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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 17, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is considered a source for the transmission of Arcobacter species to both humans and animals. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence, distribution, and pathogenicity of A. butzleri strains, which can potentially pose health risks to humans and animals. Cultures were isolated from surface waters of a mixed-use but predominately agricultural watershed in eastern Ontario, Canada. The detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs), as well as enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) assays were performed on 913 A. butzleri strains isolated from 11 agricultural sampling sites. RESULTS: All strains were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, with a high rate of resistance to clindamycin (99%) and chloramphenicol (77%), followed by azithromycin (48%) and nalidixic acid (49%). However, isolates showed a significantly (p < 0.05) high rate of susceptibility to tetracycline (1%), gentamycin (2%), ciprofloxacin (4%), and erythromycin (5%). Of the eight VAGs tested, ciaB, mviN, tlyA, and pldA were detected at high frequency (> 85%) compared to irgA (25%), hecB (19%), hecA (15%), and cj1349 (12%) genes. Co-occurrence analysis showed A. butzleri strains resistant to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and azithromycin were positive for ciaB, tlyA, mviN and pldA VAGs. ERIC-PCR fingerprint analysis revealed high genetic similarity among strains isolated from three sites, and the genotypes were significantly associated with AMR and VAGs results, which highlight their potential environmental ubiquity and potential as pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: The study results show that agricultural activities likely contribute to the contamination of A. butzleri in surface water. The findings underscore the importance of farm management practices in controlling the potential spread of A. butzleri and its associated health risks to humans and animals through contaminated water.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Animais , Humanos , Arcobacter/genética , Canadá , Azitromicina , Clindamicina , Virulência , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol , Enterobacteriaceae
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(12): 369, 2023 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37923944

RESUMO

The surge in human arcobacteriosis has increased interest in determining the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Arcobacter butzleri. Here, genomic analyses and in vitro Caco-2 infection, motility, urease and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) assays were used to characterise the virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants of strains HC-1, isolated from a patient with travellers' diarrhoea, and HC-2, isolated from another with pruritus. AMR determinants conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetO, present in both genomes) and to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (bla3, present in HC-2) were identified. The same determinants associated with flagellum, chemotaxis, adhesion and invasion were detected in both, but HC-1 lacked eight flagellar genes. The urease cluster was only present in HC-1. Motility and urease tests confirmed the genetic differences between strains, but no genetic marker related to the inability of HC-2 to adhere and invade was identified. This inability could be conditioning the patient's pathology.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Humanos , Virulência/genética , Células CACO-2 , Urease , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291742, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768925

RESUMO

Water quality parameters influence the abundance of pathogenic bacteria. The genera Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Klebsiella, and Mycobacterium are among the representative pathogenic bacteria identified in wastewater. However, information on the correlations between water quality and the abundance of these bacteria, as well as their reduction rate in existing wastewater treatment facilities (WTFs), is lacking. Hence, this study aimed to determine the abundance and reduction rates of these bacterial groups in WTFs. Sixty-eight samples (34 influent and 34 non-disinfected, treated, effluent samples) were collected from nine WTFs in Japan and Thailand. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Aeromonas, Arcobacter, and Mycobacterium in all influent wastewater and treated effluent samples. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to quantify the abundance of Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae species complex (KpSC), and Mycobacterium. The geometric mean abundances of Aeromonas, Arcobacter, KpSC, and Mycobacterium in the influent wastewater were 1.2 × 104-2.4 × 105, 1.0 × 105-4.5 × 106, 3.6 × 102-4.3 × 104, and 6.9 × 103-5.5 × 104 cells mL-1, respectively, and their average log reduction values were 0.77-2.57, 1.00-3.06, 1.35-3.11, and -0.67-1.57, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated significant positive or negative correlations between the abundances of the potentially pathogenic bacterial groups and Escherichia coli as well as water quality parameters, namely, chemical/biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, and oxidation-reduction potential. This study provides valuable information on the development and appropriate management of WTFs to produce safe, hygienic water.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Arcobacter , Mycobacterium , Purificação da Água , Águas Residuárias , Arcobacter/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella/genética , Aeromonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Mycobacterium/genética
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(7): 183, 2023 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37147408

