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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732141

RESUMO

Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which no curative therapies are yet available. Indeed, no single medication or intervention has proven fully effective thus far. Therefore, the combination of multitarget agents has been appealing as a potential therapeutic approach against FAD. Here, we investigated the potential of combining tramiprosate (TM), curcumin (CU), and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP) as a treatment for FAD. The study analyzed the individual and combined effects of these two natural agents and this pharmacological inhibitor on the accumulation of intracellular amyloid beta iAß; hyperphosphorylated protein TAU at Ser202/Thr205; mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); oxidized protein DJ-1; proapoptosis proteins p-c-JUN at Ser63/Ser73, TP53, and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3); and deficiency in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced transient Ca2+ influx response in cholinergic-like neurons (ChLNs) bearing the mutation I416T in presenilin 1 (PSEN1 I416T). We found that single doses of TM (50 µM), CU (10 µM), or SP (1 µM) were efficient at reducing some, but not all, pathological markers in PSEN 1 I416T ChLNs, whereas a combination of TM, CU, and SP at a high (50, 10, 1 µM) concentration was efficient in diminishing the iAß, p-TAU Ser202/Thr205, DJ-1Cys106-SO3, and CC3 markers by -50%, -75%, -86%, and -100%, respectively, in PSEN1 I417T ChLNs. Although combinations at middle (10, 2, 0.2) and low (5, 1, 0.1) concentrations significantly diminished p-TAU Ser202/Thr205, DJ-1Cys106-SO3, and CC3 by -69% and -38%, -100% and -62%, -100% and -62%, respectively, these combinations did not alter the iAß compared to untreated mutant ChLNs. Moreover, a combination of reagents at H concentration was able to restore the dysfunctional ACh-induced Ca2+ influx response in PSEN 1 I416T. Our data suggest that the use of multitarget agents in combination with anti-amyloid (TM, CU), antioxidant (e.g., CU), and antiapoptotic (TM, CU, SP) actions might be beneficial for reducing iAß-induced ChLN damage in FAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Antracenos , Curcumina , Presenilina-1 , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Antracenos/farmacologia , Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134386, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663297

RESUMO

Anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a widespread environmental pollutant that poses potential risks to human health. Exposure to anthracene can result in various adverse health effects, including skin-related disorders. Photo exposure sufficiently removes the anthracene from the environment but also generates more degradation products which can be more toxic. The goal of this study was to assess the change in anthracene dermotoxicity caused by photodegradation and understand the mechanism of this change. In the present study, over 99.99% of anthracene was degraded within 24 h of sunlight exposure, while producing many intermediate products including 9,10-anthraquinone and phthalic acid. The anthracene products with different durations of photo exposure were applied to 2D and 3D human keratinocyte cultures. Although the non-degraded anthracene significantly delayed the cell migration, the cell viability and differentiation decreased dramatically in the presence of the photodegraded anthracene. Anthracene photodegradation products also altered the expression patterns of a number of inflammation-related genes in comparison to the control cells. Among these genes, il1a, il1b, il8, cxcl2, s100a9, and mmp1 were upregulated whereas the tlr4 and mmp3 were downregulated by the photodegraded anthracene. Topical deliveries of the photodegraded and non-degraded anthracene to the dorsal skin of hairless mice showed more toxic effects by the photodegraded anthracene. The 4-hour photodegradation products of anthracene thickened the epidermal layer, increased the dermal cellularity, and induced the upregulation of inflammatory markers, il1a, il1b, s100a9, and mmp1. In addition, it also prevented the production of a gap junction protein, Connexin-43. All the evidence suggested that photodegradation enhanced the toxicities of anthracene to the skin. The 4-hour photodegradation products of anthracene led to clinical signs similar to acute inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis. Therefore, the potential risk of skin irritation by anthracene should be also considered when an individual is exposed to PAHs, especially in environments with strong sunlight.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Queratinócitos , Fotólise , Pele , Antracenos/toxicidade , Antracenos/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz Solar , Camundongos Pelados , Antraquinonas/toxicidade , Antraquinonas/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 981-988, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621905

