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1.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136909, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265711

RESUMO

A polymer-based carbon paste electrode was constructed by electropolymerized Alizarin Red S (ARS) film on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) surface. The electrochemical properties of poly-ARS/CPE were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized for electrode characterization. The electropolymerization cycles for the construction of the sensor and the supporting electrolyte were optimized. With 0.1 M LiClO4 as a supporting electrolyte, poly-ARS/CPE was able to generate oxidation peaks for anthracene (ANT) and phenanthrene (PHE), that were clearly defined and easily distinguished from one to another when operating in square wave voltammetry (SWV). In the simultaneous detection the linear ranges of ANT and PHE were within 80-1000 µM, with detection limits of 24 µM. The variation of peak parameters with scan rate was investigated to determine the nature of electrooxidation and the number of electrons involved in the electrode process. Poly-ARS/CPE was successfully utilized for the detection of ANT and PHE in different water samples and the obtained results suggested the selectivity, stability and reproducibility of the modified electrode.


Assuntos
Carbono , Fenantrenos , Carbono/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Eletrodos , Antracenos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121889, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150260

RESUMO

Here in, we demonstrate a selective detection of Ag+ ion by the anthracene-based schiff base sensor AMC. The recognition event among sensor AMC and Ag+ ion was investigated by enhanced absorption band, red-shifted quenched emission spectra, electrochemical studies and DFT computational studies. The presence of Ag+ ion to solution of AMC quenched almost 50 % emission intensity of the ligand band. Data from high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS), Ag+ titrations, and Job's plot studies all show that Ag+ binds to AMC in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio.The quantitative parameters of sensor for silver ion are determined as the limit of detection (LOD) 5.95 × 10-7 M, and limit of quantitation (LOQ) 1.98 × 10-8 M in the linear range 3.48-20.31 × 10-6 M with good association affinity of 5.030 × 103 M-1. LMCT phenomenon from insilico studies, is in good agreement with the results obtained from other performed spectroscopic techniques. In addition, this sensor AMC was also successfully applied to real water samples for the identification and measurement of Ag+ ions.


Assuntos
Bases de Schiff , Prata , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Prata/química , Bases de Schiff/química , Limite de Detecção , Íons , Antracenos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 286: 122020, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323087

RESUMO

Barbaloin (10-glucopyranosyl-1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-9(10H)-anthraquinone: aloin A), present in Aloe species, is widely used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Here we characterize its optical absorption and emission spectra in aqueous solution at different pH values. Through pH titration, using both absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, two pKa values for Barbaloin were determined: pKa1=9.6±0.6 and pKa2=12.6±0.8. These acidity constants were found to be higher than those found for Emodin, a similar molecule which lacks the sugar moiety present in Barbaloin. Performing quantum mechanical calculations for non-ionized, singly, doubly, and triply deprotonated forms of Barbaloin in vacuum and in water, we assigned the positions of the site for the first and third deprotonation in the anthraquinone group, and the second deprotonation in the glucose group. The instability of Barbaloin in high pH solutions is discussed here, and the optical absorption and fluorescence spectra due to products resulted from Barbaloin degradation at high pH is well separated from the Barbaloin original spectra. Biological fluids have specific pH values to maintain homeostasis, hence determining the pKa of Barbaloin is important to evaluate the mechanism of action of this drug in different parts of an organism as well as to predict pharmacological relevant parameters, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Antraquinonas , Antracenos/química , Antraquinonas/química , Água
4.
Se Pu ; 40(11): 1022-1030, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351811

