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1.
Mutagenesis ; 39(1): 56-68, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37776161

RESUMO

Several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, demonstrate low toxicity and prominent effects on cancer cells with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Such compounds can be found in Amazon mosses Leucobryum martianum (Hornsch.) Hampe ex Müll. Hal. (Hornsch.) and Leucobryum laevifolium (Broth). Antimutagenic assay with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and cytotoxicity with different eukaryotic cell lines were carried out to screen aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and ethanolic extracts of those Amazon mosses for anticancer potential. The results indicate the capacity of all extracts of both mosses to exert chemopreventive effects against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA), which are direct or indirect mutagens. In particular, the ethanolic and aqueous extract from L. martianum. The ethanolic extract from L. martianum induces significant cytotoxicity by mitochondrial metabolism and cell membrane disruption pathways to tumor or non-tumor cells. The aqueous extract from L. martianum showed a mainly cytotoxic response in the HepG2 cells, a human liver carcinoma, reaching ~90% cytotoxicity. The same extract did not induce significant damage to normal liver cells (F C3H cells) by membrane interaction pathway. The selective cytotoxicity in the aqueous extract of L. martianum makes it a candidate against liver cancer. Further studies, including in vivo models, are necessary to validate the efficacy and safety of the aqueous extract of L. martianum.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Antineoplásicos , Briófitas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mutagênicos/toxicidade
2.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(5): 185-198, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38073488

RESUMO

Tellimagrandin-I (TL) and camptothin A (CA) are ellagitannins widely found in diverse plant species. Numerous studies demonstrated their significant biological activities, which include antitumor, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. Despite this protective profile, the effects of TL and CA on DNA have not been comprehensively investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects attributed to TL and CA exposure on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains using the Ames test. In addition, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were examined on human lymphocytes, employing both trypan blue exclusion and CometChip assay. The antigenotoxic effect was determined following TL and CA exposure in the presence of co-treatment with doxorubicin (DXR). Our results from the Ames test indicated that TL or CA did not display marked mutagenic activity. However, TL or CA demonstrated an ability to protect DNA against the damaging effects of the mutagens 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and sodium azide, thereby exhibiting antimutagenic properties. In relation to human lymphocytes, TL or CA did not induce significant cytotoxic or genotoxic actions on these cells. Further, these ellagitannins exhibited an ability to protect DNA from damage induced by DOX during co-treatment, indicating their potential beneficial usefulness as antigenotoxic agents. In conclusion, the protective effects of TL or CA against mutagens, coupled with their absence of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on human lymphocytes, emphasize their potential therapeutic value in chemopreventive strategies.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Salmonella enterica , Humanos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Sorogrupo , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , DNA/farmacologia , Linfócitos
3.
Exp Oncol ; 45(2): 220-230, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37824769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red rice bran extract (RRBE) contains many biologically active substances exerting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. AIM: To evaluate the anticancer potential of RRBE in human colon cancer cells and its mutagenic/antimutagenic effects on nonmalignant cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of RRBE was determined by trypan blue exclusion in HCT116, HT29 cell lines and a non-cancerous HEK293 cell line, and its antiproliferative effect using MTS and colony formation assay. The apoptosis induction was evaluated using ELISA, and the apoptotic rate and cell cycle progression were assessed by flow cytometry. The mutagenic/ antimutagenic potential of RRBE was analyzed by micronucleus assay in the V79 cell line. RESULTS: RRBE caused a dose-dependent reduction of cell viability in colon cancer cells and showed a limited cytotoxicity against HEK293 cells. The treatment with RRBE suppressed proliferation of HCT116 and HT29 cells and induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased DNA fragmentation and the apoptotic cell counts. Furthermore, RRBE treatment significantly increased the number of cells at the G2/M phase triggering the arrest of the cell cycle in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, RRBE did not increase the micronucleus frequency in V79 cells but reduced the micronucleus formation caused by mitomycin C. CONCLUSION: RRBE effectively suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused a cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells while being non-mutagenic and exerting antimutagenic effects in vitro.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Neoplasias do Colo , Humanos , Células HEK293 , Proliferação de Células , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Apoptose , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 5853, 2023 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730811