RESUMO

The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker(QAMS) was established for 13 chemical components of Epimedii Folium, including neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ, so as to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of this method in evaluating the quality of Epimedii Folium materials from different origins and different varieties. Through the scientific and accurate investigation of the experimental method, the external standard method was used to determine the content of 13 chemical components in epimedium brevieornu. At the same time, icariin was used as the internal standard, and the relative correction factors of icariin with neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ were established, respectively. The contens of neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuosideⅠ in Epimedii Folium were calculated by QAMS. Finally, the difference between the measured value and the calculated value was compared to verify the accuracy and scientific nature of QAMS in the determination. The relative correction factor of each component had better repeatability, and there was no significant difference between the results of the external standard method and those of QAMS. With icariin as the internal standard, QAMS simultaneously determining neoglycolic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryo-chlorogenic acid, magnolidine, hypericin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside Ⅱ, sagittatoside A, icariin subside Ⅰ, and baohuoside Ⅰ can be used for quantitative analysis of Epimedii Folium.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácido Clorogênico , Flavonoides/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Epimedium/química
4.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 40-48, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the cytotoxic effect of a menthol-favored E-liquid on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), as well as the underlying mechanism of electronic cigarette (E-cig)-induced cell apoptosis. METHODS: PDLSCs were isolated and cultured from periodontal ligament tissues of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cells in passage 3 were used to detect the surface markers of stem cells by flow cytometry. Then the cells were exposed to different doses of menthol-favored E-liquid (at 59 mg/L nicotine concentration) in the culture median (the final nicotine concentrations were 0.1 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively) for different period of times (24, 48 and 72 h). The cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry (7-AAD and Annexin V staining) and TUNEL assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected with fluorescence probe DCFH-DA by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein expression levels associated with ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis(p-JNK, JNK, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved-caspase 3) were analyzed by Western blot. Immunocytofluorescense staining was applied to evaluate the expression level of p-JNK. After addition of NAC, a ROS scavenger, and MAPK/JNK specific blocker SP600125, their effects on E-cig-induced cell apoptosis were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with Graph Pad 5.0 software package. RESULTS: Human PDLSCs were successfully isolated and cultured and flow cytometry assay showed the mesenchymal stem cell surface biomarkers (CD73, CD90 and CD105) were positively expressed. CCK8 assay indicated cell viability was significantly(P<0.001) different among all concentration groups at various time points (24, 48 or 72 h), and the difference in apoptosis rate among all concentration groups was also statistically significant (P<0.001). After exposure to E-liquid with nicotine concentration ≥50 µg/mL, cell viability was significantly reduced, and the proportion of apoptotic cells and the cellular ROS level was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner as compared with the control group(0.0 mg/mL). Western blot assay showed E-cig exposure could promote MAPK/JNK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Either NAC or SP600125 could partially rescue the E-cig-induced cell apoptosis via reversing up-regulation of p-JNK and cleaved caspase 3. CONCLUSIONS: ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis is involved in menthol-favored E-liquid-induced apoptosis of hPDLSCs.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 3/farmacologia , Mentol/farmacologia , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Apoptose , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(3)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530134

RESUMO

Introduction. Cryptococcal biofilms have been associated with persistent infections and antifungal resistance. Therefore, strategies, such as the association of natural compounds and antifungal drugs, have been applied for the prevention of biofilm growth. Moreover, the Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenicity model has been used to investigate the capacity to inhibit the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto.Hypothesis. Anthraquinones and antifungals are associated with preventing C. neoformans sensu stricto biofilm formation and disrupting these communities. Antraquinones reduced the C. neoformans sensu stricto pathogenicity in the C. elegans model.Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro interaction between aloe emodin, barbaloin or chrysophanol and itraconazole or amphotericin B against growing and mature biofilms of C. neoformans sensu stricto.Methodology. Compounds and antifungal drugs were added during biofilm formation or after 72 h of growth. Then, the metabolic activity was evaluated by the MTT reduction assay, the biomass by crystal-violet staining and the biofilm morphology by confocal laser scanning microscopy. C. neoformans sensu stricto's pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Finally, pathogenicity inhibition by aloe emodin, barbarloin and chrysophanol was investigated using this model.Results. Anthraquinone-antifungal combinations affected the development of biofilms with a reduction of over 60 % in metabolic activity and above 50 % in biomass. Aloe emodin and barbaloin increased the anti-biofilm activity of antifungal drugs. Chrysophanol potentiated the effect of itraconazole against C. neoformans sensu stricto biofilms. The C. elegans mortality rate reached 76.7 % after the worms were exposed to C. neoformans sensu stricto for 96 h. Aloe emodin, barbaloin and chrysophanol reduced the C. elegans pathogenicity with mortality rates of 61.12 %, 65 % and 53.34 %, respectively, after the worms were exposed for 96 h to C. neoformans sensu stricto and these compounds at same time.Conclusion. These results highlight the potential activity of anthraquinones to increase the effectiveness of antifungal drugs against cryptococcal biofilms.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Itraconazol , Virulência , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Biofilmes
6.
Steroids ; 205: 109395, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461962