RESUMO

Arcobacter spp. has gained clinical significance as an emerging diarrheagenic pathogen associated with water reservoirs in recent years. The complete clinical significance of Arcobacter remains rather speculative due to the virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of individual strains. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in fish, water, and shellfish. A total of 150 samples were collected from the Adana, Kayseri and Kahramanmaras provinces in Turkey. Arcobacter spp. was isolated from 32 (21%) of the 150 samples. The most prevalent species was A. cryaerophilus, 17 (56%), A. butzleri 13 (37%) and A. lacus 2 (6%). As a result, the ratios of the mviN, irgA, pldA, tlyA and hecA target genes were found as 17 (51%), 1 (3%), 7 (23%), 7 (23%), 1 (3%), respectively. While bla OXA-61, tetO and tetW were positive in all isolates, were found as mcr1/2/6, mcr3/7, and mcr5, genes %37.5, %25, and %34.3, respectively. Although in A. butzleri was found 10 (58%), 1 (3%), 3 (43%), 2 (28%) (mviN, irgA, pldA, and tlyA, respectively) virulence genes 7 (42%), 4 (57%), 5 (72%), 1 (3%) was found (mviN, irgA, tlyA, and hecA, respectively) virulence genes in A. cryoaerophilus. Moreover, was found for the mcr 1/2/6 7 (58%) genes, for the mcr 3/7 genes 3 (38%) in A. butzleri. In A. cryoaerophilus was found for the mcr 1/2/6 genes 5 (42%), for the mcr 3/7 genes 5 (62%), and for the mcr 5 gene 10 (100%). Thus, the current study indicated that the existence of Arcobacter spp. isolated from fish and mussel samples may pose a potential risk to public health.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Arcobacter/genética , Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37200211

RESUMO

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, beige-pigmented bacterium, strain ARW1-2F2T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected from Roscoff, France. Strain ARW1-2F2T was catalase-negative and oxidase-positive, and grew under mesophilic, neutrophilic and halophilic conditions. The 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strain ARW1-2F2T was closely related to Arcobacter lekithochrous LFT 1.7T and Arcobacter caeni RW17-10T(95.8 and 95.5 % gene sequence similarity, respectively). The genome of strain ARW1-2F2T was sequenced and had a G+C content of 28.7%. Two different measures of genome similarity, average nucleotide identity based on blast and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, indicated that strain ARW1-2F2T represents a new Arcobacter species. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c and C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c. The results of a polyphasic analysis supported the description of strain ARW1-2F2T as representing a novel species of the genus Arcobacter, for which the name Arcobacter roscoffensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain ARW1-2F2T (DSM 29169T=KCTC 52423T).


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Composição de Bases , Filogenia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Água do Mar/microbiologia
6.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 41(3): 169-172, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36870733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arcobacter butzleri is a gram-negative rod, with microaerobic growth at an optimal temperature of 37°C. It was reported to be the fourth most common Campylobacter-like organism isolated from patients with diarrhoea. OBJECTIVE: Characterise a potential outbreak of A. butzleri detected in a short period of time in the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla. METHODS: Eight strains of A. butzleri were detected in our hospital in only two months. Isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system and 16S rDNA sequencing. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were carried out to assess clonal relationship. Gradient strips (Etest) were used to determine susceptibility by agar diffusion. RESULTS: ERIC-PCR and PFGE confirmed the lack of clonal relationship between strains. Erythromycin or ciprofloxacin might be appropriate for antibiotic treatment of infections. CONCLUSIONS: A. butzleri is an emerging pathogen with increasing incidence, and may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Campylobacter , Humanos , Ciprofloxacina , Surtos de Doenças , Enterobacteriaceae , Hospitais Universitários
7.
J Food Prot ; 86(3): 100057, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36916562

