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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13008, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844498

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between sport modalities practiced, physical fitness, body composition, and healthy habits in an active young population, using a statistical model for prediction. A total of 2255 (1528 boys and 727 girls) children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old who were involved in extracurricular sports from rural areas of Spain participated. Physical fitness was assessed through validated field test and, body composition was determinated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by KIDMED questionnaire. The general sport variable was significant in VO2max when comparing the invasion and combat modalities to the reference level (court/net). The sex and age variables revealed significant differences in all physical fitness and body composition parameters. Health parameters, such as hours of additional practice, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and previous experience, showed significant differences. The study concludes that the sport modality variables of training, sex, age, and maturational period have an impact on body composition and fitness parameters in this population. Therefore, by focusing on factors associated with lower values in health indicators, we can prevent health problems during adulthood, such as cardiorespiratory deficits.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Espanha , Dieta Mediterrânea , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hábitos
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e12, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Childhood is an important transitional period for the development of healthy physical activity (PA) behaviours, so it is important to understand its impact on a healthy lifestyle. AIM:  This study aimed to determine the influences of sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and body composition (BC) on the relationships between PA, motor skills, motor- and health-related physical fitness in 5-8-year-olds. SETTING:  Participants were a subsample consisting of 299 children (150 boys, 149 girls, mean age 6.83 ± 0.96 years) from the Exercise, Arterial Modulation and Nutrition in Youth South Africa study (ExAMIN Youth SA). METHODS:  Anthropometric measures, health-related physical fitness (HRPF), motor-related physical fitness (MRPF), objectively measured PA and demographic information were determined. RESULTS:  Only 66% achieved the recommended 60 min of daily moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with 19% classified as having unhealthy body composition (11% overweight, 8% obese). Fat-free mass and SES revealed small-to-moderate influences on the relationship between MVPA, standing broad jump (SBJ; r = 0.32), predicted VO2max (r = 0.28) and beep levels (r = 0.22). For MRPF, the quality of running (r = 0.12) and balancing were associated with MVPA. Adjusting for sex, BC and SES in the relationship between PA with HRPF and MRPF, reductions in most correlations were observed. CONCLUSION:  Moderate vigorous physical activity levels were positively associated with HRPF, MRPF and some motor skills in 5-8-year-olds. Socioeconomic status (lower parental income, employment and education negatively influenced the association between MVPA and fitness [beeps, SBJ, O2max]).Contribution: This study provides knowledge with regard to the use of accelerometer for baseline data for PA, MRPF, HRPF as well as motor skills in South African children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Aptidão Física , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , África do Sul , Pré-Escolar , Classe Social , Fatores Sexuais
3.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 465-474, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841634

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the optimal surface for sprint interval training to maximize transfer effects on physical performance measures on the grass pitch. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 40 collegiate female soccer players were equally assigned to three experimental groups performing short sprint interval training (SSIT: 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 5 seconds all-out running, with a 50-second recovery period between each effort and a 3-minute rest interval between sets) on SAND, GRASS, LAND, and a control group. Before and after a 7-week training period, participants underwent a series of field-based tests to evaluate countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m linear sprint, Illinois change of direction (CoD) speed, Yo-Yo IR1, 2.4 km time trial, and maximal kicking distance (MKD) performance. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was conducted on the data, along with Bonferroni post hoc testing. After the intervention, the control group did not show any changes, while the SAND, GRASS and LAND training groups demonstrated improvements (p = 0.001) in their performance as follows: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 1.21, 0.97, 0.64), 20-m linear sprint (ES = -0.81, -0.55, -0.41), Illinois CoD (ES = -0.72, -0.79, -0.41), Yo-Yo IR1 (ES = 1.86, 1.19, 1.12), 2.4 km time trail (ES = -0.82, -0.62, -0.49), and MKD (ES = 0.60, 0.90, 0.72), respectively. Comparative analysis of SAND, GRASS, and LAND revealed that performing SSIT on SAND results in a significantly greater gain in CMJ than LAND (p = 0.041). Analyzing individual responses to training interventions indicated that the training surface had a favorable influence on CMJ (SAND vs. LAND, p = 0.009), but on other variables no statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed. Considering these findings, it is advised that strength and conditioning coaches use the SAND surface as the initial choice for SSIT sessions regarding greater gains (i.e., ES) in performance. This recommendation aims to facilitate more favorable transfer in physical fitness adaptation on a soccer grass pitch. In case of unavailability of SAND surface, GRASS surface would be a suitable alternative to enhance the physical fitness of collegiate female soccer players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Aptidão Física , Poaceae , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Feminino , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Corrida/fisiologia , Areia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Teste de Esforço
4.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 265-275, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841647

