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1.
Clin Lab ; 70(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two rapid antigen tests (RATs) for COVID-19 targeting the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 were compared with real-time RT-PCR as the reference method. METHODS: Ninety-six nasopharyngeal swab samples, comprising 56 positive and 40 negative samples confirmed through rRT-PCR were collected and retested to determine the reliability of the two nasopharyngeal RATs. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of both RATs were 64.3% (95% confidence interval 50.4 - 76.6%) and 100% (95% confidence interval 91.2 - 100%), respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement of both RATs to rRT-PCR was 0.600 (95% confidence interval 0.457 - 0.743) (p < 0.001), showing almost perfect agreement when the Ct values were less than 25 in rRT-PCR. A significant difference in Ct values between true positives and false negatives was observed (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to rRT-PCR, RATs have fewer false negatives. In suspected COVID-19 cases, negative RAT results should be retested using either RAT or rRT-PCR.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teste para COVID-19 , Antígenos Virais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Nasofaringe
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 289, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among hemodialysis (HD) patients as well as to identify associated risk factors. METHODOLOGY: A multicenter cross-sectional study involved patients who had been on HD for at least three months. The study was conducted at five HD centers in Damascus, Syria from August 2019 to September 2021. HBsAg, HCV-Ab and HIV (antibody/antigen) seropositivity were identified using the third generation ELISA technique. Patients' information was extracted from their records and by face-to-face interview. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to identify risk factors associated with HBV or HCV seropositivity. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 637 patients were included in the study with a mean age (SD) of 50.5 (15.6) years and 56.7% of them were men. The dialytic age ranged from one to thirty years with a mean (SD) of 6.10 (5.6) years. The prevalence of positive hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, co-infection of HBV and HCV, and anti-HIV (antibody/antigen) were 3.2%, 22.1%, 0.7%, and 0%, respectively. After controlling for co-variables, hepatitis B vaccine was the only predictor of seropositivity of HBV (OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.057-0.393, P < 0.001), as it significantly protected against contracting HBV. On the other hand, the dialytic age (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.94, P = 0.032) and the dialysis center were significant factors affecting the prevalence of HCV. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV and HBV infections among HD patients in Damascus, Syria has decreased remarkably compared with the results from 2001. Nevertheless, it is still considered relatively high. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the prevention and control measures for viral infection transmission in HD centers in Damascus.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Hepatite C , Masculino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite B , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Síria/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Antígenos Virais , Anticorpos Anti-HIV
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474194

RESUMO

Since viruses are one of the main causes of infectious illnesses, prophylaxis is essential for efficient disease control. Vaccines play a pivotal role in mitigating the transmission of various viral infections and fortifying our defenses against them. The initial step in modern vaccine design and development involves the identification of potential vaccine targets through computational techniques. Here, using datasets of 1588 known viral immunogens and 468 viral non-immunogens, we apply machine learning algorithms to develop models for the prediction of protective immunogens of viral origin. The datasets are split into training and test sets in a 4:1 ratio. The protein structures are encoded by E-descriptors and transformed into uniform vectors by the auto- and cross-covariance methods. The most relevant descriptors are selected by the gain/ratio technique. The models generated by Random Forest, Multilayer Perceptron, and XGBoost algorithms demonstrate superior predictive performance on the test sets, surpassing predictions made by VaxiJen 2.0-an established gold standard in viral immunogenicity prediction. The key attributes determining immunogenicity in viral proteins are specific fingerprints in hydrophobicity and steric properties.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Vacinas , Antígenos de Bactérias , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Antígenos Virais
4.
Anal Chem ; 96(11): 4495-4504, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445954