RESUMO

Arcobacters are emerging pathogens that have been underestimated due to a lack of a standardized isolation method. The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to isolate Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii using two Arcobacter-specific culture detection systems: (i) the Houf broth and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar supplemented with cefoperazone, amphotericin B, and teicoplanin (HB/mCCDA+CAT), and (ii) the Nguyen-Restaino-Juárez Arcobacter enrichment broth and chromogenic agar (NRJ-B/M). Both detection systems were evaluated for productivity ratio, sensitivity, and specificity. As a result, the productivity ratio for both plating agars were >90%, which indicates that the selective agents used in the two plating agars did not inhibit Arcobacter growth. Moreover, sensitivity evaluations using artificially inoculated retail ground poultry (n = 780) determined that both detection systems were able to isolate A. butlzeri with >95% sensitivity at the 0.1 and 1.0-2.0 CFU/g detection level. The sensitivity in A. cryaerophilus isolation was higher for NRJ-B/M (78.0% at 0.1 CFU/g; 95.1% at 1.0-2.0 CFU/g) when compared with HB/mCCDA+CAT (34.1% at 0.1 CFU/g; 51.2% at 1.0-2.0 CFU/g). Both detection systems resulted in <50% sensitivity when isolating A. skirrowii at 0.1 and 1.0-2.0 CFU/g; however, the sensitivity for NRJ-B/M was significantly higher than HB/mCCDA+CAT. At the detection level of 5.0 CFU/g, both detection systems were able to isolate A. skirrowii with 100% sensitivity. Specificity comparisons using uninoculated ground poultry samples (n = 40) indicated the growth of background microbiota were significantly inhibited or could be easily differentiated on NRJ-B/M (90.0%, specificity) when compared with HB/mCCDA+CAT (30.0%, specificity). Overall, these results show that the NRJ-B/M detection system is a more sensitive and specific detection system when isolating Arcobacter spp. from ground chicken.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Ágar , Cefoperazona
9.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(3): 169-172, Mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-217086

RESUMO

Background: Arcobacter butzleri is a gram-negative rod, with microaerobic growth at an optimal temperature of 37°C. It was reported to be the fourth most common Campylobacter-like organism isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Objective: Characterise a potential outbreak of A. butzleri detected in a short period of time in the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla. Methods: Eight strains of A. butzleri were detected in our hospital in only two months. Isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system and 16S rDNA sequencing. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were carried out to assess clonal relationship. Gradient strips (Etest) were used to determine susceptibility by agar diffusion. Results: ERIC-PCR and PFGE confirmed the lack of clonal relationship between strains. Erythromycin or ciprofloxacin might be appropriate for antibiotic treatment of infections. Conclusions: A. butzleri is an emerging pathogen with increasing incidence, and may be underestimated.(AU)


Antecedentes: Arcobacter butzleri es un bacilo gramnegativo, con crecimiento microaerófilo a una temperatura óptima de 37°C. Ha sido descrito como el cuarto organismo asociado a Campylobacter más frecuentemente aislado de pacientes con diarrea. Objetivo: Caracterizar un potencial brote de A. butzleri detectado en el Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla. Métodos: Se detectaron 8 cepas de A. butzleri en nuestro hospital en solo 2 meses. Los aislamientos fueron identificados con MALDI-TOF MS y secuenciación del ARNr 16S. Se llevó a cabo la PCR basada en secuencia de consenso intergénica repetitiva de enterobacterias(ERIC-PCR) y electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE) para asegurar la relación clonal. Para determinar la sensibilidad se usaron tiras de gradiente (Etest®) por difusión en agar. Resultados: ERIC-PCR y PFGE confirmaron la falta de relación clonal entre las cepas. Eritromicina o ciprofloxacino podrían ser apropiados para el tratamiento antibiótico de estas infecciones. Conclusiones: A. butzleri es un patógeno emergente con un aumento en la incidencia, y podría estar subestimado.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Arcobacter , Campylobacter , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Eritromicina , Ciprofloxacina , Espanha , Doenças Transmissíveis
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1094067, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36761899

