Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 751
Filtrar
1.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563817

RESUMO

The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors entacapone and opicapone prolong the efficacy of conventional oral levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor formulations through an increase in levodopa plasma bioavailability. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors influence the homocysteine metabolism associated with levodopa/dopa decarboxylase application. The objectives of this study were to compare the impact of additional single-day entacapone or opicapone intake on the pharmacokinetic plasma behaviour of levodopa, 3-O-methyldopa and total homocysteine in 15 Parkinson's disease patients, with concomitant scoring of motor symptoms, under standardized conditions. The patients received opicapone plus two doses of 100 mg levodopa/carbidopa and, one week later, two doses of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone or vice versa. Levodopa, 3-O-methyldopa and total homocysteine were determined with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Levodopa bioavailability and its maximum concentration were higher with opicapone. The computed peak-to-trough difference was lower after the second levodopa administration with entacapone. The fluctuation index of levodopa did not differ between both conditions. 3-O-methyldopa decreased on both days. Homocysteine levels did not significantly vary between both conditions. A significant homocysteine decrease occurred with entacapone, but not with opicapone. Motor behaviour improved with entacapone, but not with opicapone. Opicapone baseline scores were significantly better, and thus the potential for the improvement in motor symptoms was lower compared with the entacapone condition. The higher levodopa bioavailability with opicapone suggests that it is more efficacious than entacapone for the amelioration of "off" phenomena in fluctuating patients when co-administered with a levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor regimen. Both compounds prevented an increase in homocysteine, which is a metabolic marker for an impaired capacity in the performance of methylation processes.


Assuntos
Carbidopa , Doença de Parkinson , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Carbidopa/farmacocinética , Carbidopa/uso terapêutico , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Catecóis , Homocisteína , Humanos , Levodopa/farmacologia , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Nitrilas , Oxidiazóis , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(23): 2533-2542, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313482

RESUMO

The pancreatic ß cells can synthesize dopamine by taking L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, but whether pancreatic acinar cells synthesize dopamine has not been confirmed. By means of immunofluorescence, the tyrosine hydroxylase -immunoreactivity and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)- immunoreactivity were respectively observed in pancreatic acinar cells and islet ß cells. Treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not tyrosine, caused the production of dopamine in the incubation of INS-1 cells (rat islet ß cell line) and primary isolated islets, which was blocked by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015. However, only L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, but not dopamine, was detected when AR42J cells (rat pancreatic acinar cell line) were treated with tyrosine, which was blocked by tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor AMPT. Dopamine was detected in the coculture of INS-1 cells with AR42J cells after treatment with tyrosine. In an in vivo study, pancreatic juice contained high levels of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine. Both L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine accompanied with pancreatic enzymes and insulin in the pancreatic juice were all significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection of bethanechol chloride and their increases were all blocked by atropine. Inhibiting TH with AMPT blocked bethanechol chloride-induced increases in L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine, while inhibiting AADC with NSD-1015 only blocked the dopamine increase. Bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy of rats leads to significant decreases of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine in pancreatic juice. These results suggested that pancreatic acinar cells could utilize tyrosine to synthesize L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not dopamine. Islet ß cells only used L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not tyrosine, to synthesize dopamine. Both L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine were respectively released into the pancreatic duct, which was regulated by the vagal cholinergic pathway. The present study provides important evidences for the source of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine in the pancreas.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/metabolismo , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/biossíntese , Dopamina/biossíntese , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/imunologia , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Atropina/farmacologia , Betanecol/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análise , Dopamina/análise , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/imunologia , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
3.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(7): 1127-1133, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322421

RESUMO

Three new diarylpropanes (1-3), including two diarylpropane glycosides, and three known ones, were isolated from 70% aqueous acetone extract of the twigs and leaves of Horsfieldia kingii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Bioactive evaluation of inhibition on DDC enzyme assay showed that the new compounds were inactive.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Myristicaceae/química , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/química , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Dopa Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
4.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 724-731, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654554

RESUMO

Afferent lesions of the arterial baroreflex occur in familial dysautonomia. This leads to excessive blood pressure variability with falls and frequent surges that damage the organs. These hypertensive surges are the result of excess peripheral catecholamine release and have no adequate treatment. Carbidopa is a selective DOPA-decarboxylase inhibitor that suppresses catecholamines production outside the brain. To learn whether carbidopa can inhibit catecholamine-induced hypertensive surges in patients with severe afferent baroreflex failure, we conducted a double-blind randomized crossover trial in which patients with familial dysautonomia received high dose carbidopa (600 mg/day), low-dose carbidopa (300 mg/day), or matching placebo in 3 4-week treatment periods. Among the 22 patients enrolled (13 females/8 males), the median age was 26 (range, 12-59 years). At enrollment, patients had hypertensive peaks to 164/116 (range, 144/92 to 213/150 mm Hg). Twenty-four hour urinary norepinephrine excretion, a marker of peripheral catecholamine release, was significantly suppressed on both high dose and low dose carbidopa, compared with placebo (P=0.0075). The 2 co-primary end points of the trial were met. The SD of systolic BP variability was reduced at both carbidopa doses (low dose: 17±4; high dose: 18±5 mm Hg) compared with placebo (23±7 mm Hg; P=0.0013), and there was a significant reduction in the systolic BP peaks on active treatment (P=0.0015). High- and low-dose carbidopa were similarly effective and well tolerated. This study provides class Ib evidence that carbidopa can reduce blood pressure variability in patients with congenital afferent baroreflex failure. Similar beneficial effects are observed in patients with acquired baroreflex lesions.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Carbidopa , