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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8507, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605071

RESUMO

While cellular metabolism was proposed to be a driving factor of the activation and differentiation of B cells and the function of the resulting antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), the study of correlations between cellular metabolism and functionalities has been difficult due to the absence of technologies enabling the parallel measurement. Herein, we performed single-cell transcriptomics and introduced a direct concurrent functional and metabolic flux quantitation of individual murine B cells. Our transcriptomic data identified lactate metabolism as dynamic in ASCs, but antibody secretion did not correlate with lactate secretion rates (LSRs). Instead, our study of all splenic B cells during an immune response linked increased lactate metabolism with acidic intracellular pH and the upregulation of apoptosis. T cell-dependent responses increased LSRs, and added TLR4 agonists affected the magnitude and boosted LSRhigh B cells in vivo, while resulting in only a few immunoglobulin-G secreting cells (IgG-SCs). Therefore, our observations indicated that LSRhigh cells were not differentiating into IgG-SCs, and were rather removed due to apoptosis.


Assuntos
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B , Animais , Camundongos , Apoptose , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo
2.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 361-376, Abr. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-150

RESUMO

With the increasingly serious problem of phosphorus deficiency in the subtropical zone, chemical fertilizers are widely used. But it pollutes the environment. Phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs) are referred to as a new solution to this problem. We explored the phosphorus-dissolving characteristics of PSB strains isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Torreya grandis to provide a theoretical basis for selecting the strain for managing phosphorus deficiency in subtropical soils and also provides a more sufficient theoretical basis for the utilization of PSMs. From 84 strains, three strains exhibiting high phosphorus solubility and strong IAA producing capacity were selected through a series of experiments. The phosphate-solubilizing capacity of the three selected strains W1, W74, and W83 were 339.78 mg/L, 332.57 mg/L, and 358.61 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, W1 showed the strongest IAA secreting capacity of 8.62 mg/L, followed by W74 (7.58 mg/L), and W83 (7.59 mg/L). Determination by metabolites, it was observed that these three strains dissolved phosphorus by secreting a large amount of lactic acid, aromatic acid, and succinic acid. The genome of these PSBs were sequenced and annotated in this study. Our results revealed that PSB primarily promotes their metabolic pathway, especially carbon metabolism, to secrete plenty organic acids for dissolving insoluble phosphorus. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fósforo , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Ácido Láctico , Ácido Succínico
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 211-239, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502396

RESUMO

The affinity distribution of the antigen-specific memory B cell (Bmem) repertoire in the body is a critical variable that defines an individual's ability to rapidly generate high-affinity protective antibody specificities. Detailed measurement of antibody affinity so far has largely been confined to studies of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and are laborious since each individual mAb needs to be evaluated in isolation. Here, we introduce two variants of the B cell ImmunoSpot® assay that are suitable for simultaneously assessing the affinity distribution of hundreds of individual B cells within a test sample at single-cell resolution using relatively little labor and with high-throughput capacity. First, we experimentally validated that both ImmunoSpot® assay variants are suitable for establishing functional affinity hierarchies using B cell hybridoma lines as model antibody-secreting cells (ASC), each producing mAb with known affinity for a defined antigen. We then leveraged both ImmunoSpot® variants for characterizing the affinity distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific ASC in PBMC following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Such ImmunoSpot® assays promise to offer tremendous value for future B cell immune monitoring efforts, owing to their ease of implementation, applicability to essentially any antigenic system, economy of PBMC utilization, high-throughput capacity, and suitability for regulated testing.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , ELISPOT , Antígenos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2768: 251-272, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502398

