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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507


In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.

Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.

Plantas Medicinais , Raízes de Plantas , Panax , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257070, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360228


Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology-based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.

Nanopartículas (NPs) são partículas insolúveis com diâmetro inferior a 100 nanômetros. Dois métodos principais têm sido utilizados na terapia ortodôntica para evitar a aderência microbiana ou a desmineralização do esmalte: NPs são incluídas em adesivos ortodônticos ou resinas acrílicas (fluoro-hidroxiapatita, fluorapatita, hidroxiapatita, SiO2, TiO2, prata, nanopreenchimentos) e NPs são revestidas nas superfícies de equipamentos ortodônticos, ou seja, uma camada fina de TiO2 dopado com nitrogênio nas superfícies do braquete. Embora o uso de NPs em ortodontia possa tornar acessível modernos recursos, pesquisas anteriores analisaram as características antibacterianas ou físicas por um período limitado de tempo, variando de 24 horas a várias semanas, por isso devem ser compreendidos os limites dos estudos in vitro. A eficácia de longo prazo de materiais ortodônticos com base em nanotecnologia ainda não foi confirmada de forma conclusiva, o que exige mais estudos, bem como potenciais preocupações de segurança (efeitos tóxicos) associadas ao tamanho da NP.

Ortodontia , Desmineralização , Esmalte Dentário , Nanopartículas , Anti-Infecciosos
Food Chem ; 399: 133962, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007440


Recently, intelligent packaging has emerged for monitoring food quality in food industry. This study aimed to develop the electrospun HACC/PCL/SKN nanofibrous films with improved antimicrobial and antioxidant activity as intelligent packaging to monitor food freshness. The SKN loading resulted in nanoscale uniform fibers (approximately 55.0 nm), and the HACC/PCL/SKN nanofibrous films presented improved hydrophobicity, barrier properties and mechanical properties. Release kinetics study demonstrated that the loading effect led to a sustained release of SKN from fibers. The HACC/PCL film containing 2 wt% SKN showed good antibacterial effect during 24 h, suggesting enhanced antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the SKN-based solutions and films exhibited pH-responsive color changes from red (pH 2) to blue-purple (pH 12). Finally, the HACC/PCL/SKN film effectively provided a spoilage indication for shrimp stored at different temperatures for 3 days by color changes. This work provides a promising strategy for developing multi-functional film as an intelligent packaging in food industry.

Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Nanofibras , Antocianinas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Naftoquinonas , Poliésteres
Food Chem ; 400: 133960, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063680


A proper understanding of silver (Ag) nanoparticles properties is fundamental for developing new antimicrobial agents. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were obtained by green synthesis methods using natural reducing agents present in extracts of apples, oranges, potatoes, red pepper, white onion, garlic and radish. The antimicrobial properties of respective nanoparticles, expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration, were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida krusei. Characterization of Ag nanoparticles was done with the application of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The obtained results led to the conclusions that in each extract (pH from 2.1 to 6.2) were obtained specific particles (size from 9 to 30 ± 2 nm) with different antimicrobial activity. Our study indicates that plant extracts gives the Ag nanoparticles specific properties, yet the best antimicrobial properties show nanoparticles obtained in the presence of potato extract.

Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Redutoras , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
Food Chem ; 400: 134100, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075172


Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/polylactic acid (PLA) blended with compatibilizers (polycaprolactone, PCL; poly (ethylene glycol), PEG; titanium dioxide, nano-TiO2) (TP@PLA composites) were developed by melt processing. Natamycin incorporated into TP@PLA blend composites formed NTP@PLA films, which exhibited high tensile strength (24.1-43.5 MPa) and elongation at break (85.8-258.2 %), and exhibited good oxygen permeability, water vapor permeability, surface hydrophobicity and biodegradability. The in vitro results revealed that inhibition of Penicillium expansum cell growth of the NTP@PLA films with addition of 1.0 wt% natamycin reached 95.72 %. The NTP@PLA film with natamycin effectively reduced incidence of decay (1.52 %) on grapes, maintained their quality, and inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi to up to 0.42 log cfu·g-1. This study generates new insights into the preservation properties of antimicrobial NTP@PLA film, which endow it with great application potential as a novel and eco-friendly packaging material for the food industry.

