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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297312, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598553

RESUMO

Cybercrime is a major challenge facing the world, with estimated costs ranging from the hundreds of millions to the trillions. Despite the threat it poses, cybercrime is somewhat an invisible phenomenon. In carrying out their virtual attacks, offenders often mask their physical locations by hiding behind online nicknames and technical protections. This means technical data are not well suited to establishing the true location of offenders and scholarly knowledge of cybercrime geography is limited. This paper proposes a solution: an expert survey. From March to October 2021 we invited leading experts in cybercrime intelligence/investigations from across the world to participate in an anonymized online survey on the geographical location of cybercrime offenders. The survey asked participants to consider five major categories of cybercrime, nominate the countries that they consider to be the most significant sources of each of these types of cybercrimes, and then rank each nominated country according to the impact, professionalism, and technical skill of its offenders. The outcome of the survey is the World Cybercrime Index, a global metric of cybercriminality organised around five types of cybercrime. The results indicate that a relatively small number of countries house the greatest cybercriminal threats. These findings partially remove the veil of anonymity around cybercriminal offenders, may aid law enforcement and policymakers in fighting this threat, and contribute to the study of cybercrime as a local phenomenon.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Aplicação da Lei , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Custos e Análise de Custo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0292040, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625998

RESUMO

We investigate the effectiveness of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD) in mitigating the transmission of credit risk from banks to their sovereign, using CDS spreads to capture bank and sovereign credit risk for a sample of 43 banks in 8 Euro Area countries over the period 2009-2020. If the BRRD bail-in framework is credible, changes in bank default risk should not be transmitted to sovereign risk. In a novel approach we use banks earnings announcements to identify exogenous shocks to bank credit risk and investigate to what extent bank risk is transmitted to sovereign risk before and during the BRRD era. We find that bank-to-sovereign risk transmission has diminished after the introduction of the BRRD, suggesting that financial markets judge the BRRD framework as credible. The decline in bank-sovereign risk transmission is particularly significant in the periphery Euro Area countries, especially Italy and Spain, where the bank-sovereign nexus was most pronounced during the sovereign debt crisis. We report that the lower bank-to-sovereign credit risk transmission is associated with the parliamentary approval of the BRRD and not with the OMT program launched by the ECB to affect sovereign yield spreads, nor with specific bail-in or bailout cases which occurred during the BRRD era. Finally, we document that the reduction in risk transmission is most pronounced for banks classified as a Global Systemically Important Bank (G-SIB), stressing the importance of additional capital buffers imposed by Basel III.


Assuntos
Junções Comunicantes , Renda , Itália , Aplicação da Lei , Espanha
5.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(2): 47-52, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587159

RESUMO

Interest in the topic of age assessment for forensic medical identification of personality has not decreased for over the past decade. Establishing an exact age have a critical importance for law enforcement authorities, for example in case of wrongdoing by illegal migrants without identity documents. The search and systemic analysis of published researches devoted to age assessment by dental status in children and adolescents with subsequent updating of the directions of development in this scientific subject theme and the possibility of their realization in practice in the Russian Federation were carried out in order to have an objective concept of used methods of dental status assessment in the world practice.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Aplicação da Lei , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Raios X , Federação Russa
6.
Am J Public Health ; 114(6): 642-650, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574318

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine sudden and unexpected or trauma-related deaths that occurred in the presence of law enforcement in Johnson County, Iowa, between 2011 and 2020. Methods. We identified deaths in the presence of law enforcement using definitions from the National Association of Medical Examiners. We obtained data, including demographics, cause and manner of death, toxicology results, and circumstances and location of event leading to death, from comprehensive medical examiner investigative reports. Results. There were 165 deaths that occurred in the presence of law enforcement: 114 were from a known disease, and 51 were either trauma related or the sudden, unexpected initial presentation of a previously unrecognized disease. Three deaths occurred in the context of physical restraint by law enforcement. Suicide was the leading manner of death among trauma-related deaths; the means of suicide was predictable based on in-custody (hanging) or precustody (firearm) circumstances. Conclusions. Our findings highlight the potential role of medical examiners and coroners in improving completeness of data on reporting death in the presence of law enforcement to public health agencies. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(6):642-650. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307616).


