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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-12951

RESUMO

Este plan esta conformado por una alternativa inicial que puede ayudarte en los momentos en los que identifiques alguna conducta de riesgo que pueda atentar contra tu vida, tu integridad, o la vida y la integridad de alguna otra persona.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Aptidão , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-12952

RESUMO

Este plan esta conformado por una alternativa inicial que puede ayudarte en los momentos en los que identifiques alguna conducta de riesgo que pueda atentar contra tu vida, tu integridad, o la vida y la integridad de alguna otra persona.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Aptidão , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 286, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good technical skills are crucial for surgeons. Yet although surgical training programs strive to assess technical aptitude when selecting surgical residents, valid assessments of such aptitude are still lacking. Surgical simulators have been proposed as a potentially effective tool for this purpose. The current study aims to develop a technical aptitude test using a virtual reality surgical simulator, and to validate its use for the selection of surgical residents. METHODS: The study had three phases. In Phase 1, we developed an initial version of the technical aptitude test using the Lap-X-VR laparoscopic simulator. In Phases 2 and 3 we refined the test and collected empirical data to evaluate four main sources of validity evidence (content, response process, internal structure, and relationships with other variables), and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the test. Specifically, Phase 2 comprised a review of the test by 30 senior surgeons, and in Phase 3 a revised version of the test was administered to 152 interns to determine its psychometric properties. RESULTS: Both the surgeons and interns rated the test as highly relevant for selecting surgical residents. Analyses of the data obtained from the trial administration of the test supported the appropriateness of the score calculation process and showed good psychometric properties, including reliability (α = 0.83) and task discrimination (mean discrimination = 0.5, SD = 0.1). The correlations between test scores and background variables revealed significant correlations with gender, surgical simulator experience, and video game experience (ps < 0.001). These variables, however, explained together only 10% of the variance in test scores. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the systematic development of an innovative virtual reality test for assessing technical aptitude in candidates for surgical training, and present evidence for its validity, feasibility and acceptability. Further validation is required to support the application of the test for selection, as well as to discern the impact of gender, surgical simulator experience, and video game experience on the fairness of test results. However, the test appears to be a promising tool that may help training programs assess the suitability of candidates for surgical training.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Aptidão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298522, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478522

RESUMO

This study explores the capabilities of large language models to replicate the behavior of individuals with underdeveloped cognitive and language skills. Specifically, we investigate whether these models can simulate child-like language and cognitive development while solving false-belief tasks, namely, change-of-location and unexpected-content tasks. GPT-3.5-turbo and GPT-4 models by OpenAI were prompted to simulate children (N = 1296) aged one to six years. This simulation was instantiated through three types of prompts: plain zero-shot, chain-of-thoughts, and primed-by-corpus. We evaluated the correctness of responses to assess the models' capacity to mimic the cognitive skills of the simulated children. Both models displayed a pattern of increasing correctness in their responses and rising language complexity. That is in correspondence with a gradual enhancement in linguistic and cognitive abilities during child development, which is described in the vast body of research literature on child development. GPT-4 generally exhibited a closer alignment with the developmental curve observed in 'real' children. However, it displayed hyper-accuracy under certain conditions, notably in the primed-by-corpus prompt type. Task type, prompt type, and the choice of language model influenced developmental patterns, while temperature and the gender of the simulated parent and child did not consistently impact results. We conducted analyses of linguistic complexity, examining utterance length and Kolmogorov complexity. These analyses revealed a gradual increase in linguistic complexity corresponding to the age of the simulated children, regardless of other variables. These findings show that the language models are capable of downplaying their abilities to achieve a faithful simulation of prompted personas.