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most harmful persistent organic pollutants that possess high carcinogenicity and teratogenicity; hence, establishing a highly sensitive analytical method for monitoring PAHs in environmental samples is an urgent need. However, due to the low PAHs content in environmental samples and the complex matrix of the samples, it is difficult to directly determine the amount of PAHs using the existing analytical instruments. Therefore, an essential pretreatment of environmental samples should be carried out before instrumental analysis. In most pretreatment techniques, the extraction efficiency depends on the characteristics of the extraction materials. Currently, metal-organic framework materials (MOFs), which are porous materials self-assembled by metal ions and organic ligands, are used as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating materials for the extraction of PAHs. However, the following problems limit the application of MOFs in the SPME field: (1) MOF coating materials often require a long equilibration time for extraction because the it is difficult for the target to reach the deep adsorption sites; (2) In addition, most MOFs are formed by the coordination of single metal ions with organic monomers. The single type of open metal active sites is not conducive for realizing high extraction performance. In this study, a hollow bimetal-organic framework (H-BiMOF) was synthesized by the solvothermal method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, etc. The TEM images and XRD patterns demonstrated the successful synthesis of H-BiMOF with a hollow structure, which was formed through the competitive coordination between benzoic acid and water. The H-BiMOF material showed type-Ⅳ isotherms with a surface area of 1437 m2/g and excellent thermal stability. Subsequently, a H-BiMOF-coated SPME fiber was prepared by the physical adhesion method and used to extract trace PAHs from environmental samples. Due to the hollow structure of H-BiMOF, the prepared fibers offer the advantages of high utilization of specific surface area as well as short mass transfer distance, so that the extraction process quickly reaches equilibrium. At the same time, the introduction of bimetals provides a variety of metal active sites, which improves the extraction efficiency of the fiber against electron-rich cloud targets such as PAHs. The prepared fiber also had good service life, with at least 150 cycles. Combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), a new method for the determination of PAHs in environmental water samples was established. Single factor experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the SPME conditions on the analytical performance. Under the optimal conditions, the established method showed low limits of detection (0.01-0.08 ng/L), wide linear range (0.03-500.0 ng/L), good linearity (correlation coefficients≥0.9986), and acceptable reproducibility (relative standard deviations≤9.8%, n=5). Finally, typical water samples were analyzed by the established method. Four environmental water samples were collected from Dianchi Lake, Poyang Lake, Taihu Lake, and Xihu Lake in China. No benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and chrysene (CHR) were detected in any of the water samples. However, 17.9 ng/L of fluorene (FLU) and 5.3 ng/L of phenanthrene (PHE) were found in the Poyang Lake sample; 11.3 ng/L of fluoranthene (FLA) and 24.2 ng/L of pyrene (PYR) were found in the Taihu Lake sample; 50.0 ng/L of FLU, 19.5 ng/L of PHE, 14.9 ng/L of anthracene (ANT), 34.2 ng/L of FLA, and 44.5 ng/L of PYR were found in the Xihu Lake sample. The contents of the PAHs detected in all the lake water samples were lower than the Chinese National Standard GB 5749-2006 (2000.0 ng/L). The results of this study indicate that the developed method is suitable for the sensitive detection of trace levels of PAHs in real environmental water samples.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Limite de Detecção , Metais , Água , Antracenos/análise
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(45): 20752-20762, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331386

RESUMO

The strong C-H bond activation of hydrocarbons is a difficult reaction in environmental and biological chemistry. Herein, a high-valent manganese(IV)-hydroxo complex, [MnIV(CHDAP-O)(OH)]2+ (2), was synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical measurements, such as ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and helium-tagging infrared photodissociation (IRPD) methods. The one-electron reduction potential (Ered) of 2 was determined to be 0.93 V vs SCE by redox titration. 2 is formed via a transient green species assigned to a manganese(IV)-bis(hydroxo) complex, [MnIV(CHDAP)(OH)2]2+ (2'), which performs intramolecular aliphatic C-H bond activation. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value of 4.8 in the intramolecular oxidation was observed, which indicates that the C-H bond activation occurs via rate-determining hydrogen atom abstraction. Further, complex 2 can activate the C-H bonds of aromatic compounds, anthracene and its derivatives, under mild conditions. The KIE value of 1.0 was obtained in the oxidation of anthracene. The rate constant (ket) of electron transfer (ET) from N,N'-dimethylaniline derivatives to 2 is fitted by Marcus theory of electron transfer to afford the reorganization energy of ET (λ = 1.59 eV). The driving force dependence of log ket for oxidation of anthracene derivatives by 2 is well evaluated by Marcus theory of electron transfer. Detailed kinetic studies, including the KIE value and Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer, imply that the mechanism of aromatic C-H bond hydroxylation by 2 proceeds via the rate-determining electron-transfer pathway.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Manganês , Manganês/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Hidrogênio/química , Antracenos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232327