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Aplicação da Lei , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Idoso , Adolescente , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Médicos Legistas , Pré-Escolar
7.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(2): 148-161, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Some scholars have criticized pretrial assessments for perpetuating racial bias in the criminal legal system by offering biased predictions of future legal system outcomes. Although these critiques have some empirical support, the scholarship has yet to examine the predictive validity and differential prediction of pretrial assessments across individuals by their age. Following the guidance of the life-course literature, the present study serves as the first age-graded evaluation of the Public Safety Assessment (PSA) focused on assessing whether the predictive validity and scoring predictions of the tool vary across the lifespan. HYPOTHESES: We expected that the predictive validity of the PSA scores would vary across the lifespan, such that the PSA underpredicts for younger individuals and overpredicts for older individuals. METHOD: The present study relied on pretrial information collected from 31,527 individuals during the Advancing Pretrial Policy and Research project. Logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate the differential prediction of the PSA for individuals ranging from 18 to 68 years of age. The results of bivariate models were used to produce area under the curve estimates at each year of age. RESULTS: The results of the present study provided some evidence that the PSA differentially predicted pretrial outcomes for individuals from 18 to 68 years of age. Specifically, the predictive validity of the New Criminal Arrest and the New Violent Criminal Arrest scales appears to improve as individuals become older, suggesting that these instruments are better able to predict pretrial outcomes for older individuals relative to younger individuals. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the PSA is a valid predictor of pretrial outcomes and that the predictive validity of some PSA scores is impacted by age. These findings suggest that the age of the defendant should be accounted for when interpreting the new criminal arrest and new violent criminal arrest scores. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Humanos , Agressão , Aplicação da Lei , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299852, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551938

RESUMO

The aggregate-level age-crime distributions in Western countries are predominantly right-skewed and adolescent-spiked. Based on Western data, Hirschi and Gottfredson (1983) asserted that this age-crime pattern is universally invariant across time and places. This study's overall goal is to rigorously examine Hirschi and Gottfredson's invariant premise within a non-Western country, focusing on the stability and change in the age-crime patterns of South Korea from 1980 to 2019. Specifically, two research questions are addressed: (1) whether the average age-arrest curves in South Korea diverge from the invariant premise after adjusting for period and cohort effects; (2) how period and cohort effects modify the age-arrest curves. To examine these questions, I applied the age-period-cohort-interaction model (APC-I) to analyze the official age-specific arrest statistics for various offense types from 1980 to 2019 in South Korea. Findings suggested that the age-crime patterns of homicide, assault, and fraud are characterized by spread-out distributions and advanced peak ages. After adjusting for period and cohort effects, most of the age-crime curves are still robustly divergent from the age-crime distributions found in Western countries. Cohort and period effects have modified the age-crime patterns, but arrests in South Korea are largely concentrated among midlife age groups older than 30. These results provide additional compelling evidence contesting Hirschi and Gottfredson's invariance thesis, underscoring the substantial impact of country-specific processes, historical context, and cultural factors on the age-crime relationship.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Crime , Adolescente , Humanos , República da Coreia , Homicídio , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos de Coortes
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 923, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose crisis is one of the worst public health crises ever to face the US and emerging evidence suggests its effects are compounded by the presence of drug adulterants. Here we report our efforts to characterize the adulterants present within the local fentanyl supply of San Diego County, obtained from undifferentiated drug samples seized by local law enforcement over the calendar year 2021. METHODS: Thirty-two participating local law enforcement agencies across San Diego submitted 4838 unknown individual illicit drug samples (total of 312 kg) to the San Diego County Sheriff's Department Regional Crime Laboratory for identification. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of these samples via FTIR and GC-MS identified methamphetamine (38.7%), fentanyl (20.8%), diacetylmorphine (heroin) (10.2%), codeine (5.8%) and alprazolam (4.3%) as the most common illicit substances and the presence of 52 unique adulterants. The most common adulterants included 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAAP) (10.9%), mannitol (9%), acetaminophen (8.5%), methamphetamine (4.2%), diacetylmorphine (heroin) (3.6%), tramadol (1.9%), and xylazine (1.7%). Several additional pharmacologically active adulterants and contaminants of interest were also identified. CONCLUSION: This analysis is vital for public health use and harm reduction efforts at the level of the individual consumer. Continued direct surveillance of the drug supply is necessary for the detection of potentially harmful adulterants that may pose serious threats to the public.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Drogas Ilícitas , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Fentanila/análise , Heroína , Aplicação da Lei , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Analgésicos Opioides
10.
J Community Psychol ; 52(4): 551-573, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491998