Assuntos
Cognição , Idioma , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguística , Aptidão
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0290147, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330032

RESUMO

Though it may appear counterintuitive, certain positive attributes can eventually have negative consequences when taken to an extreme. This concept is exemplified in sports, where an increase in talent among team members initially leads to improved success, but beyond a certain threshold, excessive talent can adversely affect the team. This occurrence is known as the Too Much Talent (TMT) effect, wherein status conflicts among highly skilled players can hinder team performance, particularly in sports that require coordination and cooperation. While early evidence supported the TMT effect in team sports, its validity has recently been challenged. In this study, we analyzed a comprehensive dataset consisting of 780 data points across 42 seasons from seven top European football (soccer) leagues to examine the TMT effect's presence. Our findings reveal that football does not exhibit the TMT effect. Instead, we observed a consistent, positive correlation between the number of skilled players on a team and team success. Additionally, talent did not display diminishing returns, as its impact on success remained stable even at the highest concentrations of talent. We relate our results to existing theories and propose that future research comparing more individualistic and interdependent team sports could further enhance the field.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Logro , Esportes de Equipe , Aptidão
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297073, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324549

RESUMO

In the context of extensive disciplinary integration, researchers worldwide have increasingly focused on musical ability. However, despite the wide range of available music ability tests, there remains a dearth of validated tests applicable to China. The Music Ear Test (MET) is a validated scale that has been reported to be potentially suitable for cross-cultural distribution in a Chinese sample. However, no formal translation and cross-cultural reliability/validity tests have been conducted for the Chinese population in any of the studies using the Music Ear Test. This study aims to assess the factor structure, convergence, predictiveness, and validity of the Chinese version of the MET, based on a large sample of Chinese participants (n≥1235). Furthermore, we seek to determine whether variables such as music training level, response pattern, and demographic data such as gender and age have intervening effects on the results. In doing so, we aim to provide clear indications of musical aptitude and expertise by validating an existing instrument, the Music Ear Test, and provide a valid method for further understanding the musical abilities of the Chinese sample.


Assuntos
Música , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aptidão/fisiologia , Escolaridade , China
7.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 42(2): 234-256, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406975

RESUMO

Exposure to narratives may have beneficial effects on children's social-cognitive development because narratives provide information about the social world and often require social understanding for story comprehension. In the current study, we examined the influence of narratives presented via different media (books, audiobooks, TV/films) on theory-of-mind performance and mental verb comprehension in a sample of 114 three- to six-year-old preschool children. Parents' reports on the number of (children's) books at home, the overall duration of TV/film and audio media exposure, the frequency of shared book reading, watching children's TV/films and audiobook listening, and parent-child discussions about media content were collected. Children's theory-of-mind performance and mental verb comprehension were measured as dependent variables. When gender, age, language skills and parental education were controlled, only the number of children's books, shared book reading frequency, audio-media exposure and audiobook usage significantly predicted children's theory-of-mind scores. None of the media exposure or the parent-child discussion variables had significant incremental effects above the family and child characteristics on mental verb comprehension.


Assuntos
Cognição , 60673 , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Criança , Leitura , Pais/psicologia , Aptidão
8.
Mil Psychol ; 36(1): 3-15, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193874

RESUMO

Numerous traditional assessments have been developed to determine suitability of US military recruits for cyber careers. Cyber career field managers expressed a concern there may be well-qualified candidates that lack cyber knowledge, and therefore are not identified with knowledge-based tests. Technological advances such as serious gaming may provide opportunities to assess constructs traditional methods do not effectively measure. The purpose of this effort was to identify potential gains in validity that could be achieved beyond traditional methods through the use of serious games for several cyber jobs (both for enlisted and officer positions). Throughout this phase of research, an extensive literature review of military and civilian assessments targeted cyber occupations. Then, military subject matter experts in these career fields provided input and guidance (e.g., focus on aptitudes and traits as knowledge and skill are rapidly outdated). A gap analysis between all measures of such constructs identified a short list of candidates for measurement in a serious game. A survey of 800 airmen in the 1N4X1A, 3D1X2 and 17DEX/SX career fields was conducted; 290 respondents identified six constructs to be the focus for serious game assessment. The game was developed, and constructs validated on a sample chosen to model Air Force enlisted recruits. Additional psychometric data from enlistees and cyber trainees will be gathered once COVID-19 restrictions are lifted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Militares , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Aptidão , Conhecimento
9.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 30(1): 11-18, Ene. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-228957