RESUMO

The molecular detection of multiple respiratory viruses provides evidence for the rational use of drugs and effective health management. Herein, we developed and tested the clinical performance of an electrohydrodynamic-driven nanobox-on-mirror platform (E-NoM) for the parallel, accurate, and sensitive detection of four respiratory viral antigens. The E-NoM platform uses gold-silver alloy nanoboxes as the core material with the deposition of a silver layer as a shell on the core surfaces to amplify and enable a reproducible Raman signal readout that facilitates accurate detection. Additionally, the E-NoM platform employs gold microelectrode arrays as the mirror with electrohydrodynamics to manipulate the fluid flow and enhance molecular interactions for an improved biosensing response. The presence of viral antigens binds the nanobox-based core-shell nanostructure on the gold microelectrode and creates the nanocavity with extremely strong "hot spots" to benefit sensitive analysis. Significantly, in a large clinical cohort with 227 patients, the designed E-NoM platform demonstrates the capability of screening respiratory infection with achieved clinical specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 100.0, 96.48, and 96.91%, respectively. It is anticipated that the E-NoM platform can find a position in clinical usage for respiratory disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Vírus , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Ouro/química , Antígenos Virais , Análise Espectral Raman
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6096, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480769

RESUMO

Serosurveys to monitor immunity toward COVID-19 in the population are primarily performed using an ELISA to screen samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, followed by confirmation by a virus neutralization test, which is considered the Gold Standard. However, virus neutralization test may not be feasible for some laboratories because of the requirement for specific facilities and trained personnel. In an attempt to address this limitation, we evaluated three cell-free methods as potential alternatives for assessing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in human population from plasma. We report the establishment of two inhibition ELISAs designed to detect anti-Spike RBD IgG antibodies and a microsphere quantitative suspension array technology assay, based on the Luminex xMAP platform, to measure the presence of antibodies against various SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including anti-RBD. These methods were also compared to a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay designed for anti-RBD antibodies detection and to the combined ELISA + virus neutralization test strategy. These cell-free assays performed equally to estimate the percentage of positive and negative samples and could be used to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human population, at least in cohort with high-expected prevalence, without the use of seroneutralization assay.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7319, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538635

RESUMO

Compared to other infectious diseases, for which LFT development can take years, SARS-CoV-2 antigen LFTS were developed and deployed within months. LFTS for antigen detection were adopted on an unprecedented scale during the COVID-19 pandemic, but many of them lack the sensitivity especially for samples with low viral load. In our previous work, we developed an enhanced signal strip for detection of SARS CoV-2 SI antigens in saliva. Here we introduce some modification to improve the sensitivity, and specificity, and to lower the cost of the strip, by using biotin streptavidin (BS) system. In the modified BS strip, gold-streptavidin and biotinylated Nanobodies (Nbs) against S1 antigen were externally mixed with the tested samples (saliva or nasopharyngeal swab) before their application on the sample pad of the test strip containing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2), as the capturing probe. The study included 320 individuals, with 180 being positively confirmed by RT-PCR and 140 confirmed negative, as well as, 45 health care workers, who were responsible for screening and handling of surgical cases in General Surgery Department and COVID clinic of TBRI. Our results proved that modified BS strip improved the overall sensitivity and specificity of S1antigen detection in saliva samples (95.21% and 99.29% respectively) compared to our previously developed enhanced LFTS (91.66% and 98.57% respectively). Also, the sensitivity of cases with Ct ≤ 30, Ct ≤ 35, and Ct ≤ 40 using the modified BS strip showed higher values (98.54%, 95.38%, and 88.89% respectively), compared to the corresponding results of our previously developed enhanced LFTS (95.86%, 92.31%, and 82.22% respectively). There were no cross-reactions with either Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV antigens. Furthermore, we found that the lower viral detection limit (LVD) of BS strip was obviously lower than our previous LVD limit of the enhanced LFTS (0.2 × 104 copies/ml vs. 0.4 × 104 copies/ml, respectively). Our developed BS strip showed that saliva samples gave better results than nasopharyngeal swabs of the same patients. The fact of using smaller amounts of Nbs, and ACE2, as well as the dispensing off of conjugate pad when applying BS strip modifications, justified the expected reduction in the costs of the strip. The implementation of BS strips on saliva samples of 45 health co-workers, who were tested 4 and 6 days after exposure to infection, showed an increase in the sensitivity, starting from the 4th day and reaching its highest level on the 6th day in both high risk and paramedic groups (90.9%, and 80.0%, respectively). This study provides evidence that employment of the modified BS system could increase the sensitivity of the strips, lower their cost, and render them an effective screening tool for early detection of the virus in saliva of suspected Covid-19 patients.


Assuntos
Biotina , COVID-19 , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Humanos , Estreptavidina , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Saliva , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Antígenos Virais , Nasofaringe , Manejo de Espécimes
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471668

RESUMO

AIMS: Enteroviruses are significant human pathogens associated with a range of mild to severe diseases. This study aims to understand the diversity and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulated in southwest China's border cities by using environmental surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 96 sewage samples were collected in three border cities and a port located in Yunnan Province, China from July 2020 to June 2022. After cell culture and VP1 sequencing, a total of 590 enterovirus isolates were identified, belonging to 21 types. All PV strains were Sabin-like with ≤6 nucleotide mutations in the VP1 coding region. Echovirus 6, echovirus 21 (a rare serotype in previous studies), and coxsackievirus B5 were the predominant serotypes, which accounted for 21.19%, 18.31%, and 13.39% of the total isolates, respectively. The prevalence of the common serotypes varied across different border cities and periods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of multiple evolutionary lineages for E21, E6, and E30, some of which formed distinct branches. CONCLUSIONS: High diversity of enteroviruses and distinct lineages of predominant serotypes circulated in southwest China's border cities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Humanos , Cidades , Filogenia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
8.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 54(1): 126-130, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the performance of the Humasis COVID-19 AgHS Test (Humasis, Korea), a novel antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) based on lateral flow immunoassay. METHODS: 85 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 155 SARS-CoV-2-negative nasopharyngeal swab specimens confirmed by rRT-PCR were tested using the Humasis and PBCheck Ag-RDTs. The analytical specificity of the Humasis Ag-RDT was evaluated using 27 strains of human respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity were 72.9% and 99.4% for the Humasis Ag-RDT and 64.7% and 100% for the PBCheck Ag-RDT, respectively. The sensitivity for specimens with Ct≤25 was 100% for both Ag-RDTs. The Humasis Ag-RDT showed no cross-reactivity with other respiratory pathogens. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that the Humasis Ag-RDT can be a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes de Diagnóstico Rápido , SARS-CoV-2 , Comunicação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Antígenos Virais , Teste para COVID-19
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2330163, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544389