RESUMO

Drug release from hyperbranched Janus dendrimer-drug conjugates and their subsequent activity are influenced by the different drugs in each dendron and the linker. To understand these effects, we synthetized new Janus-type dendrimers of first and second generation. One dendron with 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid functionalized with ibuprofen and the second dendron was obtained with 3-aminopropanol-amidoamine and prednisone. The dendrimers were obtained by copper(I)-catalyzed Click azide-alkyne cycloaddition for the formation of a triazole as a dendrimeric nucleus of Janus dendrimer conjugates are reported. The influence of ibuprofen, prednisone, and spacer on cancer activity of Janus dendrimers conjugates is reported. The IC50 values of the anticancer activity on cancer cell lines the Janus dendrimer of second generation was higher in comparison to the first generation dendrimer. Similarly, the anticancer activity was higher compared to the dendron conjugates. Also, no cytotoxic effects of dendrons and dendrimers on non-cancerous kidney COS-7 cell line was observed. The interesting anticancer activity of the prepared prednisone-ibuprofen Janus dendrimer conjugates suggest that the dendrimers could be of potential use as new anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Antineoplásicos , Dendrímeros , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Ibuprofeno , Prednisona , Cobre/química
7.
Environ Int ; 185: 108531, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428193

RESUMO

Gadani is internationally renowned for its extensive ship-breaking operations, positioning it as one of the globe's primary ship-breaking hubs. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the presence of organic contaminants in the air within Gadani, encompassing the areas surrounding ship-breaking facilities, proximate residential settlements, and adjacent roadways. Passive air samplers were employed to collect a total of 30 air samples. The analytical results unveiled a notably elevated concentration of specific organic compounds, with a pronounced prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the ship-breaking yard. Notably, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and DDE were detected at substantially lower levels. In particular, sites in close proximity to ship-breaking activities exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (Σ7PCB 0.065429 to 7.345714 ng/sample), PAHs (Σ8PAH 2.44 to 134.23 ng/sample), and SCCPs (0.18 to 25.6 ng/sample). Conversely, DDTs and DDE demonstrated higher concentrations near residential settlements. The evaluation of Molecular Diagnostic Ratios for PAHs revealed anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene ratios of 0.88, 0.69, and 0.5 for ship-breaking areas, roadside locations, and community surroundings, respectively. Furthermore, the benz[a]anthracene/benz-[a]anthracene + chrysene molecular ratios were measured at 0.77 (ship-breaking sites), 0.82 (roadside), and 0.83 (community), respectively. The molecular ratio of fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene at ship-breaking sites was 0.23, while roadside and community ratios were 0.36 and 0.89, respectively. These findings underscore the significant contribution of ship-recycling activities to the atmospheric release of SCCPs, PCBs, and PAHs, emphasizing the global imperative for responsible ship recycling practices.


Assuntos
Fluorenos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Navios , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Antracenos , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
8.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474641

RESUMO

The catalytic properties of cytochrome c (Cc) have captured great interest in respect to mitochondrial physiology and apoptosis, and hold potential for novel enzymatic bioremediation systems. Nevertheless, its contribution to the metabolism of environmental toxicants remains unstudied. Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with impactful diseases, and animal models have unveiled concerning signs of PAHs' toxicity to mitochondria. In this work, a series of eight PAHs with ionization potentials between 7.2 and 8.1 eV were used to challenge the catalytic ability of Cc and to evaluate the effect of vesicles containing cardiolipin mimicking mitochondrial membranes activating the peroxidase activity of Cc. With moderate levels of H2O2 and at pH 7.0, Cc catalyzed the oxidation of toxic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene, and the cardiolipin-containing membranes clearly increased the PAH conversions. Our results also demonstrate for the first time that Cc and Cc-cardiolipin complexes efficiently transformed the PAH metabolites 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxypyrene. In comparison to horseradish peroxidase, Cc was shown to reach more potent oxidizing states and react with PAHs with ionization potentials up to 7.70 eV, including pyrene and acenaphthene. Spectral assays indicated that anthracene binds to Cc, and docking simulations proposed possible binding sites positioning anthracene for oxidation. The results give support to the participation of Cc in the metabolism of PAHs, especially in mitochondria, and encourage further investigation of the molecular interaction between PAHs and Cc.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Citocromos c , Cardiolipinas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Antracenos
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116280, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518574