RESUMO

The transcriptional intermediates of RNAs fold into secondary structures with multiple regulatory roles, yet the details of such cotranscriptional RNA folding are largely unresolved in eukaryotes. Here, we present eSPET-seq (Structural Probing of Elongating Transcripts in eukaryotes), a method to assess the cotranscriptional RNA folding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our study reveals pervasive structural transitions during cotranscriptional folding and overall structural similarities between nascent and mature RNAs. Furthermore, a combined analysis with genome-wide R-loop and mutation rate approximations provides quantitative evidence for the antimutator effect of nascent RNA folding through competitive inhibition of the R-loops, known to facilitate transcription-associated mutagenesis. Taken together, we present an experimental evaluation of cotranscriptional folding in eukaryotes and demonstrate the antimutator effect of nascent RNA folding. These results suggest genome-wide coupling between the processing and transmission of genetic information through RNA folding.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Células Eucarióticas , Mutagênese , RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762289

RESUMO

Dairy protein hydrolysates possess a broad spectrum of bioactivity and hypoallergenic properties, as well as pronounced bitter taste. The bitterness is reduced by complexing the proteolysis products with cyclodextrins (CDs), and it is also important to study the bioactivity of the peptides in inclusion complexes. Hydrolysates of whey and colostrum proteins with extensive hydrolysis degree and their complexes with ß/γ-CD were obtained in the present study, and comprehensive comparative analysis of the experimental samples was performed. The interaction of CD with peptides was confirmed via different methods. Bioactivity of the initial hydrolysates and their complexes were evaluated. Antioxidant activity (AOA) was determined by fluorescence reduction of fluorescein in the Fenton system. Antigenic properties were studied by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Antimutagenic effect was estimated in the Ames test. According to the experimental data, a 2.17/2.78-fold and 1.45/2.14-fold increase in the AOA was found in the ß/γ-CD interaction with whey and colostrum hydrolysates, respectively. A 5.6/5.3-fold decrease in the antigenicity of whey peptides in complex with ß/γ-CD was detected, while the antimutagenic effect in the host-guest systems was comparable to the initial hydrolysates. Thus, bioactive CD complexes with dairy peptides were obtained. Complexes are applicable as a component of specialized foods (sports, diet).


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , gama-Ciclodextrinas , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Soro do Leite , Colostro , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(9): e202300896, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37605961

RESUMO

Heterocyclic compounds are found in a variety of drug molecules, and bioactive natural products. 4-Thiazolidinones (4-TZDs), which represent an important class of heterocyclic compounds, are of great interest today with their diverse bioactivities. In this study, ten novel 4-TZD derivatives (C1-C10) were synthesized, characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and their genotoxic, and antigenotoxic properties were investigated in vitro using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay in the concentration range of 0.2-1.0 mM/plate. The results revealed that none of the compounds were mutagenic on the three different Salmonella typhimurium strains up to the highest concentration tested. Furthermore, in our study, C1, C4, C6, and C9 showed significant, ranging from moderate to strong, antigenotoxic effects against mutagen-induced DNA damage at relatively higher doses. Among these, C4 had the best potential to inhibit the number of revertant colonies induced by 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), with a maximum inhibition rate of 47.9 % for 1.0 mM/plate. As a result, preliminary knowledge about the safety of the use of ten novel synthesized 4-TZD compounds likely to exhibit many bioactivities was obtained in this study. In addition, the significant in vitro antimutagenic activity of some derivatives increases the importance of studies for the development of new pharmacological agents for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium , Aminacrina , Dano ao DNA
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37003647

