the future development and utilization of macadamia nut protein in the food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Macadamia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Ácido Oleico
11.
Food Chem ; 367: 130671, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343816

RESUMO

Due to environmental issues caused by plastic packaging and growing consumer demand for fresh and safe food, there is a growing interest in antibacterial active food packaging films/coatings containing plant essential oils (EO). For the effective use of EO-incorporated active films/coatings, EO must be effectively integrated encapsulated in active films/coatings, and the integrated encapsulated EO must be released from active films/coatings slowly during storage to exhibit antibacterial effects more durable. Recently, several promising strategies have been proposed to improve the sustained release and retention enhancement of EO in active films/coatings, including particle encapsulation, nanoemulsion, Pickering emulsions, multilayer system, and electrospinning technology. This article reviewed the latest technologies of sustained release and retention enhancement strategies for encapsulating EO in active films/coatings. The advantages and disadvantages of these sustained release and retention enhancement strategies and their practical applications in food preservation are also introduced.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos
12.
Food Chem ; 366: 130608, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454799

RESUMO

Hydrochar of waste walnut shells (WSH) was synthesized in the eco-friendly subcritical water medium (SWM) and its potential to fight against Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) was investigated. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the WSH were 3.01 g/mL, 2.06 g/mL, 1.95 g/mL, and 3.12 g/mL for K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively. Survival of the pathogens was investigated by 3 min surface disinfection test exposure to WSH. While the highest inhibition was seen for C. parapsilosis (96.67%) on paper surface with 0.3 g/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the lowest inhibition was determined for C. albicans (6.44%) on the plastic glass surface with 3 g/mL of BSA. An increase in protein, DNA, and potassium ion (K+) leakage was observed after microorganisms were incubated with WSH. This study provided an experimental basis for the practical application of WSH as a natural sanitizer agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Juglans , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 36-46, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374347

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem. Recently, the occurrence of CPE has increased globally, but epidemiological patterns vary across region. We report the trends in the genotypic distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of CPE isolated from rectal and clinical samples during a four-year period. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2019, 1,254 nonduplicated CPE isolates were obtained from four university hospitals in Korea. Carbapenemase genotypes were determined by multiplex real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was profiled using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO, USA) or MicroScan Walkaway-96 system (Siemens West Sacramento, CA, USA). The proportions of carbapenemase genotypes and nonsusceptibility were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,254 CPE isolates, 486 (38.8%), 371 (29.6%), 357 (28.5%), 8 (0.6%), 8 (0.6%), and 24 (1.9%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM), and multiple producers, respectively. The predominant species was K. pneumoniae (72.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (6.5%). More than 90% of the isolates harboring KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems. Conclusions: The impact of CPE is primarily due to KPC-, NDM-, and OXA-48-like-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Isolates carrying these carbapenemase are mostly multidrug-resistant. Control strategies based on these genotypic distributions and antimicrobial susceptibilities of CPE isolates are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , beta-Lactamases/genética
14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120273, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425316

RESUMO

Amphibians are a natural source of a large number of peptides with a wide range of functional activities. Here, a complex of spectroscopic methods including NMR-, FTIR-, CD-, and UV-spectroscopy was applied to characterize the structure and functional activity of megin-1, a peptide isolated from amphibian skin. The three-dimensional structure of two forms of the peptide was determined using solution NMR spectroscopy. Thermodynamic characteristics of the process of peptide transformation from linear to cyclic form were obtained. Antibacterial and antimycotic properties of the peptide, as well as its protease inhibitory activities, were analyzed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131694, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346344

RESUMO

Surfactin is a bacterial lipopeptide and an influential biosurfactant mainly known for excellent surfactant ability. The amphiphilic nature of surfactin helps it to sustain under hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions. In this investigation, a bacterium strain (BTKU3) that produces biosurfactant were isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Based on the blue agar plate (Bap) assay, the BTKU3 strain was found to be promising for biosurfactant production. This strain was later identified as a Lysinibacillus sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. The characteristics of extracted bacterial surfactin were evidenced by FTIR with the presence of amine, C-H, CO, CC, esters, thiocarbonyl and asymmetric aliphatic C-H stretch molecular structural groups. Further, the extracted bacterial biosurfactant material was subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS), and it was identified and confirmed as surfactin with an elution time of 3.1 min and m/z value of 1034. The emulsification and oil displacement tests further proved the surfactin ability with 83% of coconut oil emulsion index and 80 % oil displacement ability with diesel, respectively. Lysinibacillus sp. BTKU3 strain also proved its efficacy in the degradation of difenoconazole by utilizing a capacity of 9.1 µg ml-1. Thus, it is inferred that the Lysinibacillus sp. BTKU3 strain plays a significant role in the production of surfactin, which positively acts as an antimicrobial agent and reduces contaminants in polluted sites.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fungicidas Industriais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dioxolanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tensoativos , Triazóis
16.
Food Chem ; 369: 130959, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469836

RESUMO

The huge economic loss of citrus fruit after harvest called for safe and efficient preservatives, as chemically synthesized agents threatened the environment and human health. Herein a biocontrol fungus Chaetomium globosum QY-1 near the orchard in riparian area was identified to have antimicrobial, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activity, which meets the requirements of an ideal preservative. Metabolite profiling based on bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out, and eight polyketones were determined by MS and NMR. The most abundant CheA exhibited strong inhibition to Penicillium digitatum, the main pathogen caused citrus fruit rot. Among these metabolites, Epicoccone and Epicoccolide B showed higher antioxidant activity, while Epicoccone and CheA had higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity. All the activities were close to or even better than the positive control (Vc; glutathione; Vc and arbutin; Bellkute), implying that the metabolites of C. globosum had comprehensive effects as natural preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Chaetomium , Citrus , Humanos , Penicillium
17.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 188-195, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635612