RESUMO

The structure-property correlations and control of electronic excited states in transition metal complexes (TMCs) are of high significance for TMC-based functional material development. Within these studies, a series of Re(I) carbonyl complexes with aryl-substituted 2,6-di(thiazol-2-yl)pyridines (Arn-dtpy) was synthesized, and their ground- and excited-state properties were investigated. A number of condensed aromatic rings, which function as the linking mode of the aryl substituent, play a fundamental role in controlling photophysics of the resulting [ReCl(CO)3(Arn-dtpy-κ2N)]. Photoexcitation of [ReCl(CO)3(Arn-dtpy-κ2N)] with 1-naphthyl-, 2-naphthyl-, 9-phenanthrenyl leads to the population of 3MLCT. The lowest triplet state of Re(I) chromophores bearing 9-anthryl, 2-anthryl, 1-pyrenyl groups is ligand localized. The rhenium(I) complex with appended 1-pyrenyl group features long-lived room temperature emission attributed to the equilibrium between 3MLCT and 3IL/3ILCT. The excited-state dynamics in complexes [ReCl(CO)3(9-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] and [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] is strongly dependent on the electronic coupling between anthracene and {ReCl(CO)3(dtpy-κ2N)}. Less steric hindrance between the chromophores in [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] is responsible for the faster formation of 3IL/3ILCT and larger contribution of 3ILCTanthracene→dtpy in relation to the isomeric complex [ReCl(CO)3(9-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)]. In agreement with stronger electronic communication between the aryl and Re(I) coordination centre, [ReCl(CO)3(2-anthryl-dtpy-κ2N)] displays room-temperature emission contributed to by 3MLCT and 3ILanthracene/3ILCTanthracene→dtpy phosphorescence. The latter presents rarely observed phenomena in luminescent metal complexes.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Rênio , Antracenos , Ligantes , Piridinas
7.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235001

RESUMO

In this paper, a new aqueous two-phase extraction system(ATPES) consisting of UCON (poly(ethylene glycol-ran-propylene glycol) monobutyl ether)-NaH2PO4 was established, and four trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: fluorene, anthracene, pyrene and phenanthrene) in water and soil were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet detection. In the multi-factor experiment, the central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum technological conditions. The final optimal conditions were as follows: the concentration of UCON was 0.45 g·mL-1, the concentration of NaH2PO4 was 3.5 mol·L-1, and the temperature was 30 °C. The recovery of the four targets was 98.91-99.84% with a relative standard deviation of 0.3-2.1%. Then UCON recycling and cyclic tests were designed in the experiment, and the results showed that the recovery of PAHs gradually increased in the three extractions because of the remaining PAHs in the salt phase of last extraction. The recovery of PAHs in the UCON recycling test was less than that in the extraction test due to the wastage of UCON. In addition, a two-phase aqueous extraction model was established based on the random forest (RF) model. The results obtained were compared with the experimental data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 0.0371-0.0514 and the correlation coefficient R2 was 96.20-98.53%, proving that the model is robust and reliable.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antracenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Éteres , Etilenoglicóis , Fluorenos , Fenantrenos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Propilenoglicóis , Pirenos , Solo , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294191

RESUMO

Landfill fires pose a real threat to the environment as they cause the migration of pollutants to the atmosphere and water sources. A greater risk is observed in the case of wild landfills, which do not have adequate isolation from the ground. The aim of this article is to present the results of studies on the toxicity of waste from a fire in a landfill in Trzebinia (southern Poland). Both soil and waste samples were investigated. The samples were analyzed using the GC-MS method and the leachates using ICP-OES. A total of 32 samples of incinerated waste and soil were collected. The organic compounds included naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo (c) phenanthrene, benzo (a) anthracene, chrysene, benzo (ghi) fluoranthene, benzo (b + k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) fluoranthene, benzo (c) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (e) pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene, benzo (ghi) perylene, and dibenzo (a + h) anthracene. Among the inorganic parameters, sulfates, chlorides, arsenic, boron, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were taken into account. Phenanthrene reached values exceeding 33 mg/L. Fluoranthene dominated in most of the samples. Sulfates and chlorides were present in the samples in concentrations exceeding 400 and 50 mg/L, respectively. Compounds contained in burnt waste may have a negative impact on soil and water health safety. Therefore, it is important to conduct research and counteract the negative effects of waste fires.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Ambientais , Perileno , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Acenaftenos , Crisenos , Polônia , Cádmio , Cobre , Boro , Fluorenos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Pirenos , Benzo(a)pireno , Água , Solo , Antracenos , Sulfatos , Zinco
9.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296439

