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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013468, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postburn pruritus (itch) is a common and distressing symptom experienced on healing or healed burn or donor site wounds. Topical, systemic, and physical treatments are available to control postburn pruritus; however, it remains unclear how effective these are. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions for treating postburn pruritus in any care setting. SEARCH METHODS: In September 2022, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries and scanned references of relevant publications to identify eligible trials. There were no restrictions with respect to language, publication date, or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with postburn pruritus to compare an intervention for postburn pruritus with any other intervention, placebo or sham intervention, or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 RCTs assessing 21 interventions with 1166 randomised participants. These 21 interventions can be grouped into six categories: neuromodulatory agents (such as doxepin, gabapentin, pregabalin, ondansetron), topical therapies (such as CQ-01 hydrogel, silicone gel, enalapril ointment, Provase moisturiser, beeswax and herbal oil cream), physical modalities (such as massage therapy, therapeutic touch, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, enhanced education about silicone gel sheeting), laser scar revision (pulsed dye laser, pulsed high-intensity laser, fractional CO2 laser), electrical stimulation (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation), and other therapies (cetirizine/cimetidine combination, lemon balm tea). Most RCTs were conducted at academic hospitals and were at a high risk of performance, attrition, and detection bias. While 24 out of 25 included studies reported change in burn-related pruritus, secondary outcomes such as cost-effectiveness, pain, patient perception, wound healing, and participant health-related quality of life were not reported or were reported incompletely. Neuromodulatory agents versus antihistamines or placebo There is low-certainty evidence that doxepin cream may reduce burn-related pruritus compared with oral antihistamine (mean difference (MD) -2.60 on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.79 to -1.42; 2 studies, 49 participants). A change of 2 points represents a minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Due to very low-certainty evidence, it is uncertain whether doxepin cream impacts the incidence of somnolence as an adverse event compared to oral antihistamine (risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.25; 1 study, 24 participants). No data were reported on pain in the included study. There is low-certainty evidence that gabapentin may reduce burn-related pruritus compared with cetirizine (MD -2.40 VAS, 95% CI -4.14 to -0.66; 1 study, 40 participants). A change of 2 points represents a MCID. There is low-certainty evidence that gabapentin reduces the incidence of somnolence compared to cetirizine (RR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.38; 1 study, 40 participants). No data were reported on pain in the included study. There is low-certainty evidence that pregabalin may result in a reduction in burn-related pruritus intensity compared with cetirizine with pheniramine maleate (MD -0.80 VAS, 95% CI -1.24 to -0.36; 1 study, 40 participants). A change of 2 points represents a MCID. There is low-certainty evidence that pregabalin reduces the incidence of somnolence compared to cetirizine (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.69; 1 study, 40 participants). No data were reported on pain in the included study. There is moderate-certainty evidence that ondansetron probably results in a reduction in burn-related pruritus intensity compared with diphenhydramine (MD -0.76 on a 0 to 10 numeric analogue scale (NAS), 95% CI -1.50 to -0.02; 1 study, 38 participants). A change of 2 points represents a MCID. No data were reported on pain and adverse events in the included study. Topical therapies versus relevant comparators There is moderate-certainty evidence that enalapril ointment probably decreases mean burn-related pruritus compared with placebo control (MD -0.70 on a 0 to 4 scoring table for itching, 95% CI -1.04 to -0.36; 1 study, 60 participants). No data were reported on pain and adverse events in the included study. Physical modalities versus relevant comparators Compared with standard care, there is low-certainty evidence that massage may reduce burn-related pruritus (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.86, 95% CI -1.45 to -0.27; 2 studies, 166 participants) and pain (SMD -1.32, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.98). These SMDs equate to a 4.60-point reduction in pruritus and a 3.74-point reduction in pain on a 10-point VAS. A change of 2 VAS points in itch represents a MCID. No data were reported on adverse events in the included studies. There is low-certainty evidence that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may reduce burn-related pruritus compared with sham stimulation (SMD -1.20, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.75; 2 studies, 91 participants). This equates to a 5.93-point reduction in pruritus on a 22-point 12-item Pruritus Severity Scale. There is low-certainty evidence that ESWT may reduce pain compared with sham stimulation (MD 2.96 on a 0 to 25 pressure pain threshold (PPT), 95% CI 1.76 to 4.16; 1 study, 45 participants). No data were reported on adverse events in the included studies. Laser scar revision versus untreated or placebo controls There is moderate-certainty evidence that pulsed high-intensity laser probably results in a reduction in burn-related pruritus intensity compared with placebo laser (MD -0.51 on a 0 to 1 Itch Severity Scale (ISS), 95% CI -0.64 to -0.38; 1 study, 49 participants). There is moderate-certainty evidence that pulsed high-intensity laser probably reduces pain compared with placebo laser (MD -3.23 VAS, 95% CI -5.41 to -1.05; 1 study, 49 participants). No data were reported on adverse events in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate to low-certainty evidence on the effects of 21 interventions. Most studies were small and at a high risk of bias related to blinding and incomplete outcome data. Where there is moderate-certainty evidence, practitioners should consider the applicability of the evidence for their patients.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Prurido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Prurido/etiologia , Prurido/terapia , Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/terapia , Viés , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico
2.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 25(1): 32, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pruritus, or itching, is a distressing symptom associated with various dermatological and systemic diseases. L-carnitine (ßeta hydroxy-γ-tri methyl amino-butyric acid), is a naturally occurring substance, it controls numerous physiological processes. The present research aims to identify L-carnitine for its anti-pruritic effect via nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. METHODS: Chloroquine-induced pruritus serves as an experimental model to investigate possible therapeutic interventions. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of L-carnitine in combating oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and inflammatory cytokines in a chloroquine-induced pruritus model. RESULTS: L-carnitine treatment significantly reduced scratching behavior compared to the disease group (***P < 0.001 vs. chloroquine group), indicating its antipruritic potential. The markers of oxidative stress, GST, GSH, Catalase, and LPO were dysregulated in the disease model, but administration of L-carnitine restored GST, GSH, and Catalase levels and decreased LPO levels (***P < 0.001 vs. chloroquine group), thereby alleviating oxidative stress. L-carnitine also reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, suggesting that it modulates nitric oxide signaling pathways involved in pruritus. In addition, L-carnitine lowered levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inflammatory marker nuclear factor kappa B (p-NFκB) and also reduces an inflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), determined by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) (***P < 0.001 vs. chloroquine group). It downregulates nNOS mRNA expression confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the therapeutic effects of L-carnitine in alleviating chloroquine-induced pruritus.