RESUMO

The B lymphocyte response can encompass four immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and four IgG subclasses, each contributing fundamentally different effector functions. Production of the appropriate Ig class/subclass is critical for both successful host defense and avoidance of immunopathology. The assessment of an antigen-specific B cell response, including its magnitude and Ig class/subclass composition, is most often confined to the antibodies present in serum and other biological fluids and neglects monitoring of the memory B cell (Bmem) compartment capable of mounting a faster and more efficient antibody response following antigen reencounter. Here, we describe how the frequency and Ig class and IgG subclass use of an antigen-specific Bmem repertoire can be determined with relatively little labor and cost, requiring only 8 × 105 freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), or if additional cryopreservation and polyclonal stimulation is necessary, 3 × 106 PBMC per antigen. To experimentally validate such cell saving assays, we have documented that frequency measurements of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) yield results indistinguishable from those of enzymatic (ELISPOT) or fluorescent (FluoroSpot) versions of the ImmunoSpot® assay, including when the latter are detected in alternative fluorescent channels. Moreover, we have shown that frequency calculations that are based on linear regression analysis of serial PBMC dilutions using a single well per dilution step are as accurate as those performed using replicate wells. Collectively, our data highlight the capacity of multiplexed B cell FluoroSpot assays in conjunction with serial dilutions to significantly reduce the PBMC requirement for detailed assessment of antigen-specific B cells. The protocols presented here allow GLP-compliant high-throughput measurements which should help to introduce high-dimensional Bmem characterization into the standard immune monitoring repertoire.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Antígenos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulinas
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1899, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429276

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple autoantibody types, some of which are produced by long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). Active SLE generates increased circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASC). Here, we examine the phenotypic, molecular, structural, and functional features of ASC in SLE. Relative to post-vaccination ASC in healthy controls, circulating blood ASC from patients with active SLE are enriched with newly generated mature CD19-CD138+ ASC, similar to bone marrow LLPC. ASC from patients with SLE displayed morphological features of premature maturation and a transcriptome epigenetically initiated in SLE B cells. ASC from patients with SLE exhibited elevated protein levels of CXCR4, CXCR3 and CD138, along with molecular programs that promote survival. Furthermore, they demonstrate autocrine production of APRIL and IL-10, which contributed to their prolonged in vitro survival. Our work provides insight into the mechanisms of generation, expansion, maturation and survival of SLE ASC.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Citocinas , Transcriptoma , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 153(2): 527-532, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) causes nasal obstruction and olfactory dysfunction. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is the triad of CRSwNP, asthma, and respiratory reactions to COX-1 inhibitors. Patients with AERD have elevated nasal IL-5 levels and high numbers of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), including plasma cells and plasmablasts, in their polyp tissue; in addition, their nasal polyp (NP) IgE levels are correlated with disease severity and recurrence of nasal polyposis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore differences in the transcriptomic profile, activation markers, and IL-5Rα expression and function of NP ASCs from patients with AERD and CRSwNP. METHODS: NP tissue was collected from patients with AERD and CRSwNP and digested into single-cell suspensions. NP cells were analyzed for protein expression by mass cytometry. For IL-5Rα functional studies, plasma cells were purified and cultured in vitro with or without IL-5 and analyzed by bulk RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Compared with polyp tissue from patients with CRSwNP, polyp tissue from patients with AERD contained significantly more ASCs and had increased ASC expression of IL-5Rα. ASCs from patients with AERD expressed higher protein levels of B-cell activation and regulatory markers (CD40, CD19, CD32, and CD38) and the proliferation marker Ki-67. ASCs from patients with AERD also expressed more IL5RA, IGHE, and cell cycle- and proliferation-related transcripts (CCND2, MKI67, CDC25A, and CDC25B) than did ASCs from patients with CRSwNP. Stimulation of plasma cells from patients with AERD with IL-5 induced key cell cycle genes (CCND2 and PTP4A3), whereas IL-5 stimulation of ASCs from patients with CRSwNP induced few transcriptomic changes. CONCLUSION: NP tissue ASCs from patients with AERD express higher levels of functional IL-5Rα and markers associated with cell cycling and proliferation than do ASCs from patients with aspirin-tolerant CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Asma Induzida por Aspirina , Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/metabolismo , Interleucina-5 , Rinite/metabolismo , Asma Induzida por Aspirina/metabolismo , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/metabolismo , Sinusite/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases
8.
J Exp Med ; 221(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37938344

RESUMO

Protective immune responses to many pathogens depend on the development of high-affinity antibody-producing plasma cells (PC) in germinal centers (GCs). Transgenic models suggest that there is a stringent affinity-based barrier to PC development. Whether a similar high-affinity barrier regulates PC development under physiologic circumstances and the nature of the PC fate decision has not been defined precisely. Here, we use a fate-mapping approach to examine the relationship between GC B cells selected to undergo additional rounds of affinity maturation, GC pre-PC, and PC. The data show that initial PC selection overlaps with GC B cell selection, but that the PC compartment accumulates a less diverse and higher affinity collection of antibodies over time. Thus, whereas the GC continues to diversify over time, affinity-based pre-PC selection sieves the GC to enable the accumulation of a more restricted group of high-affinity antibody-secreting PC.