Anti-Infecciosos , Vitis , Adipatos , Alcenos , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Etilenoglicóis , Ácido Láctico , Natamicina , Oxigênio , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poliésteres , Vapor , Titânio
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348


Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.

Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.

Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta) , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Prata , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626


Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.

Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.

Animais , Coelhos , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fígado , Antioxidantes
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619


Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.

Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Idoso , Romã (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546


Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.

Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.

Cordia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536


Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.

Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.

Eugenia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Front Public Health ; 10: 946370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091562


Objectives: To establish a MacConkey-potassium tellurium medium-based method for selectively culturing terW gene-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), to evaluate its performance and apply it to identifying particular clonal hypervirulent KP (hvKP) strains in epidemiological surveillance. Methods: The virulence genes, rmpA, iutA, and terW, were detected by PCR. The minimum inhibitory concentration of potassium tellurite of hvKP (rmpA +/ iutA +) and classical KP (rmpA - and iutA -) was determined using the agar dilution method. The MacConkey medium containing 4 µg/ml potassium tellurite was prepared and the performance in detecting terW + KP was evaluated, including an agreement with PCR and positive/negative predictive value. Fecal samples from healthy volunteers in Fujian were collected and cultured in the medium, then positive strains were identified using MALDI-TOF MS, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer assays, and virulence genes and capsular serotype genes were tested by PCR. Results: In KP isolated from clinical specimens (N = 198), the positive rate of terW was 37.9%, and the detection rate of terW in hvKP was significantly higher than that in classical KP (70.6% vs 13.3%). The potassium tellurite resistance levels of terW + (N = 75) and terW - (N = 55) KP were 8-128 µg/ml and <1-8 µg/ml, respectively, with significant differences. KP was selectively cultured on a MacConkey medium with 4 µg/ml potassium tellurite, and its agreement with PCR was good (Kappa=0.936), and the positive and negative percent agreement and positive and negative predictive values were 100% (75/75), 92.7% (51/55), 94.9% (75/79), and 100% (51/51), respectively. The prevalence of tellurite-resistant KP was 16.7% (86/516) in fecal samples from healthy volunteers, among which the positive rate of terW was 100% (86/86). The antimicrobial resistance characteristics of terW + KP showed no difference between healthy volunteers and inpatients. The most common capsular serotypes associated with high virulence were K1, K2, and K57. Conclusions: The MacConkey medium containing 4 µg/ml potassium tellurite could easily select and culture terW + KP in fecal samples with high sensitivity and specificity, which is a practical method for the epidemic surveillance of hvKP in the general population.

Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Klebsiella , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Telúrio/farmacologia
Dis Markers ; 2022: 3117805, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092959


Objective: This study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial step-down therapy versus conventional antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of patients with sepsis. Methods: Between September 2020 and September 2021, 65 patients with sepsis treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital were recruited and assigned at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive either conventional antimicrobial therapy (sulbactam plus cefoperazone) (control group) or antimicrobial step-down therapy (imipenem/cilastatin) (observation group). The results of drug sensitivity tests and clinical effects were evaluated comprehensively after 3-5 d of treatment, downgraded, and upgraded, or maintenance treatment was administered for 10 d. Outcome measures included clinical and laboratory indices and treatment efficacy. Results: Antimicrobial step-down therapy resulted in a significantly higher efficacy and lower levels of white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) versus conventional antimicrobial therapy (P < 0.05). The patients given antimicrobial step-down therapy showed a significantly shorter duration of antimicrobial drug administration, temperature recovery, time of respiratory support, and ICU stays versus conventional antimicrobial therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Antimicrobial step-down therapy contributes to the mitigation of inflammatory responses in patients with sepsis and shortens the duration of antimicrobial drug use and ICU stay versus conventional antimicrobial therapy. The reliability of the conclusions can be further increased if multicenter and large sample clinical observations can be conducted, which is the direction of endeavor for future clinical studies.