RESUMO

The utilization of chemical dispersants as a way of mitigating of oil spills in marine eco-system has been extensively documented worldwide. Hence, in this research we have successfully synthesized two amphiphilic asymmetric Dicaionic Ionic Liquids (DILs). The efficacy of these synthesized DILs as dispersants was assessed using the baffled flask test (BFT). The results indicated a dispersant effectiveness ranging from 47.98 % to 79.76 % for the dispersion of heavy crude oil across various temperature ranges (10-30 °C). These dispersant-to-oil ratios (DOR) were maintained at 3: 100 (V%), showcasing promising dispersant capabilities for mitigating heavy crude oil spills. Additionally, acute toxicity tests conducted on Nile tilapia and Oreochromis niloticus have demonstrated the relatively low toxicity of the IL-dispersants, with Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) values exceeding 100 ppm after 96 h. This suggests a practically slight toxic effect on the tested fish. In summary, the newly developed IL-dispersants are considered to be conducive to environmentally benign oil spill remediation.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Líquidos Iônicos , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 393: 110950, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479715

RESUMO

It is well known that anthracene is a persistent organic pollutant. Among the four natural polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading strains, Comamonas testosterone (CT1) was selected as the strain with the highest degradation efficiency. In the present study, prokaryotic transcriptome analysis of CT1 revealed an increase in a gene that encodes tryptophane-2,3-dioxygenase (T23D) in the anthracene and erythromycin groups compared to CK. Compared to the wild-type CT1 strain, anthracene degradation by the CtT23D knockout mutant (CT-M1) was significantly reduced. Compared to Escherichia coli (DH5α), CtT23D transformed DH5α (EC-M1) had a higher degradation efficiency for anthracene. The recombinant protein rT23D oxidized tryptophan at pH 7.0 and 37 °C with an enzyme activity of 2.42 ± 0.06 µmol min-1·mg-1 protein. In addition, gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) analysis of anthracene degradation by EC-M1 and the purified rT23D revealed that 2-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde is an anthracene metabolite, suggesting that it is a new pathway.


Assuntos
Comamonas testosteroni , Dioxigenases , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Comamonas testosteroni/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Triptofano , Antracenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123602, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382731

RESUMO

Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (APAH) are important contaminants of crude oil production and exhibit similar toxicity to their parent compounds. This study developed an emission inventory of APAH in a major oil sands development region of Alberta, Canada, and validated the inventory with ambient concentration measurements through dispersion modeling. The initial estimate of regional total annual emissions of 21 APAH species was 362 tonnes/year in the last decade, of which 309 and 53 tonnes/year were in particle-bound and gas-phase APAH, respectively. Fugitive dust from oil sands mining activities is the primary source of particle-bound APAH, emitting 274 tonnes/year. Other major sources of APAH include point sources (31), tailings ponds (21), anthropogenic fuel consumption from mine fleet (17), and local transportation (13). The group of species with highest emissions was C1-C4 alkylnaphthalenes (53%), followed by C1-C4 alkylphenanthrenes/anthracenes (19%), C1-C4 fluorenes (13%), and C1-C4 fluoranthenes/pyrenes and C1-C4 benz[a]anthracenes/chrysene/triphenylenes (7% each). CALPUFF dispersion modeling was performed using the APAH emissions as model input. The model-predicted annual average ambient APAH concentrations at 17 monitoring sites were 1%-52% (19% on average) lower than the measurements. Inverse dispersion modeling was then applied to adjust APAH emissions higher by 19% for each of the 21 APAH species, which resulted in a revised estimate of APAH emissions to 431 tonnes/year. With the revised emissions as model input, model bias in the predicted ambient concentration was reduced from -19% to -8%. The model results showed the highest concentrations of APAH were near tailings ponds and open mining faces and downwind areas, with total APAH concentrations being higher than 50 ng/m3.