Assuntos
Carnitina , Cloroquina , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Prurido , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Prurido/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Carnitina/farmacologia , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo
3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv39950, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751178

RESUMO

Pruritus in the elderly, particularly those cases without skin dryness or other identifiable causes, makes treatment challenging due to the lack of evidence regarding the therapeutic effects of antipruritics. This study proposes an age-related alloknesis mouse model for an evaluation system for such cases, and aimed to investigate the effectiveness and mechanisms of action of several drugs commonly used as antipruritics in Japan, utilizing this model. Mice 69-80 weeks old were used as aged mice, and the level of mechanical alloknesis was counted as the number of scratching behaviours in response to innocuous stimuli. Bepotastine, neurotropin, pregabalin, baricitinib, and abrocitinib were used as antipruritics, and yohimbine and methysergide as inhibitors of the descending inhibitory pathway. The findings suggest that mechanical alloknesis in aged mice is a suitable animal model for assessing pruritus in the elderly without xerosis, and pregabalin, neurotropin, baricitinib, and abrocitinib may be effective antipruritics in the elderly through activating both the noradrenergic and serotonergic descending inhibitory pathways. These findings may be useful for the selection of antipruritics for pruritus in the elderly without skin lesions or dryness.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Prurido , Animais , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fatores Etários , Masculino , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Pregabalina/farmacologia , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1447: 191-207, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724794