RESUMO

The identification of new drugs with few or no adverse effects is of great interest worldwide. In cancer therapy, natural products have been used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. Plants from the Brazilian savannah belonging to the Byrsonima genus are popularly known as muricis and have attracted much attention due to their various pharmacological activities. However, there are currently no data on these plants concerning their use as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents in human cell lines. The present study assessed the potential of B. correifolia, B. verbascifolia, B. crassifolia, and B. intermedia extracts as natural alternatives in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. The chemical constituents present in each extract were analyzed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MSN). The mutagenic/antimutagenic (micronucleus assay), genotoxic/antigenotoxic (comet assay), apoptotic/necrotic (acridine orange/ethidium bromide uptake), and oxidative/antioxidative (CM-H2DCFDA) effects of the extracts and their influence on gene expression (RTqPCR) were investigated in nonmetabolizing gastric (MNP01) and metabolizing hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) epithelial cells to evaluate the effects of metabolism on the biological activities of the extracts. The genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and apoptotic effects observed in HepG2 cells with B. correifolia and B. verbascifolia extracts are probably associated with the presence of proanthocyanidins and amentoflavone. In MNP01 cells, none of the four extracts showed mutagenic effects. B. crassifolia and B. intermedia extracts exhibited strong antimutagenicity and enhanced detoxification in HepG2 cells and antioxidant capacities in both types of cells, possibly due to the presence of gallic and quinic acids, which possess chemopreventive properties. This study identifies for the first time B. correifolia and B. verbascifolia extracts as potential agents against hepatocarcinoma and B. crassifolia and B. intermedia extracts as putative chemopreventive agents.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos , Antimutagênicos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brasil , Plantas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Instabilidade Genômica , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia
8.
Artigo em Espanhol | UY-BNMED, BNUY, LILACS | ID: biblio-1513564

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el efecto del ácido clorogénico, uno de los compuestos polifenólicos con mayor concentración en la infusión de Ilex paraguariensis, sobre el daño celular y molecular inducido por el benzo(a)pireno. La infusión de Ilex paraguariensis ("mate") es bebida por la mayoría de los habitantes de Argentina, Paraguay, sur de Brasil y Uruguay. La levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae (cepas SC7K lys2-3; SX46A y SX46Arad14() se utilizó como modelo eucariota. Las células en crecimiento exponencial se expusieron a concentraciones crecientes de benzo(a)pireno y a tratamientos combinados con una concentración de 250 ng/mL de benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico a una concentración igual a la encontrada en la infusión de yerba mate. Luego de los tratamientos se determinaron fracciones de sobrevida, frecuencia mutagénica y roturas de doble cadena de ADN así como la modulación en la expresión de la proteína Rad14 a través de un análisis de Western Blot. Se observó un aumento significativo en las fracciones de sobrevida así como una disminución en la frecuencia mutagénica después de la exposición combinada con benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico en comparación con los tratamientos con benzo(a)pireno como único agente. En la cepa mutante deficiente en la proteína Rad14 se observó un aumento significativo en la sensibilidad a benzo(a)pireno en comparación con la cepa SC7K lys2-3. En los tratamientos combinados de benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico se observó una importante disminución de la letalidad. Con respecto a la determinación de roturas de doble cadena de ADN no se observó fraccionamiento cromosómico a la concentración de benzo(a)pireno utilizada en los experimentos. Los análisis de Western Blot mostraron un aumento en la expresión de la proteína Rad14 en las muestras tratadas con benzo(a)pireno como único agente en comparación con la muestra control. Adicionalmente se observó una disminución en la expresión de la proteína cuando en los tratamientos se utilizaron benzo(a)pireno y ácido clorogénico combinados. Los resultados indican que el ácido clorogénico disminuye significativamente la actividad mutagénica producida por el benzo(a)pireno, la cual no se encuentra relacionada con un incremento en la remoción de las lesiones inducidas por el sistema de reparación por escisión de nucleótidos.