RESUMO

The Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) vaccine was introduced in China in December 2015 as a preventive measure against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by EV-A71. However, the effectiveness of the vaccine (VE) in real-world settings needs to be evaluated. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to assess the effectiveness of EV-A71 vaccines in preventing EV-A71-associated HFMD. Children aged 6-71 months with HFMD were enrolled as participants. The case group comprised those who tested positive for EV-A71, while the control group comprised those who tested negative for EV-A71. To estimate VE, a logistic regression model was employed, adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, and clinical severity. In total, 3223 children aged 6 to 71 months were included in the study, with 162 in the case group and 3061 in the control group. The proportion of children who received EV-A71 vaccination was significantly lower in the case group compared to the control group (p < .001). The overall VEadj was estimated to be 90.8%. The VEadj estimates for partially and fully vaccinated children were 90.1% and 90.9%, respectively. Stratified by age group, the VEadj estimates were 88.7% for 6 to 35-month-olds and 95.5% for 36 to 71-month-olds. Regarding disease severity, the VEadj estimates were 86.3% for mild cases and 100% for severe cases. Sensitivity analysis showed minimal changes in the VE point estimates, with most changing by no more than 1% point. Our study demonstrates a high level of vaccine effectiveness against EV-A71-HFMD, especially in severe cases. Active promotion of EV-A71 vaccination is an effective strategy in preventing EV-A71 infections.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Criança , Humanos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , China/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais
10.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 11(3): e200217, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this, there are no routinely used tests to measure cellular response to EBV. In this study, we analyzed the cellular response to EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in people with MS (pwMS) using a whole blood assay. METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place in a dedicated MS clinic in a university hospital. We recruited healthy controls, people with epilepsy (PWE), and pwMS taking a range of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) including natalizumab, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and also treatment naïve. Whole blood samples were stimulated with commercially available PepTivator EBNA1 peptides and a control virus-cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide. We recorded the cellular response to stimulation with both interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). We also compared the cellular responses to EBNA1 with IgG responses to EBNA1, viral capsid antigen (VCA), and EBV viral load. RESULTS: We recruited 86 pwMS, with relapsing remitting MS, in this group, and we observed a higher level of cellular response recorded with IFN-γ (0.79 IU/mL ± 1.36) vs healthy controls (0.29 IU/mL ± 0.90, p = 0.0048) and PWE (0.17 IU/mL ± 0.33, p = 0.0088). Treatment with either anti-CD20 mAbs (0.28 IU/mL ± 0.57) or DMF (0.07 IU/mL ± 0.15) resulted in a cellular response equivalent to control levels or in PWE (p = 0.26). The results of recording IL-2 response were concordant with IFN-γ: with suppression also seen with anti-CD20 mAbs and DMF. By contrast, we did not record any differential effect of DMTs on the levels of IgG to either EBNA-1 or VCA. Nor did we observe differences in cellular response to cytomegalovirus between groups. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates how testing and recording the cellular response to EBNA-1 in pwMS may be beneficial. EBNA-1 stimulation of whole blood samples produced higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 in pwMS compared with controls and PWE. In addition, we show a differential effect of currently available DMTs on this response. The functional assay deployed uses whole blood samples with minimal preprocessing suggesting that employment as a treatment response measure in clinical trials targeting EBV may be possible.


Assuntos
Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina G , Interferon gama , Interleucina-2 , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 254: 116218, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518559

RESUMO

Biodetection for non-invasive diagnostics of fluids, especially urine, remains a challenge to scientists due to low target concentrations. And biological complexes of the detection target may contain contaminants that also interfere with any assay. Dengue non-structural 1 protein (Dengue NS1) is an important biomarker for dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Here, we developed an Au-decorated nanowire platform and applied it with a sandwich fluorophore-linked immunosorbent well plate assay (FLISA) to detect Dengue NS1 in urine. For the platform, we fabricated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires to provide a high surface area and then coated them with gold nanoparticles (ZnO/Au nanowires) to simply modify the Dengue NS1 antibody and enhance the fluorescence intensity. Our platform employs a sandwich FLISA that exhibits high sensitivity, specifically detecting Dengue NS1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.35 pg/mL. This LOD was 4500-fold lower than the LOD of a commercially available kit for Dengue NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We believe that our ZnO/Au nanowire platform has the potential to revolutionize the field of non-invasive diagnostics for dengue.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanofios , Óxido de Zinco , Humanos , Dengue/diagnóstico , Ouro , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Antígenos Virais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoadsorventes , Anticorpos Antivirais
12.
Vaccine ; 42(9): 2317-2325, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination has been proven effective against infection with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in clinical trials, but vaccine effectiveness in real-world situations remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, it is not clear whether previous vaccination will result in symptom attenuation among post-vaccinated cases. METHODS: Based on long-term data extracted from the only designed referral hospital for infectious diseases, we used a test-negative case-control design and multivariate logistic regression models to analyze the effectiveness of EV-A71 vaccine against hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). And then, generalized linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between prior vaccination and disease profiles. RESULTS: We selected 4883 inpatients for vaccine efficacy estimations and 2188 inpatients for disease profile comparisons. Vaccine effectiveness against EV-A71-induced HFMD for complete vaccination was 63.4 % and 51.7 % for partial vaccination. The vaccine effectiveness was higher among cases received the first dose within 12 months. No protection was observed against coxsackievirus (CV) A6-, CV-A10- or CV-A16-associated HFMD among children regardless of vaccination status. Completely vaccinated cases had shorter hospital stay and disease course compared to unvaccinated cases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings reiterate the need to continue the development of a multivalent vaccine or combined vaccines, and have implications for introducing optimized vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , Criança , Humanos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Vacinas Combinadas , China
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0333223, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441464