Assuntos
Diaminas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Alberta , Antracenos
12.
Int J Pharm ; 653: 123876, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331331

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a joint-destructive autoimmune disease that severely affects joint function. Despite the variability of treatment protocols, all of them are associated with severe side effects that compromise patient compliance. The main aim of the current study is to prepare localized effective RA treatment with reduced side effects by combining nanoencapsulation, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hollow microneedles (Ho-MNs) to maximize the pharmacological effects of hypericin (HYP). To attain this, HYP-loaded emulsomes (EMLs) were prepared, characterized and administered through intradermal injection using AdminPen™ Ho-MNs combined with PDT in rats with an adjuvant-induced RA model. The prepared EMLs had a spherical shape and particle size was about 93.46 nm with an absolute entrapment efficiency. Moreover, confocal imaging indicated the interesting capability of Ho-MNs to deposit the HYP EMLs to a depth reaching 1560 µm into the subcutaneous tissue. In vivo, study results demonstrated that the group treated with HYP EMLs through Ho-MNs combined with PDT had no significant differences in joint diameter, TNF-α, IL1, HO-1, NRF2 and SD levels compared with the negative control group. Similarly, rats treated with the combination of HYP EMLs, Ho-MNs and PDT showed superior joint healing efficacy compared with the groups treated with HYP EMLs in dark, HYP ointment or HYP in microneedles in histopathological examination. These findings highlight the promising potential of photoactivated HYP EMLs when combined with Ho-MNs technology for RA management. The presented therapeutic EMLs-MNs platform could serve as a powerful game-changer in the development of future localized RA treatments.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Antracenos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(9): 6252-6265, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377559

RESUMO

Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) is often limited in treating solid tumors due to hypoxic conditions that impede the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for therapeutic efficacy. To address this issue, a fractionated PDT protocol has been suggested, wherein light irradiation is administered in stages separated by dark intervals to permit oxygen recovery during these breaks. However, the current photosensitizers used in fractionated PDT are incapable of sustaining ROS production during the dark intervals, leading to suboptimal therapeutic outcomes (Table S1). To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel photosensitizer based on a triple-anthracene derivative that is designed for prolonged ROS generation, even after the cessation of light exposure. Our study reveals a unique photodynamic action of these derivatives, facilitating the direct and effective disruption of biomolecules and significantly improving the efficacy of fractionated PDT (Table S2). Moreover, the existing photosensitizers lack imaging capabilities for monitoring, which constraints the fine-tuning of irradiation parameters (Table S1). Our triple-anthracene derivative also serves as an afterglow imaging agent, emitting sustained luminescence postirradiation. This imaging function allows for the precise optimization of intervals between PDT sessions and aids in determining the timing for subsequent irradiation, thus enabling meticulous control over therapy parameters. Utilizing our novel triple-anthracene photosensitizer, we have formulated a fractionated PDT regimen that effectively eliminates orthotopic pancreatic tumors. This investigation highlights the promise of employing long-persistent photodynamic activity in advanced fractionated PDT approaches to overcome the current limitations of PDT in solid tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antracenos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396878

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that can cause severe watery diarrhoea in piglets, with high morbidity and mortality rates, seriously hindering the healthy development of the global swine industry. In this study, we isolated a strain of PEDV from Tibetan pigs and named it CH/GS/2022. Subsequently, we screened the apoptosis signals of PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells and studied the correlation between apoptosis signals and cell apoptosis. The results showed that different infections of PEDV induced different degrees of apoptosis in cells, and PEDV-induced cell apoptosis was dose-dependent. We then detected the expression of the p53, p38, JNK, Bax, and Bcl-2 genes in the apoptosis signal pathway. The results showed that 24 h after PEDV infection, the expression of the p53, p38, JNK, and Bax genes in IPEC-J2 cells increased significantly, while the expression of the Bcl-2 gene decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Subsequently, we used Western blot to detect the protein levels of these five genes, and the results showed that PEDV infection upregulated the expression of p53, p38, JNK, and Bax proteins (p < 0.05) while downregulating the expression of Bcl-2 protein (p < 0.05). Thus, it was initially inferred that PEDV infection could regulate cell apoptosis by activating the p53, p38, and JNK signalling pathways. Finally, we further investigated the apoptosis of the cells through the use of inhibitors. The results indicated that the p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α has a significant inhibitory effect on the expression of the p53 protein after PEDV infection and can reverse the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. This suggested that p53 is involved in PEDV-induced cell apoptosis. Similarly, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 has an inhibitory effect on the expression of the p38 protein and can reverse the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. This suggested that p38 is also involved in PEDV-induced cell apoptosis. On the other hand, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 has no inhibitory effect on the expression of the JNK protein after PEDV infection, but the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins have changed. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that SP600125 can inhibit the activity of apoptotic proteins but not their levels, resulting in reduced cell apoptosis. These preliminary results indicated that JNK may be involved in PEDV-induced IPEC-J2 cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Animais , Suínos , Linhagem Celular , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Tibet
15.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 56(3): 393-404, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308473