RESUMO

The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to compare physical fitness adaptations following small-sided games (SSG) and running-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT), considering sex interactions; and (ii) to describe intra-individual variations of adaptations in both men and women developmental/trained soccer players over an 8-week randomized parallel study design involving 25 women and 27 men. Pre and post-intervention assessments included countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-meter linear sprint test, change-of-direction (COD) deficit, and final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT). Significant interactions between time, groups and sex were found in 10-m sprint (F1,48 = 6.042; p = 0.018; ηp2 = 0.112). No significant interactions between time, groups and sex were found in CMJ (F F1,48 = 0.609; p = 0.439; ηp2 = 0.013), COD deficit (F F1,48 = 2.718; p = 0.106; ηp2 = 0.054) and VIFT (F F1,48 = 1.141; p = 0.291; ηp2 = 0.023). Significant interactions were found between time and sex in CMJ (F F1,48 = 29.342; p < 0.001; ηp2= 0.379), 10-m sprint (F F1,48 = 4.359; p = 0.042; ηp2 = 0.083), COD deficit (F F1,48 = 5.066; p = 0.029; ηp2= 0.095) and VIFT (F F1,48 = 11.248; p = 0.002; ηp2 = 0.190). In conclusion, this study suggests similar effects of HIIT in both sexes. However, for women, SSG may entail less efficacy and more inter-individual variability compared to men. Therefore, HIIT could potentially be a better solution for women, whereas both training approaches were equally effective in men.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Corrida/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Adulto
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 455-464, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841648

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of a 7-week short sprint interval training (SSIT) with differing in programming volume-loads including progressive (P-SSIT) and nonprogressive (NP-SSIT) approaches on the immunoendocrine, physical fitness attributes and physiological parameters in male wrestlers during the pre-season. Thirty young freestyle wrestlers at the collegiate national-level were included in the study and were divided into three groups: P-SSIT (n = 10), NP-SSIT (n = 10), and an active control group (n = 10). The wrestlers engaged in their specific wrestling training three days weekly, while the P-SSIT and NP-SSIT groups underwent a 7-week SSIT, with scheduling in either progressed or nonprogressed volume-based overloads, three times per week. Before and after the intervention, various aspects of physical fitness (such as 20-m sprint, 4×9-m shuttle run, and maximal strength) and physiological parameters (including cardiorespiratory fitness and anaerobic power output), as well as immunoendocrine responses (such as immunoglobulin-A, testosterone, and cortisol) were measured. Following the training intervention, the control group did not show any significant changes in the variable measured; however, both the P-SSIT and NP-SSIT groups experienced significant improvements (p = 0.001) in physical fitness attributes and physiological parameters with effect sizes ranging from small to very large, and also more adaptive responses compared with control group (p < 0.05). In addition, there were no statistically significant changes observed among the P-SSIT and NP-SSIT groups in terms of immunoendocrine response to training, and physical fitness, as well as physiological parameters (p > 0.05). In conclusion, neither the progressed nor nonprogressed approaches of SSIT demonstrated superior effects on adaptations compared to one another. Therefore, it is recommended for strength and conditioning coaches in wrestling to incorporate both P-SSIT and NP-SSIT into their annual training plan, especially during the pre-season phase, to maximize the physical fitness and physiological parameters of their wrestlers while minimizing changes in immunoendocrine responses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hidrocortisona , Testosterona , Luta Romana , Humanos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Masculino , Luta Romana/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Testosterona/sangue , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 487-494, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841646