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis has a substantial impact on sleep, appearance, psychological well-being, and other qualities of life. The visual appearance of lichenification, cheilitis, hyperpigmentation, ichthyosis, and erythema can be socially stigmatizing, and treatment of these symptoms is challenging. In managing pruritus in patients, practitioners should assess and document pruritus through questionnaires at each routine visit. Initially, practitioners should advise patients to employ nonpharmaceutical treatments such as emollients with wet wraps, elimination of triggers, changing scratching habits, and psychological interventions. If these methods of treatment are not successful or if the disease presentation is severe, pharmacological therapies should be employed. This chapter describes the therapeutic ladder for pruritus in atopic dermatitis and discusses each treatment modality in further detail for practitioners to advise their patients.First-line topical pharmaceutical agents include topical glucocorticoids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. Second-line topical agents include coal tar, menthol, capsaicin, or doxepin. After the use of topical agents has been exhausted, primary systemic agents can be applied. These include sedating antihistamines, nonsedating antihistamines, oral glucocorticoids, or cyclosporine A. Finally, neuromodulating or immunomodulating agents can be attempted, including SSRI/SNRIs, TCAs, immunosuppressants, neural modulators, and opioid receptor modulators. Outside of pharmacological treatments, phototherapy has been shown to provide a dramatic improvement of pruritus in atopic dermatitis and can be used at any stage of treatment including as a first-line agent.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Prurido , Humanos , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia/métodos , Prurido/terapia , Prurido/etiologia , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 25(6): 655-672, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682595

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pruritus, particularly in its chronic form, often imposes significant suffering and reductions in patients' quality of life. The pathophysiology of itch is varied depending on disease context, creating opportunities for unique drug development and multimodal therapy. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this article is to provide an update of the literature regarding current and emerging therapeutics in itch. We review the multitudes of drug targets available and corresponding drugs that have shown efficacy in clinical trials, with a particular emphasis on phase 2 and 3 trials and beyond. Broadly, these targets include therapies directed against type 2 inflammation (i.e. Th2 cytokines, JAK/STAT, lipid mediators, T-cell mediators, and other enzymes and receptors) and neural receptors and targets (i.e. PARs, TRP channels, opioid receptors, MRGPRs, GABA receptors, and cannabinoid receptors). EXPERT OPINION: Therapeutics for itch are emerging at a remarkable pace, and we are entering an era with more and more specialized therapies. Increasingly, these treatments are able to relieve itch beyond their effect on inflammation by directly targeting the neurosensory system.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Prurido , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doença Crônica , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 133: 112113, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytosphingosine and its derivative are known for their skin-protective properties. While mYG-II-6, a phytosphingosine derivative, has shown anti-inflammatory and antipsoriatic effects, its potential antipruritic qualities have yet to be explored. This study aimed to investigate mYG-II-6's antipruritic properties. METHODS: The calcium imaging technique was employed to investigate the activity of ion channels and receptors. Mast cell degranulation was confirmed through the ß-hexosaminidase assay. Additionally, in silico molecular docking and an in vivo mouse scratching behavior test were utilized. RESULTS: Using HEK293T cells transfected with H1R and TRPV1, we examined the impact of mYG-II-6 on histamine-induced intracellular calcium rise, a key signal in itch-mediating sensory neurons. Pretreatment with mYG-II-6 significantly reduced histamine-induced calcium levels and inhibited TRPV1 activity, suggesting its role in blocking the calcium influx channel. Additionally, mYG-II-6 suppressed histamine-induced calcium increase in primary cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglia, indicating its potential antipruritic effect mediated by histamine. Interestingly, mYG-II-6 exhibited inhibitory effects on human MRGPRX2, a G protein-coupled receptor involved in IgE-independent mast cell degranulation. However, it did not inhibit mouse MrgprB2, the ortholog of human MRGPRX2. Molecular docking analysis revealed that mYG-II-6 selectively interacts with the binding pocket of MRGPRX2. Importantly, mYG-II-6 suppressed histamine-induced scratching behaviors in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that mYG-II-6 can alleviate histamine-induced itch sensation through dual mechanisms. This underscores its potential as a versatile treatment for various pruritic conditions.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular , Histamina , Mastócitos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Animais , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Histamina/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Camundongos , Masculino , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 190(6): 885-894, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergies often present challenges in managing itch and the effects of histamine. Cooling agents that act via transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonism have shown potential in itch management. However, animal studies on itch have limitations, as animals cannot communicate subjective events and their fur-coated skin differs from that of humans. Human studies offer more direct and reliable information. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a specific TRPM8 agonist gel (cryosim-1) on itch induced by various pruritogens in human skin. METHODS: Calcium imaging experiments determined the binding of cryosim-1 and histamine to their respective receptors. Thirty healthy volunteers underwent skin prick tests with pruritogens and a control vehicle. Itch and pain intensity were measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS) across 10 min. Participants were randomly assigned to pretreatments with vehicle or TRPM8 agonist gel. Tests were repeated at a later date, and skin moisture, transepidermal water loss and mechanical sensitivity were measured. RESULTS: The in vitro study confirmed that histamine is not a TRPM8 agonist and cryosim-1 does not act as an agonist or antagonist on the human histamine 1 receptor. The TRPM8 agonist gel significantly reduced the itch intensity for all pruritogens compared with the vehicle-only gel. It also reduced itch NRS and the integrated itch score. Mechanical sensitivity was also reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The specific TRPM8 agonist gel effectively suppressed human skin itch induced by various pruritogens. These versatile actions suggest that cooling agents may be promising treatments for multiple forms of itch stimuli.