RESUMO

In recent years, Arcobacter butzleri has gained clinical significance as an emerging diarrheagenic pathogen associated with poultry and water reservoirs. The full clinical significance of Arcobacter remains rather speculative due to variable virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of individual strains. The aims of the present study were (i) to identify antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant A. butzleri isolates, (ii) to use multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) to generate a guiding phylogeny of A. butzleri isolates collected in Kumasi, Ghana, (iii) to examine the distribution of ARGs in the test cohort, and (iv) to assess the strain's virulence and possible antibiotic treatment options for arcobacteriosis based on the genome sequences and the ARG distribution. A total of 48 A. butzleri isolates obtained from poultry were included in the analysis. These isolates were genotyped by MLST and the antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and erythromycin were tested by disk diffusion. Whole genome sequence data of two multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. butzleri isolates were obtained by a combination of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 14 ARGs were identified in the two generated genome sequences. For all 48 isolates, the frequency of these 14 ARGs was investigated by PCR or amplicon sequencing. With 44 different sequence types found among 48 isolates, strains were phylogenetically heterogeneous. Four of 48 isolates showed an ARG constellation indicating a multidrug-resistant phenotype. The virulence genes in the two A. butzleri genomes showed that the species might be characterized by a somewhat lower virulence as Campylobacter species. The phenotypic susceptibility data combined with the distribution of the particular ARGs especially oxa-464 and the T81I point mutation of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) in a significant percentage of isolates indicated that macrolides and tetracycline can be recommended for calculated antibiotic treatment of arcobacteriosis in Ghana, but not ampicillin and quinolones.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Arcobacter/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Gana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0207122, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622176

RESUMO

Arcobacter butzleri is a foodborne pathogen belonging to the Arcobacteraceae family. This Gram-negative bacterium is found in water, food, and various organisms, including farm animals, clams, and fish. Moreover, A. butzleri has been isolated from human stool samples, where it was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea. The present study focused on the transcriptome analysis of three A. butzleri strains isolated from human stools and displaying variable virulence potential in vitro. We used a mucus-producing human intestinal in vitro model (Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12) to study the colonization and invasion abilities of the three A. butzleri strains. The ability of all three A. butzleri strains to colonize our in vitro model system was subsequently confirmed. Moreover, transcriptomics showed the upregulation of putative virulence genes. Among these genes, tonB, exbB, and exbD, which belong to the same operon, were upregulated in strain LMG 11119, which also had the greatest colonization ability. Moreover, genes not currently considered A. butzleri virulence genes were differentially expressed during cell model colonization. The main functions of these genes were linked to organic acid metabolism and iron transport and particularly to the function of the TonB complex. IMPORTANCE Recent advancements in the genomic characterization of A. butzleri revealed putative virulence genes and highlighted the possible pathogenic mechanisms used by this foodborne pathogen. It is therefore possible to study the transcriptomes of these bacteria to explore possible virulence mechanisms under conditions that mimic the infection process. The transcriptome and colonization/invasion analyses that we performed in this study enabled the evaluation of A. butzleri-mediated infection of the mucus-producing human intestinal in vitro model. We confirmed the upregulation of previously proposed virulence genes in the A. butzleri strains. In addition, we identified the differential expression of a number of other genes, which are not currently thought to be associated with virulence, in three A. butzleri strains during infection of mucus-producing human epithelial cells. Changes in the concentration of acetic acid and the upregulation of genes associated with organic acid metabolism during host-pathogen contact were also observed. These findings highlight the importance of previously unreported genes in the virulence mechanisms of A. butzleri.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Animais , Humanos , Arcobacter/genética , Células CACO-2 , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 386: 110047, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512969