RESUMO

This mixed methods study had two aims: (1) to examine the effectiveness of a jail diversion program in reducing recidivism and promoting educational and employment outcomes; and (2) to qualitatively explore mechanisms through which the program was effective. Participants were 17 individuals arrested for drug offenses who participated in an intensive, law enforcement-based jail diversion program, and 17 individuals in a comparison group. Arrests were extracted from police records, and education and employment were extracted from program data. Four intervention participants completed qualitative interviews. Arrest rates in the intervention group decreased significantly postintervention, and arrest rates in the intervention group were numerically lower than those in the comparison group. Participants experienced significant increases in employment and driver's license status. Participants also identified mechanisms through which the program was effective. This jail diversion program shows promise in reducing recidivism and promoting adaptive functioning. Jail diversion programs that include mentorship, peer support, and removal of barriers to success may be particularly effective.


Assuntos
Prisões Locais , Reincidência , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos
11.
Work ; 77(4): 1359-1368, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Law enforcement (LE) applicant assessments and initial academy training vary greatly across the United States of America (USA), with 820+ academies operating across 50 different states. Rising obesity and declining physical fitness underscore the need for benchmarks of applicant physical performance. OBJECTIVE: Create a "point-in-time" descriptive profile of the performance of LE applicants and determine any differences between males, females, and age using two applicant test batteries (ATBs). METHODS: Archival data from one large USA LE academy were analysed. Applicants completed one of two ATBs; ATB1 (n = 1674): 68.8-meter agility run (AR), 60-s push-ups, 60-s sit-ups, 60-s arm ergometer revolutions, and 2.4 km run; ATB2 (n = 355): AR, 60-s push-ups, 60-s sit-ups, and a multistage fitness test. Data were coded for sex and age. Independent samples t-tests compared the sexes. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc analysis compared age groups (18- 24, 25- 29, 30- 34, 35- 39, 40 + years). RESULTS: Males outperformed females in all fitness assessments across both ATBs (p≤0.02). The 18- 24 age group demonstrated faster run times in the AR and 2.4 km for ATB1 compared to all groups. (p≤0.03). In ATB2, the 18- 24 age group was faster in the AR compared to all other groups except the 25- 29 age group (p≤0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of ATB used, females and older applicants generally would benefit from specific fitness training to better prepare for academy. Older applicants may experience greater challenges in running tasks, especially those involving sprinting, which could also be impacted by qualities important for running/sprinting (i.e., maximal strength and power).