Anti-Infecciosos , Sepse , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
Br J Nurs ; 31(16): 838-843, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094030


Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at a greater risk of developing hospital-acquired infections (HCAIs). Decontamination, which usually includes a regimen of body washing with an antimicrobial skin cleanser, is used to prevent HCAIs. Approaches can be: targeted, where carriers are identified and decontaminated; or universal, where all patients undergo a decontamination regimen. Universal rather than targeted decontamination is more effective at reducing infection rates and is more cost-effective. Decontamination in the ICU can lower HCAI rates across the entire hospital. Microbial resistance to chlorhexidine, however, which is the main active agent used for decontamination is increasing, and there are also adverse effects, leading to interest in octenidine as an alternative. This article explores the use of octenidine-containing single-use wash mitts in ICUs, which have been positively evaluated regarding antimicrobial activity, and ease and effectiveness of use.

Anti-Infecciosos , Infecção Hospitalar , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Iminas , Piridinas
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270718, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103519


Medical textiles are subject to particularly harsh disinfection procedures in healthcare settings where exposure risks are high. This work demonstrates a fabric treatment consisting of a reactive silver ink and low surface energy PDMS polymer that provides for superhydrophobicity and antiviral properties against enveloped herpes simplex virus stocks even after extended ultrasonic bleach washing. The antiviral properties of reactive silver ink has not been previously reported or compared with silver nanoparticles. The fabric treatment exhibits high static contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis with water, even after 300 minutes of ultrasonic bleach washing. Similarly, after this bleach washing treatment, the fabric treatment shows reductions of infectious virus quantities by about 2 logs compared to controls for enveloped viruses. The use of silver ink provides for better antiviral efficacy and durability compared to silver nanoparticles due to the use of reactive ionic silver, which demonstrates more conformal coverage of fabric microfibers and better adhesion. This study provides insights for improving the wash durability of antiviral silver fabric treatments and demonstrates a bleach wash durable, repellent antiviral treatment for reusable, functional personal protective equipment applications.

Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antivirais , Ácido Hipocloroso , Tinta , Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Sódio , Têxteis , Ultrassom
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15493, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109567


The main effectors in the innate immune system of Bombyx mori L. are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we infected B. mori with varied inoculum sizes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25668 cells to investigate changes in morpho-anatomical responses, physiological processes and AMP production. Ultraviolet-visible spectra revealed a sharp change in λmax from 278 to 285 nm (bathochromic shift) in the hemolymph of infected B. mori incubated for 24 h. Further, Fourier Transform InfraRed studies on the hemolymph extracted from the infected B. mori showed a peak at 1550 cm-1, indicating the presence of α-helical peptides. The peptide fraction was obtained through methanol, acetic acid and water mixture (90:1:9) extraction, followed by peptide purification using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The fraction exhibiting antibacterial properties was collected and characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight. A linear α-helical peptide with flexible termini (LLKELWTKMKGAGKAVLGKIKGLL) was found, corresponding to a previously described peptide from ant venom and here denominated as Bm-ponericin-L1. The antibacterial activity of Bm-ponericin-L1 was determined against ESKAPE pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the membrane disruption potential of Bm-ponericin-L1. Moreover, this peptide also showed promising antibiofilm activity. Finally, cell viability and hemolytic assays revealed that Bm-ponericin-L1 is non-toxic toward primary fibroblasts cell lines and red blood cells, respectively. This study opens up new perspectives toward an alternative approach to overcoming multiple-antibiotic-resistance by means of AMPs through invertebrates' infection with human pathogenic bacteria.