Assuntos
Centro Germinativo , Plasmócitos , Linfócitos B , Anticorpos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos
9.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0293203, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37922270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic immunoassays for Lyme disease have several limitations including: 1) not all patients seroconvert; 2) seroconversion occurs later than symptom onset; and 3) serum antibody levels remain elevated long after resolution of the infection. INTRODUCTION: MENSA (Medium Enriched for Newly Synthesized Antibodies) is a novel diagnostic fluid that contains antibodies produced in vitro by circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASC). It enables measurement of the active humoral immune response. METHODS: In this observational, case-control study, we developed the MicroB-plex Anti-C6/Anti-pepC10 Immunoassay to measure antibodies specific for the Borrelia burgdorferi peptide antigens C6 and pepC10 and validated it using a CDC serum sample collection. Then we examined serum and MENSA samples from 36 uninfected Control subjects and 12 Newly Diagnosed Lyme Disease Patients. RESULTS: Among the CDC samples, antibodies against C6 and/or pepC10 were detected in all seropositive Lyme patients (8/8), but not in sera from seronegative patients or healthy controls (0/24). Serum antibodies against C6 and pepC10 were detected in one of 36 uninfected control subjects (1/36); none were detected in the corresponding MENSA samples (0/36). In samples from newly diagnosed patients, serum antibodies identified 8/12 patients; MENSA antibodies also detected 8/12 patients. The two measures agreed on six positive individuals and differed on four others. In combination, the serum and MENSA tests identified 10/12 early Lyme patients. Typically, serum antibodies persisted 80 days or longer while MENSA antibodies declined to baseline within 40 days of successful treatment. DISCUSSION: MENSA-based immunoassays present a promising complement to serum immunoassays for diagnosis and tracking therapeutic success in Lyme infections.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Doença de Lyme , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antígenos de Bactérias , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Biomarcadores , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Diagnóstico Precoce
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 123: 110724, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37582312

RESUMO

There are numerous applications for recombinant antibodies (rAbs) in biological and toxicological research. Monoclonal antibodies are synthesized using genetic engineering and other related processes involved in the generation of rAbs. Because they can identify specific antigenic sites on practically any molecule, including medicines, hormones, microbial antigens, and cell receptors, rAbs are particularly useful in scientific research. The key benefits of rAbs are improved repeatability, control, and consistency, shorter manufacturing times than with hybridoma technology, an easier transition from one format of antibody to another, and an animal-free process. The engineering of the host cell has recently been developed method for enhancing the production efficiency and improving the quality of antibodies from mammalian cell lines. In this light, genetic engineering is mostly utilized to manage cellular chaperones, decrease cell death, increase cell viability, change the microRNAs (miRNAs) pattern in mammalian cells, and glycoengineered cell lines. Here, we shed light on how genetic engineering can be used therapeutically to produce antibodies at higher levels with greater potency and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Engenharia Genética , Animais , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Mamíferos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Epigênese Genética
11.
Cell Rep Methods ; 3(7): 100522, 2023 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37533642

RESUMO

Following activation by cognate antigen, B cells undergo fine-tuning of their antigen receptors and may ultimately differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). While antigen-specific B cells that express surface receptors (B cell receptors [BCRs]) can be readily cloned and sequenced following flow sorting, antigen-specific ASCs that lack surface BCRs cannot be easily profiled. Here, we report an approach, TRAPnSeq (antigen specificity mapping through immunoglobulin [Ig] secretion TRAP and Sequencing), that allows capture of secreted antibodies on the surface of ASCs, which in turn enables high-throughput screening of single ASCs against large antigen panels. This approach incorporates flow cytometry, standard microfluidic platforms, and DNA-barcoding technologies to characterize antigen-specific ASCs through single-cell V(D)J, RNA, and antigen barcode sequencing. We show the utility of TRAPnSeq by profiling antigen-specific IgG and IgE ASCs from both mice and humans and highlight its capacity to accelerate therapeutic antibody discovery from ASCs.