The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of chlorogenic acid, a polyphenolic compound found at high concentrations in Ilex paraguariensis infusions, on cellular and molecular damage induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Ilex paraguariensis infusions ("mate") are consumed by most of the population in Argentina, Paraguay, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (SC7K lys2-3; SX46A and SX46Arad14( strains) were used as eukaryotic model organisms. Cells in an exponential growth phase were exposed to increasing concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene, as well as combined treatments of benzo(a)pyrene at a concentration of 250 ng/mL and chlorogenic acid at a concentration matching that which is commonly found in mate. Determinations of surviving fraction, mutagenic frequency and double strand DNA breaks induction were performed, along with the assessment of the modulation of the expression of protein Rad14 by Western Blot. A significant increase of surviving fractions and a decrease in mutagenic frequency were observed after exposure to benzo(a)pyrene plus chlorogenic acid, contrary to benzo(a)pyrene alone. A substantial increase in sensitivity to benzo(a)pyrene was observed for the Rad14 protein-deficient mutating strain when compared to the SC7K lys2-3 strain. An important decrease in lethality was observed when combined benzo(a)pyrene and chlorogenic acid treatments were applied. As for the determination of DSBs, no chromosomic fractionation was observed at the benzo(a)pyrene concentration tested in the experiments. Western Blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of protein Rad14 for samples treated with benzo(a)pyrene as a single agent when compared against the control sample. Additionally, the expression of this protein was observed to diminish when combined treatments with benzo(a)pyrene and chlorogenic acid were used. Results obtained indicate that chlorogenic acid significantly decreases the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene, which is not related to an increase in the removal of lesions induced by nucleotide excision repair system.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do ácido clorogênico, um dos compostos polifenólicos com maior concentração na infusão de Ilex paraguariensis, sobre o dano celular e molecular induzido pelo benzopireno. A infusão de Ilex paraguariensis ("mate") é consumida pela maioria dos habitantes da Argentina, Paraguai, sul do Brasil e Uruguai. A levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae (cepas SC7K lys2-3; SX46A e SX46Arad14() foi utilizada como modelo eucariótico. Células em crescimento exponencial foram expostas a concentrações crescentes de benzopireno e tratamentos combinados foram realizados com uma concentração de 250 ng/mL de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico, igual à encontrada na infusão de erva-mate. Após os tratamentos, foram determinadas as frações de sobrevivência, frequência mutagênica e quebras de fita dupla do DNA, bem como a modulação na expressão da proteína Rad14 por meio de análise de Western Blot. Um aumento significativo nas frações de sobrevivência, bem como uma diminuição na frequência mutagênica foram observados após a exposição combinada de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico em comparação com tratamentos de agente único de benzo(a)pireno. Um aumento significativo na sensibilidade ao benzo(a)pireno foi observado na cepa mutante deficiente em proteína Rad14 em comparação com a cepa SC7K lys2-3. Nos tratamentos combinados de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico, observou-se uma diminuição significativa na letalidade. Com relação à determinação das quebras de fita dupla de DNA, não foi observado fracionamento cromossômico na concentração de benzo(a)pireno utilizada nos experimentos. A partir da análise de Western Blot, observou-se um aumento na expressão da proteína Rad14 nas amostras tratadas com benzo(a)pireno como agente único em relação à amostra controle. Além disso, uma diminuição na expressão da proteína foi observada quando combinados de benzo(a)pireno e ácido clorogênico foram usados ​​nos tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho indicam que o ácido clorogênico diminui significativamente a atividade mutagênica produzida pelo benzo(a)pireno, a qual não está relacionada a um aumento na remoção de lesões induzidas pelo sistema de reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos adversos , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Mutação
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010913, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282845