RESUMO

Small-sided games (SSGs) are frequently utilized in training settings to elicit specific stimuli that can promote physical fitness adaptations over time. However, various task constraints, such as pitch dimensions, can significantly influence both the acute external and internal load responses. Thus, understanding the impact of different pitch dimensions on physical fitness adaptations is crucial. This study sought to compare the physical adaptations induced by an SSG-based program utilizing more elongated pitches (SSGlw2; length-to-width ratio: 2.0) versus less elongated pitches (SSGwl1; length-to-width ratio: 1.0) on the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT), and 30-meter sprint. This study employed a randomized controlled design. Forty-eight male soccer players (16.4 ± 0.6 years) participated. These players were randomly allocated to two experimental groups (N = 16, SSGlw1; N = 16, SSGlw2) and underwent two weekly additional training sessions over an 8-week period, while a group of 16 players continued with their regular in-field sessions as a control group. Evaluations were conducted before and after the intervention period. Significant interactions time u group were observed in regards YYIRT (F = 15.857; p < 0.001; = 0.413) and 30-m sprint test (p < 0.001). Between-group differences on YYIRT were found in post-intervention (p < 0.001), on which SSGlw2 (p < 0.001) and SSGlw1 (p < 0.001) were significantly greater in comparison to control group. Additionally, between-group differences on 30-m sprint were found in post-intervention (p < 0.001), on which SSGlw2 was significantly better than SSGlw1 (p < 0.001) and control group (p < 0.001). Coaches are advised to prioritize the use of more elongated pitch sizes to promote adaptations in sprint performance, while still acknowledging that aerobic capacity improvements remain significant compared to other pitch shapes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Aptidão Física , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304912, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the physical fitness characteristics of elite freestyle skiing aerials athletes, thereby enhancing the understanding of exercise physiologists, sports scientists, and coaches regarding the demands in this discipline. METHODS: After health screenings, 29 athletes from the Chinese National Freestyle Skiing Aerials Team were divided into elite and general groups, including males and females. Physical fitness indexes were determined through literature reviews, expert interviews, and the Delphi method, followed by physical fitness tests assessing body morphology, physiological function, and physical quality. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Differences between the two groups were then evaluated using independent sample t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests, after which effect sizes were calculated to assess the magnitude of the differences. RESULTS: Significant body morphology differences were noted between elite and general groups in fat-free body weight, leg, and waist circumferences (P < 0.05). Male athletes in the elite group exhibited a significantly lower percentage of body fat (P < 0.05), whereas the reduction in body fat percentage among female elite athletes was not statistically significant. In terms of physiological function assessment, elite athletes demonstrated superior performance in both maximum anaerobic capacity and relative maximum anaerobic capacity compared to their counterparts in the general group (P < 0.05). Notably, the difference in maximum anaerobic capacity was highly significant among male athletes (P < 0.01), and the relative maximum anaerobic capacity among female athletes was also markedly significant (P < 0.01). Regarding physical quality indexes, elite athletes outperformed those in the general group in all aspects except for the quick v-up and 12-minute run tests (P < 0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Elite athletes exhibit superior physical fitness characteristics compared to general athletes, attributable to differences in age, years of training, and their participation in ongoing specialized physical training within structured, cyclical programs. Specifically, elite athletes demonstrated higher fat-free body weight, larger waist and leg circumferences in terms of body morphology. Particularly, male athletes showed a trend towards lower body fat percentage. Physiologically, they exhibited stronger anaerobic metabolism capabilities. In terms of physical quality, elite athletes displayed superior limb strength, lower limb explosive power, and specialized core strength, along with better speed, agility, and overall coordination.