Managing itching and the effects of histamine can be difficult for people with allergies. Cooling the skin or applying menthol provides some relief from itch, but the way they work is not fully understood. Cooling agents interact with a protein called TRPM8 (also known as the 'cold and menthol receptor') and have shown potential for the management of itch. However, much of the research has been done on animals and has limitations when compared with human studies. Antihistamine medications can help with histamine-induced itching, but they may not work for other causes of itch. This study investigated the effects of a specific TRPM8 agonist (a chemical that activates a receptor to produce a biologic response) gel called cryosim-1 on itch in human skin. To do this, we conducted tests on 30 healthy people using five different substances that cause itching. Participants rated the itch intensity and pain using a scale and we measured various aspects of their skin. The results showed that all substances caused significant itching compared to a control substance, but itchiness gradually decreased over time. Histamine and compound 48/80 also caused pain. However, when participants applied the TRPM8 activator gel before exposure, they experienced less itching and lower itch intensity versus the gel without the activator. There were no significant differences in pain between the TRPM8 activator and the gel without it. In summary, our findings showed that activating TRPM8 receptors with a specific substance effectively relieved itching caused by various irritants on human skin. This suggests its potential as a treatment for itch-related conditions. Further research is needed to understand its mechanisms better and evaluate its effectiveness in real-life situations.


Assuntos
Histamina , Prurido , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Humanos , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Canais de Cátion TRPM/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Masculino , Histamina/administração & dosagem , Histamina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Géis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antipruriginosos/administração & dosagem , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Administração Cutânea
12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 11(15): e2307237, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350720

RESUMO

Various disorders are accompanied by histamine-independent itching, which is often resistant to the currently available therapies. Here, it is reported that the pharmacological activation of Slack (Kcnt1, KNa1.1), a potassium channel highly expressed in itch-sensitive sensory neurons, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of itching. Based on the Slack-activating antipsychotic drug, loxapine, a series of new derivatives with improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles is designed that enables to validate Slack as a pharmacological target in vivo. One of these new Slack activators, compound 6, exhibits negligible dopamine D2 and D3 receptor binding, unlike loxapine. Notably, compound 6 displays potent on-target antipruritic activity in multiple mouse models of acute histamine-independent and chronic itch without motor side effects. These properties make compound 6 a lead molecule for the development of new antipruritic therapies targeting Slack.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio , Prurido , Animais , Camundongos , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Histamina/metabolismo , Loxapina/uso terapêutico , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/metabolismo
13.
Fitoterapia ; 174: 105837, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286314

RESUMO

Mikania micrantha is a perennial liana of the genus Mikania of the Asteraceae family. It is a commonly used medicine in South America for treating fever, malaria, dysentery, snake bites, etc. Because of its strong adaptability and ability to inhibit the growth of its associated plants, Mikania micrantha is considered an invasive species in China and is known as a plant killer. Preliminary studies have shown that Mikania micrantha has an antipruritic effect, but the antipruritic active substance is not yet clear. In this study, a 4-aminopyridine-induced itching model in mice was used to determine the antipruritic effects of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol extraction site, and Mikania micrantha volatile oil. GC-MS was used to analyze the components of the antipruritic fractions, combined with mice itch-causing models to study the antipruritic effects of ß-caryophyllene and humulene. The safety of ß-caryophyllene was preliminarily evaluated through the acute toxicity test of mice skin. The ethyl acetate and volatile oil of Mikania micrantha have apparent antipruritic effects. Humulene and ß-caryophyllene have a quantitative-effective relationship to inhibit itching in mice. The acute toxicity test of mouse skin showed that ß-caryophyllene has no acute toxicity. This study indicated that the main antipruritic active ingredients of Mikania micrantha are ß-caryophyllene and humulene.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Mikania , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Animais , Camundongos , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Prurido
14.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 28(2): 173-177, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291823