RESUMO

Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is an unconventional strain belonging to the Enterovirus A species. Limited research has been conducted on EV-A89, leaving its biological and pathogenic properties unclear. Developing reverse genetic tools for EV-A89 would help to unravel its infection mechanisms and aid in the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs. In this study, an infectious clone for EV-A89 was successfully constructed and recombinant enterovirus A89 (rEV-A89) was generated. The rEV-A89 exhibited similar characteristics such as growth curve, plaque morphology, and dsRNA expression with parental strain. Four amino acid substitutions were identified in the EV-A89 capsid, which were found to enhance viral infection. Mechanistic studies revealed that these substitutions increased the virus's cell-binding ability. Establishing reverse genetic tools for EV-A89 will significantly contribute to understanding viral infection and developing anti-viral strategies.IMPORTANCEEnterovirus A species contain many human pathogens and have been classified into conventional cluster and unconventional cluster. Most of the research focuses on various conventional members, while understanding of the life cycle and infection characteristics of unconventional viruses is still very limited. In our study, we constructed the infectious cDNA clone and single-round infectious particles for the unconventional EV-A89, allowing us to investigate the biological properties of recombinant viruses. Moreover, we identified key amino acids residues that facilitate EV-A89 infection and elucidate their roles in enhancing viral binding to host cells. The establishment of the reverse genetics system will greatly facilitate future study on the life cycle of EV-A89 and contribute to the development of prophylactic vaccines and anti-viral drugs.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Vacinas , Humanos , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Antígenos Virais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Células Clonais , Antivirais/farmacologia
14.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543718

RESUMO

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection typically causes mild illnesses, such as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), but occasionally leads to severe or fatal neurological complications in infants and young children. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment available for EV-A71 infection. Thus, the development of an effective anti-EV-A71 drug is required urgently. Cordycepin, a major bioactive compound found in Cordyceps fungus, has been reported to possess antiviral activity. However, its specific activity against EV-A71 is unknown. In this study, the potency and role of cordycepin treatment on EV-A71 infection were investigated. Results demonstrated that cordycepin treatment significantly reduced the viral load and viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) level in EV-A71-infected Vero cells. In addition, EV-A71-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly inhibited in the presence of cordycepin in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect can also be extended to Caco-2 intestinal cells, as evidenced by the higher median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) values in the cordycepin-treated groups. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited EV-A71 replication by acting on the adenosine pathway at the post-infection stage. Taken together, our findings reveal that cordycepin could be a potential antiviral candidate for the treatment of EV-A71 infection.


Assuntos
Desoxiadenosinas , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Células Vero , Adenosina/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Replicação Viral , Infecções por Enterovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos Virais , Antivirais/farmacologia
15.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543842