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoal Leishmania parasites. Previous studies have shown that endoperoxides (EP) can selectively kill Leishmania in host cells. Therefore, we studied in this work a set of new anthracene-derived EP (AcEP) together with their non-endoperoxidic analogs in model systems of Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP) and J774 macrophages for their antileishmanial activity and selectivity. The mechanism of effective compounds was explored by studying their reaction with iron (II) in chemical systems and in Leishmania. The correlation of structural parameters with activity demonstrated that in this compound set, active compounds had a LogPOW larger than 3.5 and a polar surface area smaller than 100 Å2. The most effective compounds (IC50 in LtP < 2 µM) with the highest selectivity (SI > 30) were pyridyl-/tert-butyl-substituted AcEP. Interestingly, also their analogs demonstrated activity and selectivity. In mechanistic studies, it was shown that EP were activated by iron in chemical systems and in LtP due to their EP group. However, the molecular structure beyond the EP group significantly contributed to their differential mitochondrial inhibition in Leishmania. The identified compound pairs are a good starting point for subsequent experiments in pathogenic Leishmania in vitro and in animal models.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Antracenos/farmacologia , Ferro/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296506

RESUMO

Smoked cheeses are particularly popular among consumers for their flavor and aroma. Of interest, therefore, is the health aspect related to the likelihood of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens found in smoked products. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked and non-smoked cheeses purchased in Poland to monitor their safety. The level of selected PAHs in cheese samples was determined using the HPLC-DAD-FLD method. Most of the cheeses tested met the maximum level of benzo[a]pyrene (2 µg/kg) and the sum of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene (12 µg/kg) established for these products. However, all the cheeses studied in this work had relatively low amounts of the sum of these compounds compared to the information available in the cheese literature, ranging from <LOD to 24.5 µg/kg. This amount does not pose a health risk to consumers. The predominant PAHs found were naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and acenaphthene. Benzo[a]pyrene, the marker compound representing carcinogenic PAHs, was found in 100% and 0% of Polish smoked and non-smoked cheeses, respectively. Although there are currently no regulations for smoked cheeses and maximum concentrations of PAHs in this type of food product, control of PAHs content in cheeses is important due to the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of these chemicals.


Assuntos
Queijo , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Crisenos , Fumaça , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Polônia , Acenaftenos , Fluorenos , Carcinógenos , Antracenos
11.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 42(9): 1317-1323, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of Jiangtang Sanhuang tablet (JTSHT) for regulating blood glucose and alleviating islet cell damage in db/db mice and its protective effects against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and autophagy induced by glycolipid toxicity. METHODS: Forty db/db mice were randomized into 4 groups for daily intragastric administration of saline, JTSHT of 2.64 and 1.32 g/kg, and metformin at 0.225g/kg for 8 weeks, using 10 C57BL/6J mice as the normal control. After the treatments, the metabolic indexes of the mice were measured, and morphological changes of the islet cells were observed. A mouse islet cell line (MIN6) was exposed to high glucose (22 mmol/L glucose) and 0.1 mmol/L palmitic acid, followed by treatment with the sera from JTSHT- or saline- treated SD rats, alone or in combination with SP600125, and the changes in cell apoptosis, ERS and autophagy were evaluated using flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: In db/db mice, treatment with JTSHT significantly improved glucose and lipid metabolism (P < 0.05) and suppressed progressive weight gain (P < 0.05) without significant effect on drinking water volume (P > 0.05). JTSHT was also found to promote repair of islet cell injuries. In the cell experiments, high glucose exposure significantly increased apoptosis rate of MIN6 cells (P < 0.05), which was obviously lowered by treatment with JTSHT-treated rat serum (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that JTSHT significantly reduced the level of ERS and autophagy caused by glycolipid toxicity in MIN6 cells (P < 0.05). Interference with ERS using SP600125 significantly attenuated the protective effect of JTSHT against MIN6 cell injury, apoptosis and autophagy induced by glycolipid toxicity (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: JTSHT has protective effects against glycolipid toxicity in MIN6 cells possibly by inhibiting ERS and autophagy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Água Potável , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Metformina , Animais , Antracenos , Apoptose , Autofagia , Glicemia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glucose/farmacologia , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Comprimidos/farmacologia
12.
Virology ; 576: 96-104, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206607