Venenos de Formiga , Anti-Infecciosos , Bombyx , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Monofosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hemolinfa , Humanos , Metanol , Peptídeos/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Água
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9966750, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111166


Plant preparations have been used to treat various diseases and discussed for centuries. Research has advanced to discover and identify the plant components with beneficial effects and reveal their underlying mechanisms. Flavonoids are phytoconstituents with anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. Herein, we listed and contextualized various aspects of the protective effects of the flavonols quercetin, isoquercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin and the flavones luteolin, apigenin, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, scutellarein, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, diosmetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and 5-O-methyl-scutellarein. We presented their structural characteristics and subclasses, importance, occurrence, and food sources. The bioactive compounds present in our diet, such as fruits and vegetables, may affect the health and disease state. Therefore, we discussed the role of these compounds in inflammation, oxidative mechanisms, and bacterial metabolism; moreover, we discussed their synergism with antibiotics for better disease outcomes. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics allows the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains; thus, bioactive compounds may be used for adjuvant treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant and opportunistic bacteria via direct and indirect mechanisms. We also focused on the reported mechanisms and intracellular targets of flavonols and flavones, which support their therapeutic role in inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Anti-Infecciosos , Flavonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apigenina , Flavonas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Quempferóis , Luteolina , Preparações de Plantas , Quercetina
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061286, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109025


INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is an important strategy to control antimicrobial resistance. Resources are available to provide guidance for design and implementation of AMS programmes, however these may have limited applicability in resource-limited settings including those in Asia. This scoping review aims to identify context-specific domains and items for the development of a healthcare facility (HCF)-level tool to guide AMS implementation in Asia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review is the first step in a larger project to assess AMS implementation, needs and gaps in Asia. We will employ a deductive qualitative approach to identify locally appropriate domains and items of AMS implementation guided by Nilsen and Bernhardsson's contextual dimensions. This process is also informed by discussions from a technical advisory group coordinated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop an AMS HCF-level assessment tool for low-income and middle-income countries. We will review English-language documents that discuss HCF-level implementation, including those describing frameworks, components/elements or recommendations for design, implementation or assessment globally and specific to Asia. We have performed the search in August-September 2021 including general electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar), region-specific databases, national action plans, grey literature sources and reference lists to identify eligible documents. Country-specific documents will be restricted to countries in three subregions: South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Codes and themes will be derived through a content analysis, classified following the predefined context dimensions and used for developing domains and items of the assessment tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results from this review will feed into our stepwise process for developing a context-specific HCF-level assessment tool for AMS programmes to assess the implementation status, identify intervention opportunities and monitor progress over time. The process will be done in consultation with local stakeholders, the end-users of the generated knowledge.

Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Ásia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Pobreza , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estados Unidos
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e058168, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109038


INTRODUCTION: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are disastrous complications for patients and costly for healthcare organisations. They may promote bacterial resistance due to the extensive antibiotic use necessary in the PJI treatment. The PJI incidence is estimated to be 1%-3%, but the absolute numbers worldwide are high and increasing as large joint arthroplasties are performed by the millions each year. Current treatment algorithms, based on implant preserving surgery or full revision followed by a semitailored antibiotic regimen for no less than 2-3 months, lead to infection resolution in approximately 60% and 90%, respectively. Antibiotic choice is currently guided by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of free-living bacteria and not of bacteria in biofilm growth mode. Biofilm assays with relatively rapid output for the determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) have previously been developed but their clinical usefulness have not been established. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded, two-arm randomised study of hip or knee staphylococcal PJI will evaluate 6-week standard of care (MIC guided), or an alternative antibiotic regimen according to an MBEC-guided-based decision algorithm. Sixty-four patients with a first-time PJI treated according to the debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention principle will be enrolled at a single tertiary orthopaedic centre (Sahlgrenska University Hospital). Patients will receive 14 days of standard parenteral antibiotics before entering the comparative study arms. The primary outcome measurement is the proportion of changes in antimicrobial regimen from first-line treatment dependent on randomisation arm. Secondary endpoints are unresolved infection, how microbial properties including biofilm abilities and emerging antimicrobial resistance correlate to infection outcomes, patient reported outcomes and costs with a 12-month follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval is received from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority, no 2020-01471 and the Swedish Medical Products Agency, EudraCT, no 2020-003444-80. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ID: NCT04488458.