Assuntos
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Antígenos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Linfócitos B , Anticorpos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1241474, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638026

RESUMO

B cells are key pathogenic drivers of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is limited understanding of the relationship between synovial B cell subsets and pathogenic antibody secreting cells (ASCs). This knowledge is crucial for the development of more targeted B-cell depleting therapies. While CD11c+ double-negative 2 (DN2) B cells have been suggested as an ASC precursor in lupus, to date there is no proven link between the two subsets in RA. We have used both single-cell gene expression and BCR sequencing to study synovial B cells from patients with established RA, in addition to flow cytometry of circulating B cells. To better understand the differentiation patterns within the diseased tissue, a combination of RNA-based trajectory inference and clonal lineage analysis of BCR relationships were used. Both forms of analysis indicated that DN2 B cells serve as a major precursors to synovial ASCs. This study advances our understanding of B cells in RA and reveals the origin of pathogenic ASCs in the RA synovium. Given the significant role of DN2 B cells as a progenitor to pathogenic B cells in RA, it is important to conduct additional research to investigate the origins of DN2 B cells in RA and explore their potential as therapeutic targets in place of the less specific pan-B cells depletion therapies currently in use.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B , Humanos , Plasmócitos , Linfócitos B , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1165936, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37492569

RESUMO

Circulating antibody-secreting cells are present in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals reflecting the continued activity of the humoral immune system. Antibody-secreting cells typically express CD27. Here we describe and characterize a small population of antibody-secreting class switched CD19+CD43+ B cells that lack expression of CD27 in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. In this study, we characterized CD27-CD43+ cells. We demonstrate that class-switched CD27-CD43+ B cells possess characteristics of conventional plasmablasts as they spontaneously secrete antibodies, are morphologically similar to antibody-secreting cells, show downregulation of B cell differentiation markers, and have a gene expression profile related to conventional plasmablasts. Despite these similarities, we observed differences in IgA and IgG subclass distribution, expression of homing markers, replication history, frequency of somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin repertoire, gene expression related to Toll-like receptors, cytokines, and cytokine receptors, and antibody response to vaccination. Their frequency is altered in immune-mediated disorders. Conclusion: we characterized CD27-CD43+ cells as antibody-secreting cells with differences in function and homing potential as compared to conventional CD27+ antibody-secreting cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Plasmócitos , Fenótipo , Imunoglobulina G , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2681: 313-325, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37405655

RESUMO

The recent advent of microfluidic-assisted antibody hit discovery as standard methodology accelerated pharmaceutical research. While work on compatible recombinant antibody library approaches is ongoing, the major source of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) remains to be primary B cells of mostly rodent origin. As fainting viability and secretion rates can lead to false-negative screening results, careful preparation of these cells is an essential prerequisite for successful hit discovery. We here describe procedures to enrich plasma cells from relevant tissues of mice and rats and plasmablasts from human blood donations. Although freshly prepared ASCs yield the most robust results, suitable freezing and thawing protocols to preserve the viability and antibody secretory function can circumvent extensive process time and allow transferring of samples between laboratories. An optimized procedure is described to yield similar secretion rates after prolonged storage when compared to freshly prepared cells. Finally, the identification of ASC-containing samples can increase the probability of success of droplet-based microfluidics-two methods for pre- or in-droplet staining are described. In summary, the preparative methods described herein can facilitate robust and successful microfluidic antibody hit discovery.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Microfluídica , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Microfluídica/métodos , Linfócitos B , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Plasmócitos
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2681: 327-341, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37405656

RESUMO

Microfluidics has been recently applied to better understand the spatial and temporal progression of the immune response in several species, for tool and biotherapeutic production cell line development and rapid antibody hit discovery. Several technologies have emerged that allow interrogation of large diversities of antibody-secreting cells in defined compartments such as picoliter droplets or nanopens. Mostly primary cells of immunized rodents but also recombinant mammalian libraries are screened for specific binding or directly for the desired function. While post-microfluidic downstream processes appear as standard steps, they represent considerable and interdependent challenges that can lead to high attrition rates even if original selections had been successful. In addition to next-generation sequencing recently described in depth elsewhere, this report aims at in detail explanations of exemplary droplet-based sorting followed by single-cell antibody gene PCR recovery and reproduction or single-cell sub-cultivation for crude supernatant confirmatory studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Animais , Anticorpos , Linhagem Celular , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Mamíferos
16.
Cell Rep ; 42(7): 112682, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355988