Assuntos
Atletas , Aptidão Física , Esqui , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Esqui/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Peso Corporal
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e088312, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of an ecological dynamics (ED) intervention (EDI) on primary school children's physical literacy and well-being in the Hong Kong context. The aim of this project is to introduce a physical literacy and well-being framework through an EDI that allows primary school children to develop good physical activity (PA) and daily behavioural habits. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A four-arm (cluster) randomised controlled trial will be conducted to examine the effect of EDI on physical literacy and well-being in primary schools located in each of the 18 administrative districts of Hong Kong. Four classes in senior primary students (grade 4) at each school will be randomly assigned to the four different conditions. These participating schools will be equipped with sit-stand desks, PA recess facility and equipment, and sleep pillows. The research team will adopt both objective measures (aerobic fitness, fundamental movement skills, daily behaviour-physical activity and cognitive function) and self-reported measures (perceived physical literacy, quality of life, sleep quality) covering the elements and domains of physical literacy and well-being to examine the effects of EDIs at four time points, including baseline assessment, 3 months after intervention, postintervention and 3-month follow-up assessment. One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) will be used to test for differences in the baseline characteristics of participants between groups. Repeated measure ANOVAs and MANCOVA, with time (baseline, after intervention and follow-up) as within-subjects factor, and intervention group as between-subjects factors, will be used to evaluate the effects of different interventions on the students' physical literacy and well-being. A Bonferonni correction to the p value will be calculated to adjust for multiple tests. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was sought from the Joint CUHK-NTEC Clinical Research Ethics Committee in Hong Kong (CREC Ref.No.:2024.027). The finding of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals, international conference presentations and academic lectures. For secondary analysis of the data, please contact the corresponding author for permission. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN84025914.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Hong Kong , Criança , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Masculino , Letramento em Saúde , Aptidão Física , Estudantes/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(6): e14678, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Students' experiences in physical education (PE) can shape future physical activity (PA) behaviors. PE enjoyment is associated with PA; however, the relationship between PE enjoyment and fitness has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to examine if changes in PE enjoyment were associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) among Finnish adolescents. METHODS: Study participants were students (n = 1147; 11.27 [±0.32] years at baseline) attending public schools in Finland. Data were collected yearly (2017-2021). The 20 m shuttle run assessed CRF, curl-up/push-up tests assessed MF, and the enjoyment subscale of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 measured PE enjoyment. The random intercept cross-lagged panel model, including repeated measures (within-level) and latent levels (between-level) of PE enjoyment, CRF and MF, was tested. Sex, body mass index, moderate to vigorous PA, and peak height velocity were included as covariates in the analysis. RESULTS: Over 5 years, PE enjoyment decreased, CRF increased until Timepoint 3, and MF remained stable. Positive associations between PE enjoyment and fitness were observed, indicating the greater the PE enjoyment, the higher the fitness. For PE enjoyment, CRF and MF repeated measures were positively associated with measurement of the next year. PE enjoyment was positively related to CRF and MF the years thereafter. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of quality PE experiences for enjoyment and fitness gains during the transition from primary to secondary school. These findings are important given youth fitness levels are associated with future health status.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Finlândia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Criança , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prazer , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aptidão Física/psicologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13697, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871752

RESUMO

To examine the association between levels of physical fitness, parameters of body composition and phase angle (PhA) amongst adolescents. A total of 152 adolescents (84 girls) aged 11-16 years were included in this study. Weight and height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) provided resistance and reactance parameters to calculate fat-free mass (FFM), PhA and fat mass (%FM). The following physical fitness variables were analysed: flexibility, abdominal muscular endurance, upper and lower limb explosive strength, agility, speed and cardiorespiratory fitness. Generalized Linear Models were applied to verify differences across sexes. Stepwise linear regression was used to establish an association between the variables studied. The study established an association between PhA and weight, FFM, BMI, FM, %FM and medicine ball throw (MBT) for girls. As for the boys, an association was verified between PhA and weight, FFM, BMI, standing long jump (SLJ), MBT and the three allometric VO2peak variables analyzed. An association was found between PhA and the boys' 4-m shuttle run test (4SRT) and 20-m sprint test (20SRT). Boys showed a greater phase angle than girls; In girls, BMI and %FM, were determinant of 32.4% (r = 0.57). PhA variability which is influenced by physical fitness, body composition and, therefore, the tissues electrical conductivity. Furthermore, boys' height, FFM, upper limb strength, and agility account for 58.4% (r = 0.76) PhA variability. There was a positive correlation between the physical fitness tests and the PhA.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Física , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Força Muscular/fisiologia
11.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 54(2): 105-109, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870952

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine dipstick urinalysis is part of many dive medical assessment protocols. However, this has a significant chance of producing false-positive or false-negative results in asymptomatic and healthy individuals. Studies evaluating the value of urinalysis in dive medical assessments are limited. Methods: All results from urinalysis as part of dive medical assessments of divers, submarines, and hyperbaric personnel of the Royal Netherlands Navy from 2013 to 2023 were included in this study. Additionally, any information regarding additional testing, referral, or test results concerning the aforementioned was collected. Results: There were 5,899 assessments, resulting in 46 (0.8%) positive dipstick urinalysis results, predominantly microscopic haematuria. Females were significantly overrepresented, and revisions resulted in significantly more positive test results than initial assessments. Lastly, almost half of the cases were deemed fit to dive, while the other half were regarded as temporarily unfit. These cases required additional testing, and a urologist was consulted three times. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study evaluating urinalysis in dive medical assessments. In our military population, the incidence of positive test results is very low, and there have not been clinically relevant results over a period of 10 years. Therefore, routinely assessing urine in asymptomatic healthy military candidates is not cost-effective or efficacious. The authors advise taking a thorough history for fitness to dive assessments and only analysing urine when a clinical indication is present.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Hematúria , Militares , Urinálise , Humanos , Urinálise/métodos , Feminino , Mergulho/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Hematúria/urina , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Medicina Submarina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem , Reações Falso-Positivas
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13531, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866795