RESUMO

Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a skin disease characterized by firm, itchy, erythematous lesions. Treatment consists of systemic and non-systemic modes of therapy. Non-systemic forms of treatment are first-line and include topical corticosteroids, topical steroid-sparing agents, and phototherapy. The objective was to review the efficacy of non-systemic treatment used to treat PN. A systematic search was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42023412012). The search consisted of keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and translated to Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus. Google Scholar was also searched for the first 200 articles. Article quality of evidence was scored using GRADE criteria. The search yielded 1151 results; 37 met criteria for inclusion. There were 14 studies on phototherapy, and 11 studies on topical corticosteroids, most of which were also combined with topical antihistamines, antipruritics, and/or phototherapy. There were 2 studies each on topical antipruritics used in isolation, vitamin D analogues, and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. There was 1 study each on topical pimecrolimus, tacrolimus, 2% dinitrochlorobenzene, cryotherapy, acupuncture, and the Paul Gerson Unna boot. Most were case reports and case series, although 2 randomized controlled trials on phototherapy and topical pimecrolimus were included. Corticosteroids had varying levels of positive response in patients and appeared more effective when used in combination or under occlusive dressing. Phototherapy is likely effective, but the risk of relapse is high. Cryotherapy may also be a lesion-directed agent to circumvent challenges to adherence and avoidance of systemic medication.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos , Prurigo , Tacrolimo/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Prurigo/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 25(1): 67-77, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971624

RESUMO

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogenous group of lymphomas that cause various skin manifestations. Severe pruritus occurs frequently in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. The pathophysiology of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated itch is complex and involves various immune cells, inflammatory cytokines, and neuroimmune interactions. Treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma pruritus can be challenging, and there have been few randomized controlled studies evaluating the use of antipruritic treatments in these patients. Systemic therapies targeting the disease have also been shown to have some antipruritic effects. Furthermore, although biologic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of other pruritic skin conditions, the use of biologics in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains controversial.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/complicações , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/terapia , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/complicações
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 322: 117581, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103845

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Borneol is a long-established traditional Chinese medicine that has been found to be effective in treating pain and itchy skin. However, whether borneol has a therapeutic effect on chronic itch and its related mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the antipruritic effect of borneol and its molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DrugBAN framework and molecular docking were applied to predict the targets of borneol, and the calcium imaging or patch-clamp recording analysis were used to detect the effects of borneol on TRPA1, TRPM8 or TRPV3 channels in HEK293T cells. In addition, various mouse models of acute itch and chronic itch were established to evaluate the antipruritic effects of borneol on C57BL/6J mice. Then, the borneol-induced pruritic relief was further investigated in Trpa1-/-, Trpm8-/-, or Trpa1-/-/Trpm8-/- mice. The effects of borneol on the activation of TRPM8 and the inhibition of TRPA1 were also measured in dorsal root ganglia neurons of wild-type (WT), Trpm8-/- and Trpv1-/- mice. Lastly, a randomized, double-blind study of adult patients was conducted to evaluate the clinical antipruritic effect of borneol. RESULTS: TRPA1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 are the potential targets of borneol according to the results of DrugBAN algorithm and molecular docking. Calcium imaging and patch-clamp recording analysis demonstrated that borneol activates TRPM8 channel-induced cell excitability and inhibits TRPA1 channel-mediated cell excitability in transfected HEK293T cells. Animal behavior analysis showed that borneol can significantly reduce acute and chronic itch behavior in C57BL/6J mice, but this effect was eliminated in Trpa1-/-, Trpm8-/- mice, or at least in Trpa1-/-/Trpm8-/- mice. Borneol elicits TRPM8 channel induced [Ca2+]i responses but inhibits AITC or SADBE-induced activation of TRPA1 channels in dorsal root ganglia neurons of WT and Trpv1-/- mice, respectively. Furthermore, the clinical results indicated that borneol could reduce itching symptoms in patients and its efficacy is similar to that of menthol. CONCLUSION: Borneol has therapeutic effects on multiple pruritus models in mice and patients with chronic itch, and the mechanism may be through inhibiting TRPA1 and activating TRPM8.