RESUMO

Select protease inhibitors (PI) have been found to be effective in decreasing human papillomavirus oncoprotein expression. This study evaluated whether the topical PI, Saquinavir (SQV), promotes viral clearance in an infectious mouse model with Mus musculus papillomavirus 1 (MmuPV1). NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice were anally infected with ∼4 × 108 viral genome equivalents of MmuPV1 and 120 days post-infection (when majority have high-grade anal dysplasia), began topical treatments: control (mock), 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) only, once weekly to promote carcinogenesis, 1% SQV only, daily (Monday - Friday), and SQV + DMBA. Viral MmuPV1 load was analyzed from anal lavages pre and post-treatment. Anal tissue was harvested, processed, and evaluated for drug absorption, grade of anal disease, and anal viral RNA. Results suggest that topical SQV promotes decreased viral shedding in female mice treated with SQV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inibidores da Protease de HIV , Viroses , Feminino , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Saquinavir/farmacologia , Saquinavir/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral , Carga Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Antracenos
13.
Se Pu ; 40(10): 889-899, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222252

RESUMO

Many solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbents have been developed from aerogels because of their low densities, large surface areas, and high porosities. Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogel, made from melamine and formaldehyde by a sol-gel reaction, is one of the typical organic aerogels. MF aerogel has better mechanical strength, chemical stability and extraction performance than inorganic aerogels. The performance of the aerogel is limited in some fields, while composite aerogels can meet different requirements such as good mechanical strength and strong adsorption performance. Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional nanomaterial composed of a single layer of carbon atoms and provides π-π interaction by a large π-electron. In addition, the oxygen-containing groups at the edge of the lamellar structure improve the hydrophilicity of the material and can interact with various compounds. To improve the extraction performance of MF aerogel for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), GO/MF aerogels were prepared by functionalizing MF aerogel with GO. In this study, 1.2612 g of melamine and 80 mg of sodium carbonate were dissolved in 30 mL of water, and the mixture was heated to 80 ℃ under stirring. Then, 2.8 mL formaldehyde solution (37%) was slowly added, and a clear solution was obtained gradually. Next, 50 mg of GO powder was ultrasonically dispersed in 10.0 mL of water and evenly mixed with the above solution. After adjusting the pH to 1.5, the sol-gel process was performed for 48 h, then the gel was aged at room temperature for 24 h. The gel was then soaked in ethanol, acetone, and cyclohexane in turn to replace the solvent. Finally, the GO/MF aerogel was obtained by freeze-drying for 24 h. The GO/MF aerogel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), confirming that GO was successfully introduced into MF aerogel, while retaining its three-dimensional network and porous structure. GO/MF aerogel was coated onto the surface of a stainless steel wire to be used as sorbent. Four such wires were placed into a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tube (0.75 mm i. d., 30 cm length) for in-tube (IT) SPME. The tube was combined with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit to construct an IT-SPME-HPLC online system. When the six-way valve was in the Load state, sample solution achieved online enrichment with analytes while it flowed through the extraction tube. After extraction, the valve was turned to the Inject state, and the analytes were eluted into the chromatographic column by the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min for separation and detection with the detector. Under the same extraction conditions (sampling volume=30 mL, sampling rate=1.00 mL/min, and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), acenaphthene (Ace), fluorine (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fla) and pyrene (Pyr))=5.00 µg/L), GO/MF aerogel-based tube was compared with that of MF aerogel-based tube. GO enhanced the enrichment efficiency of MF aerogel towards PAHs from 1.1 to 2.5 times, due to the increased number of adsorption sites and enhanced π-π interaction with PAHs. IT-SPME was affected by the sampling volume, sampling rate, concentration of organic solvent in sample, desorption solvent, desorption rate, and desorption time. To obtain accurate results, the main extraction and desorption conditions (sampling volume, sampling rate, organic solvent concentration, desorption time) were investigated carefully. As the sampling volume in the extraction tube was increased, the extraction efficiency was found to increase gradually until saturation. In this