RESUMO

Aliarcobacter spp. are recognized as emerging foodborne pathogens and consumption of foods contaminated with them can be a hazard to human and animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Aliarcobacter spp. in edible internal organs of different animal species from retail markets and giblet sellers. Additionally, this study was focused on the antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, biofilm-forming capabilities, and phylogenetic relationships of obtained isolates. A total of 270 samples were analyzed from which, 28 (10.4 %) were isolated as Aliarcobacter spp. by conventional methods. Within the 28 Aliarcobacter spp. isolates, 17 (60.7 %) were identified as A. butzleri, 10 (35.7 %) were A. cryaerophilus and one (3.5 %) was A. skirrowii by PCR method. The disc diffusion method showed that the highest resistance rate of Aliarcobacter spp. was seen against oxacillin (78.5 %), and 20 (71.4 %) out of the 28 isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR). Out of the 28 isolates, mviN, pldA, tlyA, and hecB virulence genes were detected in 85.7 %, 46.4 %, 46.4 %, and 3.5 %, respectively, but irgA, Cj1349, ciaB, cadF, and hecA genes were not detected. According to the microplate test, 27 (96.4 %) isolates had weak biofilm ability while one A. cryaerophilus isolate (3.6 %) exhibited strong biofilm formation. ERIC-PCR band patterns suggested that isolated Aliarcobacter spp. from giblets, have different contamination sources. The presence of pathogenic and multidrug-resistant Aliarcobacter spp. in food poses a potential risk to public health and control measures throughout the food chain are necessary to prevent the spread of these strains.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Filogenia , Carne , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Variação Genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 610, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085198

RESUMO

Aliarcobacter butzleri (formerly known as Arcobacter butzleri) is an emerging food-borne zoonotic pathogen that establishes in vitro endosymbiotic relationships with Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba. Previously, we described that this bacterium acts as an endocytobiont of A. castellanii, surviving for at least 10 days in absence of bacterial replication. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of A. butzleri to survive as a long-term endosymbiont of A. castellanii for 30 days in two models of symbiotic interaction with A. castellanii: (i) endosymbiotic culture followed by gentamicin protection assay and (ii) transwell co-culture assay. The results allow us to conclude that A. butzleri is capable of surviving as an endosymbiont of A. castellanii for at least 30 days, without multiplying, under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, in the absence of nutrients and as both microorganisms remain in the same culture, separated by semi-permeable membranes, A. castellanii does not promote the survival of A. butzleri, nor does it multiply. Our findings suggest that the greater survival capacity of A. butzleri is associated with their endosymbiont status inside A. castellanii, pointing out the complexity of this type of symbiotic relationship.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Arcobacter , Acanthamoeba castellanii/microbiologia , Simbiose
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 131: 1-9, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154890

RESUMO

Bacteria of the Arcobacter-like spp. represent emerging foodborne zoonotic pathogens in humans and animals. Their increasing presence in seafood, suggesting higher occurrence in seawater due to marine pollution, is raising some environmental concern. Although Arcobacter is frequently detected in diseased oysters and stressed bivalve species, no data are available so far on its potential pathogenicity or interactions with the immune system of the bivalve host. In this work, responses to challenge with two strains of Malaciobacter marinus IRTA-19-131 and IRTA-19-132, R1 and R2), isolated from adult Crassostrea gigas during a mortality event in 2019 in Spain, were investigated in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In vivo experiments were performed in larvae (48 h post-fertilization), and in adult mussels at 24 h post-injection, in order to evaluate the pathogenicity for early developmental stages, and the hemolymph immune responses, respectively. Both R1 and R2 were moderately pathogenic to early larvae, with significant decreases in the development of normal D-veligers from 104 and 103 CFU/mL, respectively. In adults, both strains decreased hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), and stimulated extracellular defense responses (ROS production and lysozyme activity). The interactions between mussel hemocytes and M. marinus were investigated in in vitro short-term experiments (30-90 min) using the R1 strain (106-108 CFU/mL). R1 decreased LMS and induced lysosomal enlargement, but not cell detachment or death, and stimulated extracellular ROS production and lysozyme release, confirming in vivo data. Moreover, lysosomal internalization and degradation of bacteria were observed, together with changes in levels of activated mTor and LC3, indicating phagocytic activity. Overall, the results indicate the activation of both extracellular and intracellular immune defenses against M. marinus R1. Accordingly, these responses resulted in a significant hemolymph bactericidal activity, with a large contribution of hemolymph serum. The results represent the first data on the potential pathogenicity of Arcobacter isolated from a shellfish mortality to bivalve larvae and adults, and on their interactions with the immune system of the host.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Mytilus , Humanos , Animais , Muramidase/metabolismo , Arcobacter/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Bactérias/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889378