RESUMO

The average levels of physical activity in children are below the ideal, which may influence children's health and motor competence levels. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of a 10-week play-based after-school program on 50 twelve-year-old students' anthropometric characteristics (body height and body weight), coordinative abilities (flamingo balance test and T-test agility), and physical fitness (sit and reach, 20-m sprint test, SLJ, CMJ, and handgrip). After baseline assessments, the students were randomly divided into two groups: one participating in a play-based after-school program (experimental group) and the other attending regular PE classes (control group). No differences were noted between the sexes. Analysis revealed baseline differences between groups in body weight, agility T-test, and right-handgrip, with no significant sex differences. Following the intervention, the experimental group demonstrated improvements in the 20-m sprint test (F(1,46) = 11.03, p < 0.01), flamingo balance test (F(1,46) = 9.16, p = 0.004), SLJ (F(1,46) = 5.30, p = 0.03), agility T-test (F(1,46) = 28.30, p < 0.01), and right-handgrip (F(1,46) = 6.59, p < 0.01). In summary, the results suggested that a 10-week play-based after-school program enhances coordinative abilities and physical fitness in 12-year-old children. This underscores the potential advantages of integrating play-based physical activities into schools to promote holistic health and fitness in children.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Estudantes , Jogos e Brinquedos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13544, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866868

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of different types of physical activity (PA) on the physical fitness (PF) of young children in Japan, with a particular focus on how substituting sedentary behavior (SB) with active behaviors influences PF. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1843 participants aged 3-6 years from northeastern Japan. Using triaxial accelerometers, we quantified PA, and PF was assessed via standardized tests. The innovative application of isotemporal substitution modeling (ISM) allowed us to analyze the impact of reallocating time from SB to more active states, specifically moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light physical activity (LPA). Our findings reveal a robust association between increased MVPA and enhanced PF outcomes, underscoring the health benefits of reducing SB. Notably, replacing SB with LPA also showed beneficial effects on certain PF metrics, indicating LPA's potential role in early childhood fitness. These results highlight the critical importance of promoting MVPA and minimizing sedentary periods to bolster PF in young children. The study offers vital insights for shaping public health policies and emphasizes the need to cultivate an active lifestyle from an early age to secure long-term health advantages.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Criança , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Japão
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305397, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870132

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The National Fitness Plan (NFP) is a vital initiative aimed at realizing Healthy China 2030. This study assessed spatial heterogeneity in the NFP development and the socioeconomic factors contributing to this inequality. METHODS: Data from 31 administrative regions in 2021 were analyzed using four NFP development metrics. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated using global Moran's I, followed by global and local regression models for non-random spatial patterns. RESULTS: National physical fitness exhibited significant clustering (z = 5.403), notably a high-high cluster in East China. The global regression model identified three socioeconomic factors in the geographically weighted regression model: per capita disposable income and the number of public buses positively affected national physical fitness, while general public budget expenditure had a negative impact. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent unequal NFP development is projected due to income disparities in economically backward regions. To promote the NFP effectively, a cost-efficient strategy includes creating 15-minute fitness circles, especially by establishing public sports facilities in Western China communities. These findings inform policy priorities for advancing the NFP towards Healthy China 2030.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , China , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
15.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 24(6): 834-845, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874991