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) has emerged as the predominant causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. Since the declaration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic, the incidence of infectious diseases, including HFMD, has decreased markedly. When social mitigation was relaxed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022, the re-emergence of HFMD was observed in Gwangju, South Korea, and seasonal characteristics of the disease appeared to have changed. To investigate the molecular characteristics of enterovirus (EV) associated with HFMD during 2022, 277 specimens were collected. Children aged younger than 5 years accounted for the majority of affected individuals. EV detection and genotyping were performed using real-time RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR followed by sequence analysis. The EV detection rate was found to be 82.3%, and the main genotype identified was CV-A6. Sixteen CV-A6 samples were selected for whole genome sequencing. According to phylogenetic analysis, all CV-A6 strains from this study belonged to the sub-genotype D3 clade based on VP1 sequences. Analysis of 3D polymerase phylogeny showed that only the recombinant RF-A group was identified. In conclusion, circulating EV types should be continuously monitored to understand pathogen emergence and evolution during the post-pandemic era.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Pandemias , Enterovirus/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Genótipo , China/epidemiologia
16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 86, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429829

RESUMO

The human monkeypox virus (Mpox) is classified as a member of the Poxviridae family and belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus. Mpox possesses double-stranded DNA, and there are two known genetic clades: those originating in West Africa and the Congo Basin, commonly known as Central African clades. Mpox may be treated with either the vaccinia vaccination or the therapeutics. Modifying the smallpox vaccine for treating and preventing Mpox has shown to be beneficial because of the strong link between smallpox and Mpox viruses and their categorization in the same family. Cross-protection against Mpox is effective with two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved smallpox vaccines (ACAM2000 and JYNNEOSTM). However, ACAM2000 has the potential for significant adverse effects, such as cardiac issues, whereas JYNNEOS has a lower risk profile. Moreover, Mpox has managed to resurface, although with modified characteristics, due to the discontinuation and cessation of the smallpox vaccine for 40 years. The safety and efficacy of the two leading mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its many variants have been shown in clinical trials and subsequent data analysis. This first mRNA treatment model involves injecting patients with messenger RNA to produce target proteins and elicit an immunological response. High potency, the possibility of safe administration, low-cost manufacture, and quick development is just a few of the benefits of RNA-based vaccines that pave the way for a viable alternative to conventional vaccines. When protecting against Mpox infection, mRNA vaccines are pretty efficient and may one day replace the present whole-virus vaccines. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a synopsis of the ongoing research, development, and testing of an mRNA vaccine against Mpox.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Vacinas de mRNA , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Antígenos Virais
17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1272493, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433846

RESUMO

Introduction: A limited subset of HIV-1 infected adult individuals typically after at least 2-3 years of chronic infection, develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), suggesting that highly conserved neutralizing epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are difficult for B cell receptors to effectively target, during natural infection. Recent studies have shown the evolution of bnAbs in HIV-1 infected infants. Methods: We used bulk BCR sequencing (BCR-seq) to profile the B cell receptors from longitudinal samples (3 time points) collected from a rare pair of antiretroviralnaïve, HIV-1 infected pediatric monozygotic twins (AIIMS_329 and AIIMS_330) who displayed elite plasma neutralizing activity against HIV-1. Results: BCR-seq of both twins revealed convergent antibody characteristics including V-gene use, CDRH3 lengths and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Further, antibody clonotypes with genetic features similar to highly potent bnAbs isolated from adults showed ongoing development in donor AIIMS_330 but not in AIIMS_329, corroborating our earlier findings based on plasma bnAbs responses. An increase in SHM was observed in sequences of the IgA isotype from AIIMS_330. Discussion: This study suggests that children living with chronic HIV-1 can develop clonotypes of HIV-1 bnAbs against multiple envelope epitopes similar to those isolated from adults, highlighting that such B cells could be steered to elicit bnAbs responses through vaccines aimed to induce bnAbs against HIV-1 in a broad range of people including children.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Adulto , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Anticorpos , Antígenos Virais , Epitopos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
18.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543847