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Polícia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aptidão Física
12.
Work ; 77(4): 1341-1357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While effective apprehensions of non-compliant suspects are central to public safety, the minimal force needed to transition a suspect from standing to the ground, vital for apprehension success, has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To examine the technical-tactical behaviors of general duty police officers during simulated apprehensions and quantify the minimum force required to destabilize non-compliant suspects. METHODS: Task simulations conducted with 91 officers were analyzed to identify common grappling movements, strikes, control tactics, and changes in body posture. A separate assessment of 55 male officers aimed to determine the minimum force required for destabilization in five body regions (wrist, forearm, shoulder, mid-chest, and mid-back). Data are presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: On average, apprehensions took 7.3±3.2 seconds. While all officers used grappling movements (100%) and the majority employed control tactics (75%), strikes were seldom used (4%). Apprehensions typically began with a two-handed pull (97%; Contact Phase), 55% then attempted an arm bar takedown, followed by a two-handed cross-body pull (68%; Transition/Control Phase), and a two-handed push to the ground (19%; Ground Phase). All officers began in the upright posture, with most shifting to squat (75%), kneel (58%), or bent (45%) postures to complete the apprehension. The minimum force required to disrupt balance differed across body regions (wrist: 54±12 kg; forearm: 49±12 kg; shoulder: 42±10 kg; mid-chest: 44±11 kg; mid-back: 30±7 kg, all P < 0.05), except between the shoulder and chest (P = 0.19). CONCLUSION: These findings provide insights that can enhance the design and accuracy of future apprehension evaluations and inform the optimization of law enforcement physical employment standards.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Polícia , Humanos , Masculino , Punho , Mãos
13.
Int J Drug Policy ; 126: 104370, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The legal enforcement of drug possession is associated with a host of negative consequences for people who use drugs (PWUD), has demonstrated little effectiveness at curbing drug use, and has contributed to lasting financial, social, and health-related racial disparities in Black and Brown communities in the United States (U.S.). One policy alternative is reinvesting resources typically used for enforcing drug possession into health-promoting services such as drug treatment or harm reduction that can better serve the needs of PWUD than the criminal legal system. We sought to characterize the prevalence and correlates of national public support for this reinvestment in the U.S. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 1,212) completed the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Civic Life and Public Health Survey (wave three, fielded November 11-30, 2020). The outcome is support for reinvestment of resources spent on enforcing drug possession into health-promoting alternatives (i.e., drug treatment, harm reduction, housing support, or community-based resources). We measured potential correlates including socio-demographics and social/political attitudes, including political ideology (conservative, moderate, liberal) and racial resentment toward the Black community. Analyses accounted for complex survey weights. RESULTS: Weighted prevalence of support for reinvestment of resources was 80 %. Multivariable logistic regression (controlling for confounders) showed that white respondents were more likely than Black (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.08, 5.87) to favor reinvestment. Respondents with moderate (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.79) or conservative (OR = 0.21, 95 % CI = 0.09-0.50) political ideology (compared to liberal) and medium (OR = 0.26, 95 % CI = 0.09-0.74) or high (OR = 0.12, 95 % CI = 0.04-0.35) levels of racial resentment (compared to low) were less likely to support reinvestment. CONCLUSION: There is substantial national support for reinvesting resources into health-promoting alternatives, though political ideology and racial resentment temper support. Results can inform targeted messaging to increase support for moving drug policy from the criminal legal sphere toward public health.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Opinião Pública , Promoção da Saúde , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19 , Aplicação da Lei , Adolescente , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 151: 106750, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492536