RESUMO

Extra-virgin olive oils contain many bioactive substances that are phenolic compounds. The survival of Arcobacter-like strains in non-buffered (WEOO) and buffered (BEOO) extracts of olive oils were studied. Time kill curves of different strains were measured in the environment of olive oil extracts of different grades. The activity of the extracts was also monitored for biofilm formation using the Christensen method. In vitro results revealed that extra-virgin olive oil extracts exhibited the strongest antimicrobial effects, especially non-buffered extracts, which exhibited strain inhibition after only 5 min of exposure. The weakest inhibitory effects were observed for olive oil extracts. A decrease in biofilm formation was observed in the environment of higher WEOO concentrations, although at lower concentrations of extracts, increased biofilm formation occurred due to stress conditions. The dialdehydic forms of oleuropein derivatives, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol were the main compounds detected by HPLC-CoulArray. The results indicate that not all olive oils had a similar bactericidal effect, and that bioactivity primarily depended on the content of certain phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Biofilmes , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Plâncton , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Água
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0100322, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862990

RESUMO

Aliarcobacter butzleri is an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen found in many countries worldwide. In France, it has become the third most commonly isolated bacterial species from the stools of patients with intestinal infections. No interpretative criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been proposed for A. butzleri, and most strains are categorized using the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Campylobacter or Enterobacterales. In the present study, the genomes of 30 resistant A. butzleri isolates were analyzed to propose specific epidemiological cut-off values for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. The identification of a ß-lactamase and the T85I GyrA mutation associated with ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance, respectively, allowed us to adjust the disk diffusion (DD) and MIC cut-off values for these molecules. However, epidemiological cut-off values for erythromycin and tetracycline could not be estimated due to the absence of known resistance mechanisms. The present study paves the way for building a consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for this concerning pathogen. IMPORTANCE Aliarcobacter butzleri is an emerging and concerning intestinal pathogen. Very few studies have focused on this particular species, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is based on methods that have been mostly developed for Campylobacter spp. In fact, no disk diffusion and E-tests adapted cut-offs for A. butzleri are available which leads to misinterpretations. We have shown here that NGS approach to identify genes and mutations in close relation to phenotypic resistance levels is a robust way to solve that issue and precisely differentiate WT and NWT A. butzleri isolates for frequently used antimicrobials. MIC and DD cut-off values have been significantly adjusted and answer the need for a global consensus regarding AST for A. butzleri.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Ampicilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arcobacter/genética , Ciprofloxacina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eritromicina , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
17.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 471, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging pathogenic bacteria are an increasing threat to public health. Two recently described species of the genus Aliarcobacter, A. faecis and A. lanthieri, isolated from human or livestock feces, are closely related to Aliarcobacter zoonotic pathogens (A. cryaerophilus, A. skirrowii, and A. butzleri). In this study, comparative genomics analysis was carried out to examine the virulence-related, including virulence, antibiotic, and toxin (VAT) factors in the reference strains of A. faecis and A. lanthieri that may enable them to become potentially opportunistic zoonotic pathogens. RESULTS: Our results showed that the genomes of the reference strains of both species have flagella genes (flaA, flaB, flgG, flhA, flhB, fliI, fliP, motA and cheY1) as motility and export apparatus, as well as genes encoding the Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) (tatA, tatB and tatC), type II (pulE and pulF) and III (fliF, fliN and ylqH) secretory pathways, allowing them to secrete proteins into the periplasm and host cells. Invasion and immune evasion genes (ciaB, iamA, mviN, pldA, irgA and fur2) are found in both species, while adherence genes (cadF and cj1349) are only found in A. lanthieri. Acid (clpB), heat (clpA and clpB), osmotic (mviN), and low-iron (irgA and fur2) stress resistance genes were observed in both species, although urease genes were not found in them. In addition, arcB, gyrA and gyrB were found in both species, mutations of which may mediate the resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Furthermore, 11 VAT genes including six virulence (cadF, ciaB, irgA, mviN, pldA, and tlyA), two antibiotic resistance [tet(O) and tet(W)] and three cytolethal distending toxin (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) genes were validated with the PCR assays. A. lanthieri tested positive for all 11 VAT genes. By contrast, A. faecis showed positive for ten genes except for cdtB because no PCR assay for this gene was available for this species. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of the virulence, antibiotic-resistance, and toxin genes in the genomes of A. faecis and A. lanthieri reference strains through comparative genomics analysis and PCR assays highlighted the potential zoonotic pathogenicity of these two species. However, it is necessary to extend this study to include more clinical and environmental strains to explore inter-species and strain-level genetic variations in virulence-related genes and assess their potential to be opportunistic pathogens for animals and humans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Arcobacter , Campylobacteraceae , Genômica , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(8): 132, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689134