RESUMO

This study investigates whether exercise as a strategy for improving physical fitness at sea level also offers comparable benefits in the unique context of high altitudes (HA), considering the physiological challenges of hypoxic conditions. Overall, 121 lowlanders who had lived on the Tibetan Plateau for >2 years and were still living at HA during the measurements were randomly classified into four groups. Each individual of the low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI), and high-intensity (HI) groups performed 20 sessions of aerobic exercise at HA (3680 m) over 4 weeks, while the control group (CG) did not undergo any intervention. Physiological responses before and after the intervention were observed. The LI and MI groups experienced significant improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness (0.27 and 0.35 L/min increases in peak oxygen uptake [ V ˙ $\dot{\mathrm{V}}$ O2peak], both p < 0.05) after exercise intervention, while the hematocrit (HCT) remained unchanged (p > 0.05). However, HI exercise was less efficient for cardiopulmonary fitness of lowlanders (0.02 L/min decrease in V ˙ $\dot{\mathrm{V}}$ O2peak, p > 0.05), whereas both the HCT (1.74 %, p < 0.001) and glomerular filtration rate (18.41 mL/min, p < 0.001) increased with HI intervention. Therefore, LI and MI aerobic exercise, rather than HI, can help lowlanders in Tibet become more acclimated to the HA by increasing cardiopulmonary function and counteracting erythrocytosis.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Altitude , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício Físico , Consumo de Oxigênio , Humanos , Tibet , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Hematócrito , Adulto Jovem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia
16.
Prog Brain Res ; 286: 211-234, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876576

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) plays an important role in daily life and is known to correlated with aerobic fitness. However, whether the relationship between aerobic fitness and WM is dependent on the stimulus modality or is associated with one or multiple subprocesses involved in WM remains unknown. Accordingly, this study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to comprehensively examine the encoding, preparation, and retrieval processes during verbal and spatial WM performance. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-30years were recruited to participate in two laboratory visits on separate days. On day 1, aerobic fitness was assessed by maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) during a treadmill-based graded exercise test. On day 2, participants completed verbal and spatial WM tasks while P2, contingent negative voltage (CNV), and P3 components of ERP were recorded during the encoding, preparatory, and retrieval stages of WM, respectively. Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that V˙O2max was positively correlated with response accuracy during the high-demanding condition of spatial WM after controlling for age, sex, and self-reported physical activity. Additionally, a higher level of V˙O2max was associated with larger terminal CNV amplitude at the Cz electrode during the high-demanding condition of spatial WM. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness may have selective beneficial associations with the motor preparatory process and subsequent task performance requiring a greater amount of spatial information but not the encoding and retrieval stages nor the verbal modality of WM.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Memória de Curto Prazo , Memória Espacial , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adolescente , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1557, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: College students' physical fitness is likely to be directly related to their cells' health. However, there is a lack of literature on whether the relationship between cell health and college students' physical fitness is direct or indirect. This study used a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to investigate the connection between cell health and college students' physical fitness. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from 838 volunteers (502 males and 336 females, average age of 18.74 ± 1.5 years) who were college students from the Shandong province of China in July 2023. Initially, we obtained anthropometric measurements and conducted physical fitness tests on the students. Then, we performed Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis to screen variables and explore potentially influencing factors. Finally, we examined associations between the variables and determined whether there were direct or indirect influences among factors using SEM. RESULTS: The results revealed a significant correlation between the cell health factor and the muscle strength factor (path coefficient = 0.97; p < 0.001) as well as the fat obesity factor (path coefficient = -0.52; p < 0.001). The cardiovascular factor exhibited a weak correlation with the cell health factor (path coefficient = 0.11; p < 0.01). Moreover, the cardiovascular factor acted as a mediating variable between the muscle strength factor and the cell health factor, with a positive correlation observed between the muscle strength factor and the cell health factor (path coefficient = 0.40; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cell health is indicative of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Our findings demonstrate that assessing the cell health of college students can be a valuable method for evaluating their overall health.


Assuntos
Análise de Classes Latentes , Aptidão Física , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , China , Adolescente , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Força Muscular/fisiologia
18.
Arch Osteoporos ; 19(1): 47, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856950