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is currently used to monitor not only the spread of the viral SARS-CoV-2 pandemic but also that of other viruses in endemic conditions, particularly in the absence of syndromic surveillance. The continuous monitoring of sewage requires high expenditure and significant time investments, highlighting the need for standardized methods and structured monitoring strategies. In this context, we conducted weekly wastewater monitoring in northwestern Tuscany (Italy) and targeted human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus genogroup II (NoVggII), enterovirus (EV), and SARS-CoV-2. Samples were collected at the entrances of treatment plants and concentrated using PEG/NaCl precipitation, and viral nucleic acids were extracted and detected through real-time reverse transcription qPCR. NoVggII was the most identified target (84.4%), followed by HAdV, SARS-CoV-2, and EV. Only HAdV and EV exhibited seasonal peaks in spring and summer. Compared with data that were previously collected in the same study area (from February 2021 to September 2021), the results for SARS-CoV-2 revealed a shift from an epidemic to an endemic pattern, at least in the region under investigation, which was likely due to viral mutations that led to the spreading of new variants with increased resistance to summer environmental conditions. In conclusion, using standardized methods and an efficient monitoring strategy, WBE proves valuable for viral surveillance in pandemic and epidemic scenarios, enabling the identification of temporal-local distribution patterns that are useful for making informed public health decisions.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Infecções por Enterovirus , Norovirus , Humanos , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Antígenos Virais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , RNA Viral
19.
J Med Virol ; 96(3): e29503, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445750

RESUMO

Enterovirus C116 (EV-C116) is a new member of the enterovirus C group which is closely associated with several infectious diseases. Although sporadic studies have detected EV-C116 in clinical samples worldwide, there is currently limited information available. In this study, two EV-C-positive fecal specimens were detected in apparently healthy children, which harbored low abundance, through meta-transcriptome sequencing. Based on the prototypes of several EV-Cs, two lineages were observed. Lineage 1 included many types that could not cause EV-like cytopathic effect in cell culture. Three genogroups of EV-C116 were divided in the maximum likelihood tree, and the two strains in this study (XZ2 and XZ113) formed two different lineages, suggesting that EV-C116 still diffuses worldwide. Obvious inter-type recombination events were observed in the XZ2 strain, with CVA22 identified as a minor donor. However, another strain (XZ113) underwent different recombination situations, highlighting the importance of recombination in the formation of EV-Cs biodiversity. The EV-C116 strains could propagate in rhabdomyosarcoma cell cultures at low titer; however, EV-like cytopathic effects were not observed. HEp-2, L20B, VERO, and 293T cell lines did not provide an appropriate environment for EV-C116 growth. These results challenge the traditional recognition of the uncultured nature of EV-C116 strains and explain the difficulty of clinical detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Criança , Humanos , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais , Células HEK293
20.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399946

RESUMO

Enteroviruses (EVs) represent a major cause of viral meningitis, being responsible for nearly 1 billion infections each year worldwide. Several techniques were developed to obtain better diagnostic results of EV infections. Herein, we evaluated the efficiency of EV detection through isolation on both Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and Vero cell line cultures, conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. Thus, 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples belonging to patients suspected to have viral meningitis in northern Algeria were collected, anonymously numbered from 1 to 50 and subjected to the above-mentioned techniques for EV detection. Using real-time RT-PCR, 34 CSF samples were revealed to be positive for viral origin of meningitis (68%). Thirteen of them were positive when the conventional RT-PCR was used (26%), and only three samples gave positive results when the cell culture technique was used (6%). Surprisingly, two cell culture-positive CSF samples, namely, 31 and 39, were negative using RT-PCR directly on the original samples. However, they turned to be positive when amplification was carried out on their corresponding cell culture supernatant. The cell-cultured viral isolates were then identified by sequencing their viral genome's VP1 regions. All of them were revealed to belong to the echovirus 27 strain. This investigation demonstrates that RT-PCR techniques are often more sensitive, accurate and much faster, providing reliable results within a clinically acceptable timeframe. However, viral isolation on cell cultures remains crucial to obtain enough viral load for serological tests or even to avoid the rare, but existing, false negative PCR.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Meningite Viral , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise , Enterovirus/genética , Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Células Vero , Antígenos Virais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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