study, the extraction efficiency was investigated for sampling volumes ranging from 30 to 80 mL, and 70 mL was selected as a suitable sampling volume to achieve satisfactory extraction efficiency. The sampling rate affects not only the extraction efficiency, but also the extraction time. When the sample flows through the extraction tube at a low rate, it requires a long test time. Although the increase in sampling rate reduces the extraction time, it often decreases extraction efficiency. In addition, large sampling rate leads to high pressure in the tube, which in turn reduces the service life of the tube. Therefore, the effect of sampling rate (1.25-2.50 mL/min) on extraction efficiency was investigated, and good extraction efficiency and short test time were achieved when the sampling rate was 2 mL/min. High hydrophobic PAHs have poor solubility in water. An appropriate amount of organic solvent in the sample solution can improve the solubility of PAHs to obtain accurate analytical results. However, the extraction efficiency was affected by the added organic solvent. Thus, the effect of volume fraction of methanol (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%, v/v) on the extraction efficiency was investigated. The sample solution without methanol afforded better extraction efficiency and satisfactory repeatability. After online extraction, the desorption directly affects the desorption efficiency. The peak areas of the eight PAHs were investigated with different desorption times (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0 min), and a desorption time of 2.0 min was required to fully desorb all analytes and reduce their residuals. The IT-SPME-HPLC-DAD method was established under the optimized conditions, and the limits of detection (LODs), linear equations, linear ranges, and correlation coefficients were obtained. The LODs of the eight PAHs were in the range of 0.001-0.005 µg/L, the quantitative ranges of the analytes were 0.003-15.0 µg/L for Fla and Pyr, 0.010-20.0 µg/L for Phe and Ant, and 0.017-20.0 µg/L for Nap, Acy, Ace and Flu, the enrichment factors were in the range of 2029-2875, and the analytical precision was satisfactory (intra-day RSD%≤4.8%, and inter-day RSD≤8.6%). Compared with some reported methods, the method reported herein provided higher sensitivity, wider linear range, and shorter test time. This method was applied to the detection of PAHs in common drinking water, including bottled mineral water and water from drinking fountain. The satisfactory recovery (76.3%-132.8%) obtained proves that the method is suitable for the determination of trace PAHs in real water samples, with high sensitivity, rapid testing, online detection, and good accuracy. The extraction tube also exhibited satisfactory durability and chemical stability.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Grafite , Águas Minerais , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Acenaftenos/análise , Acetona/análise , Antracenos/análise , Cicloexanos/análise , Água Potável/análise , Etanol/análise , Flúor/análise , Formaldeído/análise , Grafite/análise , Metanol/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fenantrenos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pós , Pirenos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/análise , Aço Inoxidável/análise , Triazinas
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(41): 18908-18917, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194812

RESUMO

B-N-fused dianthracenylpyrazine derivatives are synthesized to generate new low gap chromophores. Photophysical and electrochemical, crystal packing, and theoretical studies have been performed. Two energetically similar conformers are identified by density functional theory calculations, showing that the core unit adopts a curved saddle-like shape (x-isomer) or a zig-zag conformation (z-isomer). In the solid state, the z-isomer is prevalent according to an X-ray crystal structure of a C6F5-substituted derivative (4-Pf), but variable-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest a dynamic behavior in solution. B-N fusion results in a large decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap and dramatically lowers the LUMO energy compared to the all-carbon analogues. 4-Pf in particular shows significant absorbance at greater than 700 nm while being almost transparent throughout the visible region. After encapsulation in the biodegradable polymer DSPE-mPEG2000, 4-Pf nanoparticles (4-Pf-NPs) exhibit good water solubility, high photostability, and an excellent photothermal conversion efficiency of ∼41.8%. 4-Pf-NPs are evaluated both in vitro and in vivo as photothermal therapeutic agents. These results uncover B-N Lewis pair functionalization of PAHs as a promising strategy toward new NIR-absorbing materials for photothermal applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antracenos , Isomerismo , Polímeros/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrônica , Carbono , Água , Fototerapia
15.
Dalton Trans ; 51(41): 15659-15668, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222417