RESUMO

Utilization of specialized Th1 cells to resist intracellular pathogenic infection represents an important innovation of adaptive immunity. Although transcriptional evidence indicates the potential presence of Th1-like cells in some fish species, the existence of CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells, their detailed functions, and the mechanism determining their differentiation in these early vertebrates remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a population of CD3+CD4-1+IFN-γ+ (Th1) cells in Nile tilapia upon T-cell activation in vitro or Edwardsiella piscicida infection in vivo. By depleting CD4-1+ T cells or blocking IFN-γ, Th1 cells and their produced IFN-γ were found to be essential for tilapia to activate macrophages and resist the E. piscicida infection. Mechanistically, activated T cells of tilapia produce IL-2, which enhances the STAT5 and mTORC1 signaling that in turn trigger the STAT1/T-bet axis-controlled IFN-γ transcription and Th1 cell development. Additionally, mTORC1 regulates the differentiation of these cells by promoting the proliferation of CD3+CD4-1+ T cells. Moreover, IFN-γ binds to its receptors IFNγR1 and IFNγR2 and further initiates a STAT1/T-bet axis-mediated positive feedback loop to stabilize the Th1 cell polarization in tilapia. These findings demonstrate that, prior to the emergence of tetrapods, the bony fish Nile tilapia had already evolved Th1 cells to fight intracellular bacterial infection, and support the notion that IL-2-mTORC1 signaling coordinates the STAT1/T-bet axis to determine Th1 cell fate, which is an ancient mechanism that has been programmed early during vertebrate evolution. Our study is expected to provide novel perspectives into the evolution of adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Células Th1 , Animais , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Antimutagênicos/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Ativação Linfocitária , Antagonistas de Androgênios/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos
10.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230942

RESUMO

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) comprises a combination of two or three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs that are administered together in a single tablet. These drugs target different steps within the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) life cycle, providing either a synergistic or additive antiviral effect; this enhances the efficiency in which viral replication is suppressed. HIV cannot be completely eliminated, making HAART a lifetime treatment. With long-term HAART usage, an increasing number of patients experience a broadening array of complications, and this significantly affects their quality of life, despite cautious use. The mechanism through which ARV drugs induce toxicity is associated with metabolic complications such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. To address this, it is necessary to improve ARV drug formulation without compromising its efficacy; alternatively, safe supplementary medicine may be a suitable solution. The medicinal plant Moringa oleifera (MO) is considered one of the most important sources of novel nutritionally and pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to prevent and treat various diseases. MO leaves are rich in polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, and tannins; studies have confirmed the therapeutic properties of MO. MO leaves provide powerful antioxidants, scavenge free radicals, promote carbohydrate metabolism, and repair DNA. MO also induces anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-proliferative, and anti-mutagenic effects. Therefore, MO can be a source of affordable and safe supplement therapy for HAART-induced toxicity. This review highlights the potential of MO leaves to protect against HAART-induced toxicity in HIV patients.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Infecções por HIV , Moringa oleifera , Anti-Inflamatórios , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Antivirais , DNA , Radicais Livres , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Minerais , Qualidade de Vida , Comprimidos , Taninos , Vitaminas
11.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 85(15): 603-621, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387576

RESUMO

Pistacia lentiscus L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants attributed to its beneficial properties on human health. However, few toxicogenetic studies have been carried out. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic properties of oil, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of P. lentiscus L. fruits using in vitro the Ames and Umu assays, as well as in vivo micronucleus (MN) test. Extracts did not exert any significant mutagenic/genotoxic effects but provided protection against standard mutagenic and genotoxic agents including 2 nitrofluorene (2-NF) at 2.5 and 5 µg/ml; sodium azide at 5 and 10 µg/ml; 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) at 25 and 50 µg/ml; cyclophosphamide (CP) at 50 and 100 µg/ml; 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) at 0.05 µg/ml and 2-amino-anthracene (AA) at 0.2 µg/ml. Further, cytotoxicity and selectivity were examined on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines as well as a human normal-like fibroblast cell line (TelCOFS02MA) using MTT assay. Among all extracts, PF1 (ethanolic) showed the most significant selectivity index (SI) (HepG2:11.98; MCF7:4.83), which led to further investigations using an animal model. Oral administration of PF1 (125-1000 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased the number of micronucleated cells in CP -initiated (50 mg/kg b.w.) mice, while the number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRET), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) or mitotic index (MI) were not markedly affected. Further, PF1 significantly enhanced catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the livers and kidneys of these animals. The obtained results indicated the beneficial properties of P. lentiscus L. fruits for use in therapy against harmful effects of genotoxic and mutagenic agents. However, while promising it should be noted that the obtained results are preliminary and need to be confirmed prior to therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Pistacia , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida , Frutas , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 14(6): 1094-1109, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028920