RESUMO

Learning potential can be used to assess and provide direction for action in diverse populations in modern educational settings. This study examined the relationship between the EHPAP dynamic evaluation scale and cognitive abilities (linguistic development, specific cognitive abilities, and executive functioning) in typically developing preschool children. Linear regression models indicated that children’s cognitive abilities formed part of the prediction of their independent performance in tasks before and after mediation. The abilities that formed part of the predictions were related to general linguistic development, specific cognitive functions, and executive functioning. Age as a predictive factor only contributed to verbal planning. This study examined the contribution of these variables in different EHPAP scales. (AU)


El potencial de aprendizaje se puede utilizar para evaluar y orientar la acción en diversas poblaciones en entornos educativos modernos. Este estudio analiza la relación entre la escala de evaluación dinámica EHPAP y las habilidades cognitivas (desarrollo lingüístico, habilidades cognitivas específicas y funcionamiento ejecutivo) en niños en edad preescolar con un desarrollo típico. Los modelos de regresión lineal indican que las habilidades cognitivas de los niños forman parte de la predicción de su desempeño independiente en tareas antes y después de la mediación. Las habilidades que formaban parte de las predicciones estaban relacionadas con el desarrollo lingüístico general, las funciones cognitivas específicas y el funcionamiento ejecutivo. La edad como factor predictivo solo contribuye a la planificación verbal. Este estudio analiza la contribución de estas variables en diferentes escalas EHPAP. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Aprendizagem , Avaliação Educacional , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Aptidão , Linguística , Cognição
10.
Sports Med ; 54(1): 95-104, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37676619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To what extent does junior athletic performance predict senior athletic performance (i.e., in the highest, open-age category)? This question is the subject of a lively debate in the literature. Following traditional theories of giftedness and expertise, some researchers and practitioners have proposed that a high level of junior performance is a prerequisite for the development of a high level of later senior performance. Sceptics of this view hold that junior performance has limited predictive value for later senior performance, pointing to empirical evidence indicating that predictors (e.g., participation patterns) of junior performance and of senior performance differ. The straightforward way to resolve this controversy empirically is to test the correlation between junior and senior performance. OBJECTIVE: To provide robust and generalizable evidence on this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. The aim was to quantify the overall correlation between junior and senior performance and then test whether correlations vary across junior age categories and subsamples (e.g., types of sports). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in SPORTDiscus, Eric, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus, WorldCat, and Google Scholar from 27 January through 30 April 2022. We searched for original studies that recorded athletes' junior and senior performance longitudinally and included measures of association between junior and senior performance. Quality of evidence was evaluated using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version for nonrandomized studies. RESULTS: The search yielded k = 129 effect sizes from N = 13,392 athletes from a wide range of Olympic sports, 62% male and 38% female, from 2006 to 2021. Four central findings emerged: (1) Overall, the meta-analytic pooled correlation between junior and senior performance was [Formula: see text] = 0.148. That is, junior performance explained only 2.2% of the reliable variance in senior performance. (2) The finding was robust across types of sports, sexes, wider or narrower performance ranges, national or international samples, and binary or continuous performance measures. (3) Effects varied across junior age categories: the younger the junior age category, the lower the correlation between junior and senior performance, with [Formula: see text] ranging from [Formula: see text] = - 0.052 to [Formula: see text] = 0.215. That is, across junior age categories, junior performance explained 0-4.6% of the reliable variance in senior performance. (4) The quality of primary studies was high. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that junior performance has very little, if any, predictive value for senior performance. The findings run counter to claims from traditional theories of both giftedness and expertise. From an applied perspective, talent selection typically begins around puberty or younger-age ranges where youth performance is uncorrelated or negatively correlated with later senior performance. The evidence presented here raises serious questions about the use of junior performance for talent selection purposes. A PRISMA-P protocol was registered at https://osf.io/gck4a/ .