RESUMO

The photophysical properties of the anthracene appended koneramines (LAn) were analyzed and utilized as a chemosensor for the selective detection of Cd2+ and Zn2+. The complexation-induced inhibition of PET (photo-induced electron transfer) from the chelating nitrogen atoms to the excited state of the anthracene moiety resulted in a fluorescence "turn-on" signal upon binding with Cd2+ and Zn2+. The confocal microscopic imaging studies performed on the MCF-7 cells validated that the compound is potentially useful for detecting Cd2+ and Zn2+ inside the cells. The cadmium complex exhibited unique bactericidal activity against clinically relevant human pathogens. The excellent activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus makes the complex useful as a new, easily synthesizable antibiotic. The cadmium complex LAnCdCl2 was not cytotoxic against vero cells with a selectivity index of 40, exhibited concentration dependent bactericidal killing, was non-interactive with several other clinically approved standard drugs, exhibited prolonged post-antibiotic effect (PAE) against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and possesses antibiofilm activity.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Humanos , Cádmio/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Zinco/química , Células Vero , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antracenos , Nitrogênio
16.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144677

RESUMO

Polyacrylamide hydrogels formed by free radical polymerisation were formed by entrapping anthracene and 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide fluorescent logic gates based on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and/or internal charge transfer (ICT). The non-covalent immobilisation of the molecules in the hydrogels resulted in semi-solid YES, NOT, and AND logic gates. Two molecular AND gates, examples of Pourbaix sensors, were tested in acidic aqueous methanol with ammonium persulfate, a strong oxidant, and displayed greater fluorescence quantum yields than previously reported. The logic hydrogels were exposed to aqueous solutions with chemical inputs, and the fluorescence output response was viewed under 365 nm UV light. All of the molecular logic gates diffuse out of the hydrogels to some extent when placed in solution, particularly those with secondary basic amines. The study exemplifies an effort of taking molecular logic gates from homogeneous solutions into the realm of solid-solution environments. We demonstrate the use of Pourbaix sensors as pE-pH indicators for monitoring oxidative and acidic conditions, notably for excess ammonium persulfate, a reagent used in the polymerisation of SDS-polyacrylamide gels.


Assuntos
Corantes , Metanol , Resinas Acrílicas , Aminas , Sulfato de Amônio , Antracenos , Hidrogéis/química , Oxidantes
17.
Inorg Chem ; 61(37): 14544-14552, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050901

RESUMO

Molecular oxygen (O2) remains to be an ideal yet underutilized feedstock for the oxidative transformation of organic substrates and renewable energy systems such as fuel cells. Palladium (Pd) has shown particular promise in enabling these applications. The present study describes a Pd-mediated O2 reduction to water via C-H activation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) by a Pd(II) η2-peroxo complex 1O2. The reaction yields stoichiometric anthracene and Pd(0) product 1 and is notable in two respects. First, plots of concentrations of the reaction participants over time have distinctly sigmoidal shapes, indicating that conversion accelerates over time and implying autocatalysis. Second, the reaction proceeds via a genuine monometallic Pd(II) dihydroxide 1(OH)2 directly observed to grow and decay as an intermediate. Confirming its role as an intermediate, the dihydroxide 1(OH)2 was found to mediate C-H oxidation of DHA on par in activity with the peroxo compound 1O2. Mechanistic studies with density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggested that both 1O2 and 1(OH)2 react with DHA by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and that autocatalysis in the 1O2 reaction results from oxidative addition of the initial Pd(II) complex 1O2 to the Pd(0) product 1. This reaction forms a transient bis(µ-oxo) Pd(II) dimer 1O21 that is more active in the HAT oxidation of DHA than the initial 1O2.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Paládio , Antracenos/química , Humanos , Hidrogênio/química , Oxigênio/química , Paládio/química , Água
18.
Dalton Trans ; 51(39): 14858-14864, 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125074