RESUMO

Muscular fitness plays a major role in bone health and body composition in overweight and obese children. It is key that the development of this muscle fitness is affected by absolute isometric strength and dynamic strength. PURPOSE: To compare bone health and body composition between overweight/obese children considering muscular fitness (MF) levels, and to investigate whether weight-bearing dynamic or absolute isometric strength, both involved in the development of this muscular fitness, are more related with bone health. METHODS: MF of 59 overweight or obese children (10.1 ± 0.9 years, 27 females) was measured by a countermovement jump (CMJ), handgrip, and maximal isometric strength of knee extension. Participants were divided into four groups depending on their MF level performing a cluster analysis: 16 children with high MF (HMF) in all tests, 18 with high performance in isometric strength (HIS), 15 with high performance in CMJ (HCMJ) and 10 low isometric and low dynamic force values (LMF). Body composition values were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone strength values were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Motor skills were evaluated using TGMD-3. Multivariate analysis of covariance test was applied to analyse bone strength differences between children in the different MF groups, using maturity offset, height and weight as covariates, and correlations were investigated. RESULTS: HMF excelled in bone health. HIS had higher cortical bone area, periosteal circumference, bone mass, polar strength strain index and fracture load than LMF, while HCMJ only showed better results in trabecular bone area than LMF. HMF had significantly better values of fracture load and periosteal and endosteal circumferences than HCMJ, but not than HIS. CONCLUSIONS: High MF level shows positive effects on bone health in overweight/obese children. Those with highest isometric strength had better bone health compared to those with higher dynamic strength. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The research project was registered in a public database Clinicaltrials.gov in June 2020 with the identification number NCT04418713.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Força Muscular , Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Obesidade Infantil/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Força da Mão/fisiologia
19.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(3): 411-417, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the nutritional status and physical fitness of the Uygur, Kazak and Han ethnic college students, and to investigate the nonlinear relationship between BMI and physical fitness indexes in different ethnic groups. METHODS: A total of 3 600 Uygur, Kazakh and Han students majoring in non-sports in a university in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2021 were selected by stratified random cluster sampling method. Height, weight, vital capacity, 50 m running, standing long jump, sit-and-reach, sit-up/pull-up and endurance running were measured. Body mass index (BMI), standardized Z score of each test score and physical fitness index (PFI) were calculated. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test, single factor analysis of variance, and nonlinear quadratic regression. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight (16.00%) and obesity (8.08%) of the Han college students were significantly higher than those of the Uygur (11.83% and 4.08%) and Kazakh (13.58% and 4.58%). Prevalence of low weight in the Uygur (11.92%) was the highest, and the lowest was the Kazakh (9.75%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of BMI classification among the three ethnic groups boys and girls (all P < 0.05). There were significant differences in PFI among college students of different BMI levels in the Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic college students (all P < 0.05), and the PFI of normal weight group was higher than the other weight groups in general, and the overweight group was higher than the obese group, but some ethnics showed the highest PFI in the low weight group. The non-linear quadratic regression results showed that the curves of the Uygur boys and girls and the Kazakh boys were inverted "J" shaped, and the PFI increased and then decreased with the increase of BMI, while the rest of the curves were arc-shaped, and the PFI decreased with the increase of BMI. CONCLUSION: Overweight obesity in the Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic college students brings about a decrease in physical fitness, but Kazakh low weight male and female and Han low weight grils have better physical fitness than the normal weight groups. Focusing on improving the physical fitness of Uygur low-weight and high-weight boys and Han high-weight girls could effectively reduce the differences in physical fitness of college students in different weight levels and ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Etnicidade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Aptidão Física , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , China/etnologia , Universidades , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Peso Corporal
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1410707, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38883199

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the potential effects of 8-week parents-accompanied swimming on the physical capacity and intelligence of preschool children in China. Thirty-six boys (mean age 3.56 ± 0.27 years) were divided into three groups: the traditional physical exercise group (TP, n = 12), the accompanied swimming group (AS, n = 12) and the independent swimming group (IS, n = 12). Participants' physical capacity was assessed before and after the intervention using the following indicators: height, weight, distance of tennis ball throw, standing long jump distance, time for the 10-meter shuttle run, time for a two-legged continuous jump, sit-and-reach distance, and time on the walking balance beam. Intelligence was assessed at three points: pre-test, mid-test after 4 weeks, and post-test. Data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni test (p < 0.05) and effect size. The time of the AS and IS groups to walk the balance beam was significantly lower than the TP group, with a difference of 1.81 s (p < 0.01, [95% CI -3.22 to -0.40], ES = 1.53) and 1.25 s (p < 0.05, [95% CI -2.66 to 0.16], ES = 0.81). At the mid-test, the IQ scores of the TP group were lower than the AS group (p < 0.05, [95% CI -12.45 to -0.96], ES = 0.89). Additionally, at post-test, the IQ scores of the TP group were significantly lower than those of both AS (p < 0.01, [95% CI -14.12 to -2.74], ES = 1.15) and IS groups (p < 0.01, [95% CI -12.53 to -3.31], ES = 1.21). Swimming enhances children's balance and IQ scores more than traditional physical exercises. Involving parents in swimming leads to a more significant increase in IQ scores within 4 weeks of initial swimming exercise.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Pais , Natação , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Inteligência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , China , Pais/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
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