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Atletas , Aptidão
11.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 68(3): 223-236, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38072820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial abilities are fundamental cognitive abilities, have direct applications in daily life, serve as a cognitive foundation for many other complex skills and are used in many specialty jobs. The current study aimed to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the spatial abilities of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) relative to mental ability-matched typically developing (TD) children based on Newcombe and Shipley's double-dimension theoretical framework for classifying spatial abilities. METHODS: Forty adolescents and young adults with DS and 40 TD children completed a nonverbal intelligence test (Raven's), two measures of static-extrinsic skills (water-level task and cart task), two measures of static-intrinsic skills (figure ground and form completion), two measures of dynamic-extrinsic skills (three mountains task and dog task) and two measures of dynamic-intrinsic spatial skills (mental rotation task and block design task). RESULTS: Participants with DS showed reduced performance on two dynamic-intrinsic tasks and one static-extrinsic task (i.e. cart task) relative to TD children. Performances were similar in two dynamic-extrinsic tasks and two static-intrinsic tasks. Analyses of composite accuracy for each spatial category further confirmed deficits in dynamic-intrinsic and static-extrinsic categories for people with DS relative to TD children. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed an uneven profile of spatial abilities in people with DS relative to ability-matched TD children with particular weaknesses in comprehending and manipulating dynamic-intrinsic and static-extrinsic spatial relations. Furthermore, our research has important clinical implications for more targeted interventions to improve spatial abilities in people with DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Navegação Espacial , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Aptidão , Cognição , Síndrome de Down/psicologia
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 238: 105784, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862789

RESUMO

Despite much research into the development of attention in adolescence, mixed results and between-task differences have precluded clear conclusions regarding the relative early or late maturation of attention abilities. Moreover, although adolescents constantly face the need to pay attention at school, it remains unclear whether laboratory measures of attention can predict their ability to sustain attention focus during lessons. Therefore, here we devised a task that was sensitive to measure both sustained and selective attention and tested whether task measures could predict adolescents' levels of inattention during lessons. In total, 166 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 50 adults performed a sustained selective attention task, searching for letter targets while ignoring salient yet entirely irrelevant distractor faces, under different levels of perceptual load-an established determinant of attention in adults. Inattention levels during a just preceding classroom lesson were measured using a novel self-report classroom distractibility checklist. The results established that sustained attention (measured with response variability) continued to develop throughout adolescence across perceptual load levels. In contrast, there was an earlier maturation of the effect of perceptual load on selective attention; load modulation of distractor interference was larger in the early adolescence period compared with later periods. Both distractor interference and response variability were significant unique predictors of distractibility in the classroom, including when controlling for interest in the lesson and cognitive aptitude. Overall, the results demonstrate divergence of development of sustained and selective attention in adolescence and establish both as significant predictors of attention in the important educational setting of school lessons.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Cognição , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Tempo de Reação , Atenção
14.
Dev Sci ; 27(1): e13421, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37287370

RESUMO

Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic syndrome. As with all rare syndromes, obtaining adequately powered sample sizes is a challenge. Here we present legacy data from seven UK labs, enabling the characterisation of cross-sectional and longitudinal developmental trajectories of verbal and non-verbal development in the largest sample of individuals with WS to-date. In Study 1, we report cross-sectional data between N = 102 and N = 209 children and adults with WS on measures of verbal and non-verbal ability. In Study 2, we report longitudinal data from N = 17 to N = 54 children and adults with WS who had been tested on at least three timepoints on these measures. Data support the WS characteristic cognitive profile of stronger verbal than non-verbal ability, and shallow developmental progression for both domains. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data demonstrate steeper rates of development in the child participants than the adolescent and adults in our sample. Cross-sectional data indicate steeper development in verbal than non-verbal ability, and that individual differences in the discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal ability are largely accounted for by level of intellectual functioning. A diverging developmental discrepancy between verbal and non-verbal ability, whilst marginal, is not mirrored statistically in the longitudinal data. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data are discussed with reference to validating cross-sectional developmental patterns using longitudinal data and the importance of individual differences in understanding developmental progression.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Williams , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cognição , Aptidão
15.
Cognition ; 244: 105710, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159525