RESUMO

A terbium-based metal-organic framework, namely {[Tb2(ADIP)(H2ADIP)(HCOOH)(H2O)2]·2DMF·2H2O}n (Tb-MOF, H4ADIP = 5,5'-(anthracene-9,10-diyl) diisophthalic acid), was synthesized and characterized. The single-crystal structure analysis shows that the Tb-MOF crystallizes in the C2/C space group in the monoclinic system and its asymmetric unit contains two TbIII ions, one ADIP4-, one H2ADIP2-, one coordinating formic acid and two coordination water molecules. Tb-MOF has a three-dimensional porous structure with a porosity of 41.5%. Tb-MOF is a highly selective and sensitive fluorescence turn-on and blue-shift sensor for L-aspartate (Asp), L-glutamine (Glu), Al3+ and Ga3+with detection limits of 0.25, 0.23, 0.069 and 0.079 µM, respectively. Experimental studies and theoretical calculations show that the sensing process is mainly attributed to the energy transfer and the absorbance caused enhancement (ACE) mechanism. Therefore, Tb-MOF is a good multi-response fluorescence sensor for acidic amino acids and Al3+, Ga3+cations.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Térbio , Aminoácidos Acídicos , Antracenos , Ácido Aspártico , Cátions , Formiatos , Glutamina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Térbio/química , Água
19.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114185, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049506

RESUMO

The impacts of crude oil contamination on soil microbial populations were explored in seven different polluted areas near oil and gas drilling sites and refineries of Assam, India. Using high-throughput sequencing techniques, the functional genes and metabolic pathways involved in the bioconversion of crude oil contaminants by the indigenous microbial community were explored. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in soil samples ranged from 1109.47 to 75,725.33 mg/kg, while total polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations ranged from 0.780 to 560.05 mg/kg. Pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene had greater quantities than the maximum permitted limits, suggesting a greater ecological risk, in comparison to other polyaromatic hydrocarbons. According to the metagenomic data analysis, the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroides were the most prevalent among all polluted areas. The most prominent hydrocarbon degraders in the contaminated sites included Burkholderia, Mycobacterium, Polaromonas, and Pseudomonas. However, the kinds of pollutants and their concentrations did not correlate with the abundances of respective degrading genes for all polluted locations, as some of the sites with little to low PAH contamination had significant abundances of corresponding functional genes for degradation. Thus, the findings of this study imply that the microbiome of hydrocarbon-contaminated areas, which are biologically involved in the degradation process, has various genes, operons and catabolic pathways that are independent of the presence of a specific kind of contaminant.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Petróleo , Fenantrenos , Poluentes do Solo , Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Naftalenos/análise , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Petróleo/análise , Fenantrenos/análise , Pirenos/metabolismo , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(35): 20901-20912, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047252

RESUMO

Herein, a series of compact anthracene carboxyimide (ACI) based donor-acceptor dyads were prepared by substituting bulky aryl moieties with various electron-donating ability to study the triplet-excited state properties. The ISC mechanism and triplet yield of the dyads were successfully tuned via structural manipulation. Efficient ISC (ΦΔ ≈ 99%) and long-lived triplet state (τT ≈ 122 µs) was observed for the orthogonal anthracene-labeled ACI derivative compared to the Ph-ACI and NP-ACI dyads, which showed fast triplet state decay (τT ≈ 7.7 µs). Femtosecond transient absorption study demonstrated the ultrafast charge separation (CS) and efficient charge recombination (CR) in the orthogonal dyads and ISC occurring via spin-orbit charge transfer (SOCT) mechanism (AN-ACI: τCS = 355 fs, τCR = 2.41 ns; PY-ACI: τCS = 321 fs, τCR = 1.61 ns), while in Ph-ACI and NP-ACI dyads triplet populate following the normal ISC channel (nπ* → ππ* transition), no CS was observed. We found that the attachment of suitable aryl donor moiety (AN- or PY-) to the ACI core can ensure the insertion of the intermediate triplet state, resulting in a small energy gap among charge separated state (CSS) and triplet state, which leads to efficient ISC in these derivatives. The SOCT-ISC-based AN-ACI dyad was confirmed to be a potent photodynamic therapeutic reagent; an ultra-low IC50 value (0.27 nM) that was nearly 214 times lower than that of the commercial Rose Bengal photosensitizer (57.8 nM) was observed.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Antracenos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia
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