RESUMO

Human bone marrow (BM) plasma cells are heterogeneous, ranging from newly arrived antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) to long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). We provide single-cell transcriptional resolution of 17,347 BM ASCs from five healthy adults. Fifteen clusters are identified ranging from newly minted ASCs (cluster 1) expressing MKI67 and high major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II that progress to late clusters 5-8 through intermediate clusters 2-4. Additional ASC clusters include the following: immunoglobulin (Ig) M predominant (likely of extra-follicular origin), interferon responsive, and high mitochondrial activity. Late ASCs are distinguished by G2M checkpoints, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, distinct metabolic pathways, CD38 expression, utilization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily members, and two distinct maturation pathways involving TNF signaling through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). This study provides a single-cell atlas and molecular roadmap of LLPC maturation trajectories essential in the BM microniche. Altogether, understanding BM ASC heterogeneity in health and disease enables development of new strategies to enhance protective ASCs and to deplete pathogenic ones.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Plasmócitos , Adulto , Humanos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Células da Medula Óssea
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1170438, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37122712

RESUMO

Antibody-secreting cells are essential contributors to the humoral response. This is due to multiple factors which include: 1) the ability to secrete thousands of antibodies per second, 2) the ability to regulate the immune response and 3) the potential to be long-lived. Not surprisingly, these cells can be found in numerous sites within the body which include organs that directly interface with potential pathogens (e.g., gut) and others that provide long-term survival niches (e.g., bone marrow). Even though antibody-secreting cells were first identified in the thymus of both humans and rodents in the 1960s, if not earlier, only recently has this population begun to be extensively investigated. In this article, we provide an update regarding the current breath of knowledge pertaining to thymus antibody-secreting cells and discuss the potential roles of these cells and their impact on health.


Assuntos
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Imunidade , Humanos , Timo , Medula Óssea , Anticorpos
18.
Immunity ; 56(7): 1596-1612.e4, 2023 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37164016

RESUMO

Antibodies produced by antibody-secreting plasma cells (ASCs) underlie multiple forms of long-lasting immunity. Here we examined the mechanisms regulating ASC turnover and persistence using a genetic reporter to time-stamp ASCs. This approach revealed ASC lifespans as heterogeneous and falling on a continuum, with only a small fraction surviving for >60 days. ASC longevity past 60 days was independent of isotype but correlated with a phenotype that developed progressively and ultimately associated with an underlying "long-lived" ASC (LL ASC)-enriched transcriptional program. While some of the differences between LL ASCs and other ASCs appeared to be acquired with age, other features were shared with some younger ASCs, such as high CD138 and CD93. Turnover was unaffected by altered ASC production, arguing against competition for niches as a major driver of turnover. Thus, ASC turnover is set by intrinsic lifespan limits, with steady-state population dynamics governed by niche vacancy rather than displacement.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Plasmócitos , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37240453

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) flux acts as a central signaling pathway in B cells, and its alterations are associated with autoimmune dysregulation and B-cell malignancies. We standardized a flow-cytometry-based method using various stimuli to investigate the Ca2+ flux characteristics of circulating human B lymphocytes from healthy individuals. We found that different activating agents trigger distinct Ca2+ flux responses and that B-cell subsets show specific developmental-stage dependent Ca2+ flux response patterns. Naive B cells responded with a more substantial Ca2+ flux to B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation than memory B cells. Non-switched memory cells responded to anti-IgD stimulation with a naive-like Ca2+ flux pattern, whereas their anti-IgM response was memory-like. Peripheral antibody-secreting cells retained their IgG responsivity but showed reduced Ca2+ responses upon activation, indicating their loss of dependence on Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ flux is a relevant functional test for B cells, and its alterations could provide insight into pathological B-cell activation development.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2675: 271-283, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37258770

RESUMO

B cells engaging with antigen and secondary signals provided by T cell help, or ligands for Toll-like receptors, undergo a step-wise process of differentiation to eventually produce antibody-secreting plasma cells. During the course of this conversion, the cells transition from a resting, non-growing state to an activated B-cell state engaged in DNA synthesis and mitosis to a terminally differentiated, quiescent cell state with expanded organelles necessary for high levels of secretion. Each of these phases is accompanied by considerable changes in metabolic requirements. To facilitate evaluation of this metabolic reprogramming, methods for the in vitro differentiation of human B cells that incorporates each of the transitional stages are described.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Ativação Linfocitária , Humanos , Linfócitos T , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos , Diferenciação Celular , Plasmócitos
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