RESUMO

Resin monomer-induced dental pulp injury presents a pathology related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin has been regarded as a strong mitochondrial protective bioactive compound from the pineal gland. However, it remains unknown whether melatonin can prevent dental pulp from resin monomer-induced injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of melatonin on apoptosis of mouse preodontoblast cells (mDPC6T) induced by triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a major component in dental resin, and to determine whether the JNK/MAPK signaling pathway mediates the protective effect of melatonin. A well-established TEGDMA-induced mDPC6T apoptosis model is adopted to investigate the preventive function of melatonin by detecting cell viability, apoptosis rate, expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level. Inhibitors of MAPKs are used to explore which pathway is involved in TEGDMA-induced apoptosis. Finally, the role of the JNK/MAPK pathway is verified using JNK agonists and antagonists. Our results show that melatonin attenuates TEGDMA-induced mDPC6T apoptosis by reducing mtROS production and rescuing MMP and ATP levels. Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis are alleviated only by the JNK/MAPK inhibitor SP600125 but not by other MAPK inhibitors. Additionally, melatonin downregulates the expression of phosphorylated JNK and counteractes the activating effects of anisomycin on the JNK/MAPK pathway, mimicking the effects of SP600125. Our findings demonstrate that melatonin protects mDPC6T cells against TEGDMA-induced apoptosis partly through JNK/MAPK and the maintenance of mitochondrial function, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention of resin monomer-induced dental pulp injury.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Melatonina , Doenças Mitocondriais , Polietilenoglicóis , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos , Animais , Camundongos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Apoptose , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
16.
STAR Protoc ; 5(1): 102821, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184851

RESUMO

Most complex prime links exhibit inherent topological chirality, yet their high stereoinduction remains a rare occurrence. Here, we present a protocol for the stereoselective synthesis of a molecular link comprising two triple entwined rings. We describe steps for constructing the precursor circular helicate, performing ring closure metathesis, and demetallation. We also outline procedures for bio-beads separation and data analysis. This protocol holds promise for applications in molecular nanotopology. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zhang et al. (2022).1.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Catenanos , Análise de Dados
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 393: 1-13, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219807

RESUMO

St. John's Wort preparations are used for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. They are usually well tolerated but can cause adverse reactions including liver toxicity in rare cases. To date, the mechanism(s) underlying the hepatotoxicity of St. John's Wort extracts are poorly investigated. We studied the hepatocellular toxicity of hypericin and hyperforin as the two main ingredients of St. John's Wort extracts in HepG2 and HepaRG cells and compared the effects to citalopram (a synthetic serotonin uptake inhibitor) with a special focus on mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress. In HepG2 cells, hypericin was membrane-toxic at 100 µM and depleted ATP at 20 µM. In HepaRG cells, ATP depletion started at 5 µM. In comparison, hyperforin and citalopram were not toxic up to 100 µM. In HepG2 cells, hypericin decreased maximal respiration starting at 2 µM and mitochondrial ATP formation starting at 10 µM but did not affect glycolytic ATP production. Hypericin inhibited the activity of complex I, II and IV of the electron transfer system and caused mitochondrial superoxide accumulation in cells. The protein expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) and total and reduced glutathione decreased in cells exposed to hypericin. Finally, hypericin diminished the mitochondrial DNA copy number and caused cell necrosis but not apoptosis. In conclusion, hypericin, but not hyperforin or citalopram, is a mitochondrial toxicant at low micromolar concentrations. This mechanism may contribute to the hepatotoxicity occasionally observed in susceptible patients treated with St. John's Wort preparations.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hypericum , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Floroglucinol/análogos & derivados , Terpenos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hypericum/toxicidade , Citalopram/toxicidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Trifosfato de Adenosina
18.
Chemosphere ; 352: 141248, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280643