RESUMO

The antimutagenic activity of probiotic strains has been reported over several decades of studying the effects of probiotics. However, this activity is rarely considered an important criterion when choosing strains to produce probiotic preparations and functional food. Meanwhile, the association of antimutagenic activity with the prevention of oncological diseases, as well as with a decrease in the spread of resistant forms in the microbiota, indicates its importance for the selection of probiotics. Besides, an antimutagenic activity can be associated with probiotics' broader systemic effects, such as geroprotective activity. The main mechanisms of such effects are considered to be the binding of mutagens, the transformation of mutagens, and inhibition of the transformation of promutagens into antimutagens. Besides, we should consider the possibility of interaction of the microbiota with regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells, in particular, through the effect on mitochondria. This work aims to systematize data on the antimutagenic activity of probiotics and emphasize antimutagenic activity as a significant criterion for the selection of probiotic strains.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Microbiota , Probióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Mutagênicos/farmacologia
13.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 85(8): 336-352, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903147

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have always been used for therapeutic purposes; however, some plants may contain toxic and mutagenic substances. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, antioxidant, antigenotoxic, and antimutagenic effects of the bark ethanolic extract of Spondias purpurea L. using male and female Swiss albino mice. To determine the protective effects of the extract, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cyclophosphamide (CP) were selected as cell damage inducers. The extract was examined at doses of 500, 1000, or 1500 mg/kg body weight (BW)via gavage alone or concomitant with B[a]P or CP. Oxidative stress was measured by quantification of blood catalase activity (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in total blood, liver, and kidney, and concentrations of malondiadehyde (MDA) in liver and kidney. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity were evaluated by the comet assay using peripheral blood. Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and antimutagenicity were determined utilizing the micronucleus test in bone marrow and peripheral blood. The S. purpurea L extract increased CAT activity and GSH levels accompanied by a decrease in MDA levels after treatment with B[a]P and CP. No genotoxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic effects were found in mice exposed only to the extract. These results indicate that the extract of S. purpurea exhibited protective effects against oxidative and DNA damage induced by B[a]P and CP.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antimutagênicos , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 85(9): 353-363, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875975

RESUMO

Pedunculagin (PD), an ellagitannin found in different plant species, possesses several pharmaceutical properties, including antitumor, antioxidant, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of PD alone on DNA remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities of PD isolated from Plinia cauliflora seeds using in silico and in vitro assays. To elucidate the biological activities of PD, in silico tools indicative of antioxidant, antineoplastic, and chemopreventive activities of PD were used. Subsequently, the mutagenic/antimutagenic effects of PD were later assessed using bacteria with the Ames test, and the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects utilizing human lymphocytes as evidenced by trypan blue exclusion test and CometChip assay. In silico analysis indicated potential antioxidant, chemopreventive, free radical scavenger, and cytostatic activities of PD. In the Ames test, PD was found to be not mutagenic; however, this plant component protected DNA against damage-mediated by mutagens 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and sodium azide. Regarding human lymphocytes, PD alone was cytotoxic and genotoxic; however, it also reduced DNA damage induced by doxorubicin at co- and post-treatment. In conclusion, PD showed genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects in human lymphocytes and antimutagenic effects in bacteria.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Antineoplásicos , Myrtaceae , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Linfócitos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium , Sementes , Taninos
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(41): 62014-62029, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431051