RESUMO

This study was aimed at the isolation and identification of Arcobacter spp. and Campylobacter spp. from fresh vegetables sold at district markets in the Kayseri province, and at the determination of the antibacterial susceptibility of the recovered isolates. For this purpose, a total of 175 vegetable samples, including 35 spinach, 35 lettuce, 35 parsley, 35 arugula, and 35 radish samples, were collected. While the pre-enrichment and membrane filtration techniques were used for the isolation of Arcobacter spp., the pre-enrichment and direct inoculation methods were used for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by means of phenotypic tests and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using genus- and species-specific primers. In addition, the susceptibilities of the isolates to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were determined by the disk diffusion method. Out of the 175 vegetable samples tested, 93 (53.14%) were found to be positive for Arcobacter spp., and 119 Arcobacter spp. isolates were recovered from these 93 positive samples. All of the samples examined were found to be negative for Campylobacter spp. One hundred one (86%) and 14 (10%) of the 119 Arcobacter isolates obtained were identified as A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus, respectively, but four isolates could not be identified at the species level by mPCR. Mixed contamination with more than one species and/or genotypes of Arcobacter was detected in 24 of the positive samples. While all of the Arcobacter isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, 2 (1.68%), 2 (1.68%), and 5 (4.20%) isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and neomycin, respectively. Consequently, the determination of a high prevalence of arcobacters and mixed contamination with more than one species and/or genotypes of arcobacters in vegetables often consumed raw by humans demonstrated that the consumption of raw vegetables may be a risk to the public health.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Campylobacter , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arcobacter/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Enrofloxacina , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gentamicinas , Humanos , Neomicina , Prevalência , Estreptomicina , Tetraciclinas , Verduras
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 270: 109462, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640411

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is a significant public health concern with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli as main causative agents. Moreover, there is an increasing recognition of other pathogenic Campylobacter species and Campylobacter-like organisms as Arcobacter. However, current knowledge on presence of Arcobacter species in wild boars (Sus scrofa) is lacking, and knowledge on Campylobacter species is based on methods favoring growth of thermotolerant species. In this study, fecal samples originating from 76 wild boars hunted in Campania region (Italy) were examined for the presence of Campylobacter(-like) organisms by a culture dependent approach. Three isolation protocols were performed in parallel: Arcobacter-selective agar plates, mCCDA plates and isolation by passive filtration onto non-selective blood agar plates were used as quantitative isolation methods. Enrichment broths, i.e. Arcobacter selective enrichment broth, Preston broth and CAT broth were used for qualitative detection of low levels or stressed Campylobacter(-like) organisms. The Arcobacter and Campylobacter isolates were identified at species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. Overall, 41 (53.9%) of the animals excreted Arcobacter or Campylobacter while 38 (50.0%) shed Campylobacter and 8 (10.5%) Arcobacter. Campylobacter lanienae predominated and was isolated from 31 (40.8%) animals. No statistical difference between the age groups or gender with regard to the fecal excretion of Campylobacter(-like) organisms was observed. Thirty animals (39.5%) shed Campylobacter spp. exceeding levels of 10 ³ CFU g-1 feces. As samples were obtained from hunted wild boars intended for consumption, a potential contamination of meat with these bacterial pathogens must be considered.


Assuntos
Arcobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Doenças dos Suínos , Ágar , Animais , Arcobacter/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos
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