RESUMO

Background: Fusobacterium species are obligately anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli. Especially, F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum are highly relevant human pathogens. We investigated clinical differences in patients infected with Fusobacterium spp. and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium isolates. Methods: We collected clinical data of 86 patients from whom Fusobacterium spp. were isolated from clinical specimens at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2020. In total, 76 non-duplicated Fusobacterium isolates were selected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the agar dilution method, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (M11-A9). Results: F. nucleatum was most frequently isolated from blood cultures and was associated with hematologic malignancy, whereas F. necrophorum was mostly prevalent in head and neck infections. Anti-anaerobic agents were more commonly used to treat F. nucleatum and F. varium infections than to treat F. necrophorum infections. We observed no significant difference in mortality between patients infected with these species. All F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. F. varium was resistant to clindamycin (48%) and moxifloxacin (24%), and F. mortiferum was resistant to penicillin G (22%) and ceftriaxone (67%). ß-Lactamase activity was not detected. Conclusions: Despite the clinical differences among patients with clinically important Fusobacterium infections, there was no significant difference in the mortality rates. Some Fusobacterium spp. were resistant to penicillin G, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, or moxifloxacin. This study may provide clinically relevant data for implementing empirical treatment against Fusobacterium infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Fusobacterium , Fusobacterium , Infecções por Fusobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Fusobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , República da Coreia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120255, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464919

RESUMO

For the estimation of some co-administered antimicrobials, two highly accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric methods were developed. Fluconazole (FLZ) is co-administered with either ciprofloxacin (CPR) or ofloxacin (OFX) for the treatment of certain microbial infections. On the other hand, another antimicrobial drug, vancomycin (VNC) is co-administered with ciprofloxacin (CPR) for peritonitis treatment. In method I, conventional spectrofluorimetry has been introduced for the concurrent quantitative estimation of FLZ in presence of OFX or CPR. While in method II, a first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric technique was adapted for quantitation of VNC and CPR co-administered combination. Both of them were utilized for estimation of the considered drugs in raw materials, laboratory prepared mixtures, dosage forms, and biological fluids. Method I was relied on simultaneous measuring of the native fluorescence of FLZ and OFX or CPR without any overlapping between the emission spectra of each binary mixture (FLZ / OFX) and (FLZ / CPR). Fluorescence intensities were measured at 283.0, 483.0 and 436.0 nm after excitation at 262.0, 292.0 and 275.0 nm for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Method II was utilized the synchronous fluorescence intensity of VNC and CPR in methanol at Δλ = 40 nm. The first derivative synchronous spectra were calibrated at 297.0 nm for VNC and at 379.5 nm for CPR. Different variables influencing conventional and synchronous fluorescence intensities of the four antimicrobials under investigation were precisely optimized. Both methods were successfully investigated for the determination of the studied drugs in plasma. The linear data analysis for the calibration curves reveals a good relationship in the ranges of 1.0-10.0, 0.25-2.5 and 0.06-0.6 µg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR for method I with limits of detection 0.144, 0.038 and 0.007 µg/mL and limits of quantitation of 0.437, 0.114 and 0.021 µg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Linearity range for method II was 0.5 -10.0 µg/mL for VNC and CPR with detection limits of 0.127 and 0.110 µg/mL and quantitation limits of 0.380 and 0.334 µg/mL for VNC and CPR, respectively. International Council on Harmonization ICH Q2 (R1) Guidelines were followed in the developed methods validation. The achieved outcomes were statistically compared with those found by the reported ones, and no significant difference was observed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Calibragem , Ciprofloxacina , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
19.
Food Chem ; 368: 130831, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403999

RESUMO

This research aimed to apply nanotechnology for nanoformulation of Laurus nobilis essential oil (EO) by ultrasonic emulsification method and characterization of nano-form: particle size, viscosity, polydispersity index, thermodynamic stability, and surface tension. The antimicrobial activity of laurel EO nanoemulsion (LEON) and laurel EO was also investigated against a panel of ten food-borne pathogens and fish spoilage bacteria. The GC-MS analysis of EO revealed that 1,8-Cineole was the main volatile compound. According to disc-diffusion results, LEON was more effective against Gram-positive pathogen bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis than EO. Laurel oil demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect against fish spoilage bacteria (6.19 to 18.5 mm). The MICs values of LEON and laurel EO ranged from 6.25 to >25 mg/mL and from 1.56 to >25 mg/mL, respectively. Nanoemulsion and oil exhibited the best bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas luteola. Therefore, LEON can be developed as a natural antimicrobial agent in food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pseudomonas , Sesquiterpenos
20.
Food Chem ; 368: 130784, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411864

RESUMO

Biodegradable and antimicrobial films without antibiotics are of great significance for the application associated with food packaging meanwhile minimizing the negative impact on environments. In this work, cellulose-based films with the surface tailor-constructed with ZnO nanopillars (ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films) were prepared via chemical crosslinking in conjunction with a hydrothermal process for in-situ growth of ZnO NPs. As a packaging material, ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films possess excellent mechanical properties, oxygen and water vapor barrier, food preservation, biodegradability and low Zn2+ migration. Moreover, ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films show remarkable antimicrobial activity, especially for Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria). The antimicrobial mechanism of ZnO NPs@Zn2+/Cel films is studied using the controlled variable method, and results showed that the film without UV pretreatment killed bacterial cells mainly by mechanical rupture, while the film with UV pretreatment killed bacterial cells mainly via the synergistic effect of photocatalytic oxidation and mechanical rupture.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Celulose , Embalagem de Alimentos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
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