RESUMO

A renowned group of pediatricians and an attorney with expertise in child abuse matters proposed a medical definition of intrafamilial child torture perpetrated by a caretaker in a landmark 2014 publication in the health sciences literature. Representing one of the most widely cited publications on non-politically motivated child torture to date, this medical definition encompassing physical abuse, psychological abuse, deprivation, and neglect characterizing child torture has been broadly recognized and accepted by multidisciplinary professionals across medical, child welfare, and criminal justice sectors. While the medical community's efforts aimed to compel legislative changes, including adoption of explicit torture-specific statutes that would enable criminal justice system responses reflective of abuse severity, subsequent legal analyses have revealed tremendous variability in criminal investigations, prosecution, sentencing, and case outcomes. In this discussion piece, medico-legal issues relevant to intrafamilial child torture case prosecution are reviewed. The impact of the established medical definition on jurisdictional legal approaches and unique case challenges related to longitudinal nature of abuse, frequent psychological injury, and victim-perpetrator dynamics are explored in depth. Utilizing available legal research platforms, investigative information, health sciences literature, and prosecutor self-report, existing child torture statutes and case outcomes were compared with focus on perpetrator, victim, socio-environmental, and community influence on legal outcome. Prosecutorial challenges facing jurisdictions lacking child torture statutes are discussed with emphasis placed on the critical role played by the medical community to support diagnosis of physical and emotional impacts to the child. Finally, the process by which states can establish a jurisdictional torture statute are suggested.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Tortura , Humanos , Criança , Tortura/psicologia , Proteção da Criança , Aplicação da Lei , Direito Penal
15.
J Safety Res ; 88: 161-173, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article addresses the impact of policy measures on the number of alcohol-related crashes and fatalities in European Union countries. In particular, it assesses (1) whether mild or severe penalty measures should be used to reduce the number of crashes and fatalities caused by alcohol; and (2) whether alcoholic beverages should be treated differently or proportionally to their alcohol content. METHODS: This study analyzed the number of alcohol-related crashes and fatalities in 24 European Union countries between 2002 and 2014. The methodology involved fixed-effects panel models, models with instrumental variables, the Hausman-Taylor model, and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR). SUR improve the results of coefficient estimates when the data are not complete. RESULTS: The results of the SUR indicated that vehicle impoundment, community service, and alcolocks correlate with lower crashes, while detention correlates with lower fatalities. Furthermore, a higher alcohol content in beverages is positively associated with fatalities and negatively associated with the number of crashes. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and harsh measures for preventing alcohol-related crashes and fatalities differ in effectiveness; therefore, they should be used simultaneously. Blood alcohol concentration limits were found to be an ineffective tool for preventing crashes and fatalities under the influence of alcohol. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The regulatory restrictions on different types of alcohol should be stricter for hard alcohol (especially spirits) and lower for low-alcohol beverages, such as beer, if fewer fatalities are preferred to fewer crashes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , União Europeia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos
16.
J Safety Res ; 88: 31-40, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This research examines the effectiveness of point-to-point speed cameras in Thailand compared with spot speed camera enforcement, which is widely used in the country. METHOD: The evaluation includes the speed control's efficiency by observing the 85th percentile average speed of drivers on the road; the speed detection rate; conducting a comparison with spot speed camera enforcement; and a cost effectiveness analysis of this measure. RESULTS: After speed detection using point-to-point cameras were employed during which warning tickets were issued in many days of experiment, the 85th percentile average speed in the controlled area decreased by 10 km/hr, with a maximum decrease of 20 km/hr. When comparing the detection rate of the two camera models, point-to-point cameras could detect 95% of drivers' driving speed, with 45% of the detected drivers identified as speeding drivers, while spot speed cameras were only able to detect 10% to 20% of speeders. Drivers traveling through the area with point-to-point cameras were more likely to drive at a constant speed throughout the average speed detection area. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The point-to-point camera system is determined to be quite cost-effective.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Tailândia , Aplicação da Lei , Fotografação
17.
Am J Public Health ; 114(4): 384-386, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478861
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541330

RESUMO

There is an association between emotional eating and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, little is known about this association in the police force. This study explores the associations between emotional eating and CVD risk factors in law enforcement officers in North Carolina. Four hundred and five officers completed The Emotional Eating Scale, and 221 of them completed the assessment for CVD-related markers. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Emotional eating in response to anger was significantly positively associated with body weight (ß = 1.51, t = 2.07, p = 0.04), diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.83, t = 2.18, p = 0.03), and mean arterial pressure (ß = 0.84, t = 2.19, p = 0.03) after adjusting for age and use of blood pressure medicine. Emotional eating in response to depression was significantly positively associated with triglycerides (ß = 5.28, t = 2.49, p = 0.02), while the emotional eating in response to anxiety was significantly negatively associated with triglycerides (ß = -11.42, t = -2.64, p = 0.01), after adjusting for age and use of cholesterol medicine. Our findings offer new insights to address emotional eating and lower CVD risk in law enforcement officers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Polícia , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Triglicerídeos , Aplicação da Lei
20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(4): 440-443, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315481

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study evaluates emergency department visits for physical injuries from use of conducted energy devices by police departments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Aplicação da Lei , Humanos , População Negra
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