RESUMO

Although there is substantial evidence for an innate 'number sense' that scaffolds learning about mathematics, whether the underlying representations are based on discrete or continuous perceptual magnitudes has been controversial. Yet the nature of the computations supported by these representations has been neglected in this debate. While basic computation of discrete non-symbolic quantities has been reliably demonstrated in adults, infants, and non-humans, far less consideration has been given to the capacity for computation of continuous perceptual magnitudes. Here we used a novel experimental task to ask if humans can learn to add non-symbolic, continuous magnitudes in accord with the properties of an algebraic group, by feedback and without explicit instruction. Three pairs of experiments tested perceptual addition under the group properties of commutativity (Experiments 1a-b), identity and inverses (Experiments 2a-b) and associativity (Experiments 3a-b), with both line length and brightness modalities. Transfer designs were used in which participants responded on trials with feedback based on sums of magnitudes and later were tested with novel stimulus configurations. In all experiments, correlations of average responses with magnitude sums were high on trials with feedback. Responding on transfer trials was accurate and provided strong support for addition under all of the group axioms with line length, and for all except associativity with brightness. Our results confirm that adult human subjects can implicitly add continuous quantities in a manner consistent with symbolic addition over the integers, and that an 'artificial algebra' task can be used to study implicit computation.


Assuntos
Cognição , Aprendizagem , Adulto , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Aptidão , Matemática , Idioma
16.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(1): fe1, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100317

RESUMO

Graphs are ubiquitous tools in science that allow one to explore data patterns, design studies, communicate findings, and make claims. This essay is a companion to the online, evidence-based interactive guide intended to help inform instructors' decision-making in how to teach graph reading, interpretation, construction, and evaluation within the discipline of biology. We provide a framework with a focus on six instructional practices that instructors can utilize when designing graphing activities: use data to engage students, teach graphing grounded in the discipline, practice explicit instruction, use real world "messy" data, utilize collaborative work, and emphasize reflection. Each component of this guide is supported by summaries of and links to articles that can inform graphing practices. The guide also contains an instructor checklist that summarizes key points with actionable steps that can guide instructors as they work towards refining and incorporating graphing into their classroom practice and emerging questions in which further empirical studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Recursos Audiovisuais , Visualização de Dados , Estudantes , Humanos , Leitura , Ensino , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Compreensão
17.
Quad. psicol. (Bellaterra, Internet) ; 26(1): e2051, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-225

RESUMO

This study was to examine the prospective associations between coach-athlete relationship (CAR) and life skills development in youth handball players. This study employed a longitudinal research design. A total of 78 male handball players completed the Life Skills Scale for Sport and the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire over three waves of data collection: start of the season; midseason and end of the season. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance Pearson’s Correlation and Linear Multiple Regression (p<.05). The findings indicated the three dimensions of CAR seem to have higher effect on life skills subscales as the season progressed (i.e., higher effect on life skills at T3 compared to T2 and T1). Commitment and Complementarity were positively associated with several life skills subscales at all three timepoints. Results suggest that the quality of the CAR is an important determinant for the de-velopment of life skills in youth handball players across the sports season. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar las posibles asociaciones entre la relación entrena-dor-atleta (CAR) y el desarrollo de habilidades para la vida en jugadores juveniles de balon-mano. Este estudio empleó un diseño de investigación longitudinal. Un total de 78 jugadores masculinos de balonmano completaron la Escala de Habilidades para la Vida Deportiva y la Es-cala de Entrenadores. Cuestionario sobre la relación con los atletas en tres oleadas de recopi-lación de datos: inicio de la temporada; mitad de temporada y final de temporada. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis multivariado de varianza, correlación de Pearson y regresión lineal múltiple (p<0,05). Los hallazgos indicaron que las tres dimensiones de CAR parecen te-ner un mayor efecto en las subescalas de habilidades para la vida a medida que avanzaba la temporada (es decir, un mayor efecto sobre las habilidades para la vida en T3 en comparación con T2 y T1). El compromiso y la complementariedad se asociaron positivamente con varias subescalas de habilidades para la vida en los tres momentos. Los resultados sugieren que la ca-lidad del CAR es un determinante importante para el desarrollo de habilidades para la vida en jugadores juveniles de balonmano a lo largo de la temporada deportiva. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atletas , Aptidão , Tutoria , Brasil , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 22(4): 700-706, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38045751