RESUMO

Mutagens present in the environment manifest toxic effects and are considered as serious threat for human health and healthcare. Recent reports reveal that medicinal plant resources are being explored for identifying potent antimutagenic as well as cancer preventing agents. There is mounting evidence that cancer and other mutation-related diseases can be prevented with the use of medicinal pant resources including crude extracts, active fractions, phytochemicals, and pure phytomolecules. These medicinal plant resources possessing antimutagenic potentials have been shown to target molecular mechanisms underlying the mutagenic impacts. Technological advents and high-throughput screening/activity methods have revolutionized this field, though several potent plants and their active principles have been reported as effective antimutagens. The translational success rate needs to be improved, but the trends are encouraging. In this review, we present the current understandings and updates on various mutagens in the environment, toxicities related/attributed to them, the resultant mutations (and cancer), and how medicinal plants come to the rescue. A perspective review has been presented on whether and how medicinal plant resources can be an effective approach for addressing mutagens in the environment. An account of medicinal plant resources used as antimutagenic agents has been given along with the underlying mechanism of action and their therapeutic potential in various models of cancer. Recent success stories, current challenges, and future prospects are discussed.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Plantas Medicinais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
16.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(2): 515-522, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063063

RESUMO

Melanoma, an aggressive skin cancer originating from melanocytes, can metastasize to the lungs, liver, cortex, femur, and spinal cord, ultimately resulting in DNA mutagenic effects. Melatonin is an endogenous hormone and free radical scavenger that possesses the ability to protect the DNA and to exert anti-proliferative effects in melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B16F10 melanoma cells and the effects of melatonin supplementation on genotoxic parameters in murine melanoma models. Thirty-two male C57Bl/6 mice were divided in the following four groups: PBS + vehicle (n = 6), melanoma + vehicle (n = 10), PBS + melatonin (n = 6), and melanoma + melatonin (n = 10). The melanoma groups received a B16F10 cell injection, and melatonin was administered during 60 days. After treatment, tumor sizes were evaluated. DNA damage within the peripheral blood, lungs, liver, cortex, and spinal cord was determined using comet assay, and the mutagenicity within the bone marrow was determined using the micronucleus test. B16F10 cells effectively induced DNA damage in all tissues, and melatonin supplementation decreased DNA damage in the blood, liver, cortex, and spinal cord. This hormone exerts anti-tumor activity via its anti-proliferative, antioxidative, and pro-apoptotic effects. As this result was not observed within the lungs, we hypothesized that melatonin can induce apoptosis in cancer cells, and this was not evaluated by comet assay. This study provides evidence that melatonin can reduce the genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by B16F10 cells.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Melanoma , Melatonina , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(2): 641-650, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321321

RESUMO

Orthosiphon stamineus (O.S) is widely consumed for its medidcinal value including anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and diuretic properties. The present study evaluates the cytoprotective, anti-mutagenic, and anticlastogenic efficacies of standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. Normal liver cell line (WRL68) exposed to hydrogen peroxide and serum-deprived media as insults to evaluate cytoprotective and glutathione activation activities of (Et. O. s). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 exposed to different concentrations of (Et. O. s). The influence of Et. O. s on mitotic, replicative indices as well as chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induced in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by mitomycin C (MMC). The Et. O.s proved to be a potent scavenger for hydrogen peroxide and other free radicals in serum-depraved media, which showed to stimulate glutathione production in liver cells line. Moreover, it did not induce mutations in S. typhimurium subspecies TA98 and TA100. The standardized extract exhibited powerful antimutagenic activities as verified against both 2-nitrofluorene and sodium azide in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 cells, respectively. Cytogenetic tests showed high concentrations of Et. O. s to reduce the values of mitotic and replicative indices without any accompanying side effects, such as chromosomal abnormalities or SCE. To ameliorate MMC effects, pretreatment with the extract proofed to be efficient protocol. These data suggests that O. stamineus extract could be useful as cytoprotective, antimutagenic, and anticlastogenic efficacies, which owes to its potent chemoprevention, antioxidant, and glutathione activation properties.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Orthosiphon , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20234, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403740