RESUMO

Anthracene belongs to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of benzene rings, unusually highly stable through more π-electrons and localized π-bond in entire rings. Aqueous-phase anthracene adsorption using carbon-based materials such as biochar is ineffective. In this paper, carbon dots (CDs) derived from the acid treatment of coconut shell biochar (CDs/MCSB) decorated with chitosan (CS) are successfully synthesized and applied for anthracene removal from aqueous solutions. The h-CDs/MCSB exhibited fast adsorption of anthracene with significant sorption capacity (Qmax = 49.26 mg g-1) with 95 % removal efficiency at 60 min. The study suggested chemisorption dominated monolayer anthracene adsorption onto h-CDs/MCSB, where a significant role was played by ion-exchange. Density Functional Theory (DFT) suggested the anthracene adsorption was dominated by the electrostatic interactions and delocalized electron, induced by higher polarizability of functional groups on the surface of hybrid CDs/MCSB assisted by chitosan (h-CDs/MCSB). In addition, the aromatic structure of CDs/MCSB and high polarizability of functional groups provided the strong interactions between benzene rings of anthracene and hybrid adsorbent-assisted multiple π-bond through delocalized π-bond and polarization-induced H-bond interactions. The presence of carboxylic and sulfonic groups on the CDs/MCSB surface also contributed to the effective adsorption of anthracene was confirmed by the fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid adsorbent was an effective material for removing PAHs, usually difficult to remove from water owing to the presence of benzene rings in their structures. Further, consistency in the DFT results suggested the outstanding binding capacity with the anthracene molecules with h-CDs/MCSB.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Adsorção , Água , Benzeno , Carvão Vegetal/química , Antracenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cinética
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(2): 61, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281271

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of anthracene (Ant) with 3 rings, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA) with 4 rings and benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) with 5 rings in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at different exposure times (4 h and 24 h) and low exposure levels (0 pg/mL, 0.1 pg/mL, 1 pg/mL, 100 pg/mL and 10,000 pg/mL) on RAW264.7 cells. The changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and oxidative stress levels in RAW264.7 cells were investigated by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between variables. Ant, BaA and BbF induced the secretion of IL-6 and the occurrence of oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells. The inflammatory effect and oxidative damage were exacerbated with prolonged exposure time, increasing exposure concentration and increasing number of PAH rings. At the same time, IL-6 was found to have a certain correlation with the levels of ROS, MDA and SOD. Exposure to atmospheric PAHs at low concentrations can also produce toxic effects on cells, IL-6 and oxidative stress work together in cell damage. The study is expected to provide a theoretical and experimental basis for air pollution control and human health promotion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Antracenos/toxicidade , Interleucina-6 , Macrófagos/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Animais , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 29(1): 40, 2024 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benzophenanthridine Sanguinarine (Sng) is one of the most abundant root alkaloids with a long history of investigation and pharmaceutical applications. The cytotoxicity of Sng against various tumor cells is well-established; however, its antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against the cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) cells remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer potential of Sng against cSCC cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms relevant to the drug action. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Sng on cSCC cells was evaluated by analyzing cell viability, colony-forming ability and multi-caspase activity. Apoptosis was quantified through Annexin-V/Propidium iodide flow cytometric assay and antagonized by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) dysfunction was analyzed by JC-1 staining, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was confirmed by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and fluorogenic probe-based flow cytometric detection. The expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, apoptotic proteins and MAPK signaling molecules was determined by Western blotting. Involvement of JNK, p38-MAPK and MEK/ERK in ROS-mediated apoptosis was investigated by pretreatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), respectively. The stemness-targeting potential of Sng was assessed in tumor cell-derived spheroids. RESULTS: Treatment with Sng decreased cell viability and colony formation in primary (A431) and metastatic (A388) cSCC cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Sng significantly inhibited cell proliferation by inducing sub-G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cSCC cells. Sng evoked ROS generation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion, ΔΨm depolarization and the activation of JNK pathway as well as that of caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARP. Antioxidant NAC inhibited ROS production, replenished GSH levels, and abolished apoptosis induced by Sng by downregulating JNK. Pretreatment with z-VAD-FMK inhibited Sng-mediated apoptosis. The pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 mitigated Sng-induced apoptosis in metastatic cSCC cells. Finally, Sng ablated the stemness of metastatic cSCC cell-derived spheroids. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Sng exerts a potent cytotoxic effect against cSCC cells that is underscored by a mechanism involving multiple levels of cooperation, including cell-cycle sub-G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis induction through ROS-dependent activation of the JNK signaling pathway. This study provides insight into the potential therapeutic application of Sng targeting cSCC.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Isoquinolinas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
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