Anti-Infecciosos , Artrite Infecciosa , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 116, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116000


BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance remains a major global public health concern, and antimicrobial dispensing in community pharmacies is an important factor in preventing this damage. However, the current literature focuses on the technical and attitudinal aspects related to antimicrobial dispensing, with little emphasis on the interventions provided in this service. Thus, this study aimed to determine the antimicrobial dispensing process in community pharmacies. METHODS: A scoping review was performed in September 2020 using the PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The search terms included words related to dispensing, antibacterial agents, and pharmacies in various combinations. Two reviewers screened the titles, abstracts, and full-text articles according to the eligibility criteria, and extracted the data. The findings were presented in a descriptive form. RESULTS: Of the 7713 studies screened, 35 were included, of which 22 (63%) were published in Asia. Most studies followed a cross-sectional design (n = 27), and the simulated patient was the most often used method to assess the antimicrobial dispensing process (n = 22). Moreover, 31 (89%) studies investigated antimicrobial dispensing without prescription, and only four (11%) studies evaluated antimicrobial dispensing with prescription. In the 35 studies, the most frequently asked questions were about drug allergies (n = 19) and patient symptoms (n = 18), and counseling mainly focused on the side effects (n = 14), precautions (n = 14), how to take the medication (n = 12), and duration of medication use (n = 11). Another common intervention was referral (n = 15). Among clinical cases, counseling on medication use occurred often in cases of urinary tract infection (51%) and otitis media (50%). CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial dispensing processes have been primarily investigated in low- and middle-income countries, with a focus on dispensing antimicrobials without prescriptions. During the dispensing process, pharmacists mostly posed minimal questions and counseling, highlighting the deficiencies that persist in this practice. Our results indicate the need for multifaceted strategies, such as implementing educational, regulatory or administrative strategies and changes in cultural background, especially in low- and middle-income countries, that aim to reduce indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Therefore, qualifying the antimicrobial dispensing process is a fundamental factor for improving the rational use of antimicrobials and reducing microbial resistance.

Anti-Infecciosos , Farmácias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Farmacêuticos
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 3035-3050, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120935


Quercetin (QT) is a flavonoid that exhibits anti-oxidant and chemo-preventive activity. This research work aimed to develop surface-modified bilosomes (BS) of QT. The BS was prepared by the solvent evaporation method and optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The optimized QT-BS (QT-BS3opt) displayed vesicle size (143.51 nm), PDI (0.256), zeta potential (-15.4 mV), and entrapment efficiency (89.52%). Further, the optimized QT-BS formulation was coated with chitosan (CS). The XRD diffractogram of CS-QT-BS3opt1 did not exhibit extensive peaks of QT, revealing that QT is properly encapsulated in the polymer matrix. The QT-BS3opt and CS-QT-BS3opt1 exhibited sustained-release (86.62 ± 3.23% and 69.32 ± 2.57%, respectively) up to 24 h with the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 =0.9089). CS-QT-BS3opt1 exhibited significantly (P < .05) high flux, i.e. 4.20-fold more than pure QT dispersion and 1.27-fold higher than QT-BS3opt. CS-QT-BS3opt1 showed significantly greater bio-adhesion (76.43 ± 2.42%) than QT-BS3opt (20.82 ± 1.45%). The antioxidant activity showed that QT from CS-QT-BS3opt1 has more remarkable (P < .05) antioxidant activity at each concentration than pure QT. The CS-QT-BS3opt1 exhibited 1.61-fold higher cytotoxicity against MFC7 and 1.44-fold higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 than pure QT. The CS-QT-BS3opt1 displayed a significantly greater antimicrobial potential against E. coli than against S. aureus. From all these findings, it could be concluded that surface-modified QT-BS might be an effective approach for increasing the efficacy of QT in the treatment of certain ailments.

Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Escherichia coli , Polímeros , Quercetina/farmacologia , Solventes , Staphylococcus aureus