RESUMO

The age difference among individuals of the same group is known as Relative Age. Relative Age Effect refers to the consequences derived from it, such as delayed physical, cognitive and mental development of children born later in the year. The aim of this study was to observe the Relative Age Effect by analyzing players' dates of birth throughout three seasons in the two professional football competitions in Spain based on the game positions and the teams' classification at the end of the season. The sample was made up of players (n=4097) from both professional competitions (nLaLiga Santander=1864), and (nLaLiga Smartbank=2233). The data were collected from two public-access football statistics websites. The cut-off date was established on January 1, the year was divided into four quartiles (Q1: January-March, Q2: April-June, Q3: July-September and Q4: October-December). Results confirmed significant differences on dates of births' distribution (p<0.05) for the competitions - LaLiga Santander and LaLiga Smartbank - during three seasons, as well as for player position, with a larger effect observed for goalkeepers and defenders. Significant difference was also observed depending on classification. Results show a clear decreasing percentage of those born in quartile 4 in relation to those born in quartile 1, it can be concluded that the Relative Age Effect phenomenon is present in the Spanish professional football which may lead to an inappropriate talent selection technique in football, with recruitment oriented to the short term, to immediate results, and possibly caused by the early start of the player selection process.


Assuntos
Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Etários , Aptidão , Espanha
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e51603, 2023 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051572

RESUMO

Large language models (LLMs) are exhibiting remarkable performance in clinical contexts, with exemplar results ranging from expert-level attainment in medical examination questions to superior accuracy and relevance when responding to patient queries compared to real doctors replying to queries on social media. The deployment of LLMs in conventional health care settings is yet to be reported, and there remains an open question as to what evidence should be required before such deployment is warranted. Early validation studies use unvalidated surrogate variables to represent clinical aptitude, and it may be necessary to conduct prospective randomized controlled trials to justify the use of an LLM for clinical advice or assistance, as potential pitfalls and pain points cannot be exhaustively predicted. This viewpoint states that as LLMs continue to revolutionize the field, there is an opportunity to improve the rigor of artificial intelligence (AI) research to reward innovation, conferring real benefits to real patients.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Inteligência Artificial , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Idioma , Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Neurodev Disord ; 15(1): 44, 2023 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38087233

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using eye-tracking, we assessed the receptive verb vocabularies of age-matched late talkers and typically developing children (experiment 1) and autistic preschoolers (experiment 2). We evaluated how many verbs participants knew and how quickly they processed the linguistic prompt. Our goal is to explore how these eye-gaze measures can be operationalized to capture verb knowledge in late talkers and autistic children. METHOD: Participants previewed two dynamic scenes side-by-side (e.g., "stretching" and "clapping") and were then prompted to find the target verb's referent. Children's eye-gaze behaviors were operationalized using established approaches in the field with modifications in consideration for the type of stimuli (dynamic scenes versus static images) and the populations included. Accuracy was calculated as a proportion of time spent looking to the target, and linguistic processing was operationalized as latency of children's first look to the target. RESULTS: In experiment 1, there were no group differences in the proportion of verbs known, but late talkers required longer to demonstrate their knowledge than typically developing children. Latency was predicted by age but not language abilities. In experiment 2, autistic children's accuracy and latency were both predicted by receptive language abilities. CONCLUSION: Eye gaze can be used to assess receptive verb vocabulary in a variety of populations, but in operationalizing gaze behavior, we must account for between- and within-group differences. Bootstrapped cluster-permutation analysis is one way to create individualized measures of children's gaze behavior, but more research is warranted using an individual differences approach with this type of analysis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Vocabulário , Linguística , Fixação Ocular , Aptidão
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