RESUMO

Abstract Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, popularly known as "Cipó-de São-João", has been used in traditional medicine for its therapeutic properties. Nanotechnology is able to enhance the pharmacological activity of plant extracts. In this context, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles containing P. venusta ethanolic extract were developed and then physico-chemically characterized to evaluate the mutagenic/antimutagenic effects of P. venusta. In addition, transaminases and serum creatinine were biochemically analyzed for liver and renal damage, respectively. The micronucleus test was performed with male Swiss mice treated orally for 15 consecutive days with free extracts and nanostructured with P. venusta, and then intraperitoneally with N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (50 mg/kg) on the 15th day of treatment. Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were evaluated in bone marrow. There was a significant reduction in the frequency of MNPCE (LPEPV = 183% and NPEPV = 114%, p < 0.001), indicating antimutagenic potential of the nanostructured extracts with P. venusta. The groups treated with only nanostructured extract did not show an increase in MNPCE frequency, and biochemical analyzes showed no significant difference between treatments. The liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles containing Pyrostegia venusta ethanolic extract showed biological potential in preventing the first step of carcinogenesis under the experimental conditions


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Antimutagênicos , Bignoniaceae/classificação , Flavonoides/análise , Creatinina/agonistas , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Carcinogênese/patologia
19.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(6): 1339-1346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916363

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim was to compare the anticancer and antimutagenic potency of Polyalthia cerasoides seeds and stem bark. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative, apoptotic, antioxidation to DNA, and antimutagenic activity of alcoholic (PS-1 and PS-3) and petroleum ether (PS-2 and PS-4) stem bark and seed fractions of P. cerasoides. METHODS: P. cerasoides stem bark and seeds were extracted with ethanol: water mixture (9:1 ratio v: v) and fractionated with petroleum ether. Fractions were investigated for antiproliferative effect using cell by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole assay (cell line used liver [HepG2] and cervical [HeLa] cancer cell lines), DNA damage protection using hydroxyl radical and antimutagenic effect using chromosome aberration test. RESULTS: PS-1 (IC50 10 µg/ml) and PS-3 (IC50 11 µg/ml) showed maximum antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cell lines, whereas, PS-1 (IC50 10 µg/ml), PS-2 (IC50 24 µg/ml), and PS-3 (IC50 11 µg/ml) showed better antiproliferative activity against HeLa cell lines. PS-3 and PS-4 were protective against oxidation to the supercoiled DNA molecule. Further, petroleum ether extract of both seed (PS-2) and stem bark (PS-4) showed good antimutagenicity as revealed by the less chromosomal aberrations compared to PS-1 and PS-3 fractions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the beneficial effect of fractions against oxidation of DNA, antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antimutagenic activity. Probably, this property would be attributable by their phenolic and steroid constituents. Therefore, this plant could be used as a potential source of nutraceutical agents.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polyalthia/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Etanol/química , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(2): 143-145, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853971

RESUMO

On a culture of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, antimutagenic activity of a composition from extracts of green tea leaves and Caucasian persimmon fruits was established with a modification of the mutation process induced by chemical compounds producing an alkylating effect (nitrosomethylurea and sodium fluoride). A concentration dependence of the antimutagenic efficiency of the studied phytocomposite was shown. The highest antimutagenic efficiency was observed when a combination of green tea extract at a concentration of 0.01 µg/ml and persimmon fruit extract at a concentration of 0.001 µg/ml were used. Moreover, this combination was most effective against mutations induced by both nitrosomethylurea and sodium fluoride: the antimutagen efficiency factor was 0.53 and 0.55, respectively.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Diospyros/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Análise Citogenética , Frutas/química , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Adulto Jovem
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