Assuntos
Canfanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/genética , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Gânglios Espinais
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 348, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Animal models of skin disease are used to evaluate therapeutics to alleviate disease. One common clinical dermatological complaint is pruritus (itch), but there is a lack of standardization in the characterization of pre-clinical models and scratching behavior, a key itch endpoint, is often neglected. One such model is the widely used imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis. However, it lacks characterized behavioral attributes like scratching, nor has widely expanded to other species like rats. Given these important attributes, this study was designed to broaden the characterization beyond the expected IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammatory skin changes and to validate the role of a potential therapeutic agent for pruritus in our genetic rat model. The study included female Wistar rats and genetically modified knockin (humanized proteinase-activated receptor 2 (F2RL1) female rats, with the widely used C57BL/6 J mice as a methodology control for typical IMQ dosing. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the IMQ model can be reproduced in rats, including their genetically modified derivatives, and how scratching can be used as a key behavioral endpoint. We systemically delivered an anti-PAR2 antibody (P24E1102) which reversed scratching bouts-validating this behavioral methodology and have shown its feasibility and value in identifying effective antipruritic drugs.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Psoríase , Camundongos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/genética , Pele , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(10)2023 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893534

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common type IV hypersensitivity reaction characterised by redness, itching, oedema and thickening of the skin. It occurs in about 7% of the population and its incidence is increasing. It has been observed that the preconditioning of tissues by exposing them to transient ischemia increases resistance to subsequent permanent ischemia, and this phenomenon is called ischemic preconditioning. It has been shown that conditioning in one organ can also protect other organs. The protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning is thought to be based on the induction of anti-inflammatory responses. The aim of this project was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects of remote ischemic postconditioning in a mouse model of experimental allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: Experimental allergic contact dermatitis was induced with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Remote ischemic postconditioning was performed at 3 and 25 h after the challenge. Ear thickness and number of scratches 24 and 48 h after challenge, as well as cytokine levels and the infiltration of mast cells, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in serum and ear tissue at 48 h were measured to determine the effect of RIPsC. Results: Remote ischemic postconditioning decreased ear thickness, one of the symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis (p < 0.0001). It had no significant effect on the number of scratches. It reduced serum IL-17 levels (p < 0.01). It alleviated local inflammation by suppressing CD8+ T lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration. Conclusions: It was concluded that remote ischemic postconditioning may alleviate the symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis by suppressing CD8+ T lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration and reducing IL-17 secretion.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico , Camundongos , Animais , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17 , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Isquemia
19.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 103: adv6581, 2023 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584094

RESUMO

Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is thought to have antipruritic effects through inhibition of pruritic factors, including acetylcholine, substance P, and glutamate. The aim of this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to test the effect of botulinum toxin type A on cowhage, a non-histaminergic model for chronic itch. Botulinum toxin type A was injected into the arm of 35 healthy subjects, with a saline control injected into the contralateral arm. Thermal sensory parameters (warmth and heat thresholds and heat pain intensity) and itch intensity after cowhage application were examined on test areas. Botulinum toxin type A reduced itch intensity, overall perceived itch (area under the curve (AUC); percentage change from baseline), and peak itch intensity compared with the control at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Botulinum toxin type A had no effect on thermal thresholds or heat pain intensity. In conclusion, botulinum toxin type A reduced cowhage itch for at least 3 months, which suggests that botulinum toxin type A is a potential long-lasting treatment for localized, non-histaminergic itch.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Antipruriginosos/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Medição da Dor , Método Duplo-Cego
20.
J Med Chem ; 66(14): 9607-9621, 2023 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37409873

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter with anti-inflammatory actions that also reduces itching. To test whether a combination of an antihistamine with a H2S donor has improved antipruritic efficacy, bifunctional molecules with antihistamine and H2S-releasing pharmacophores were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo. H2S release from the hybrid molecules was evaluated with the methylene blue and lead acetate methods, and H1-blocking activity was assessed by determining tissue factor expression inhibition. All new compounds released H2S in a dose-dependent manner and retained histamine blocking activity. Two compounds with the highest potency were evaluated in vivo for their antipruritic as well as sedative action; they proved to possess higher efficacy in inhibiting histamine-induced pruritus and decreased sedative effects compared to the parent compounds (hydroxyzine and cetirizine), suggesting that they exhibit superior antipruritic action and limited side effects that likely arise from the H2S-releasing moiety.


Assuntos
Antipruriginosos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Humanos , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Histamina , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico
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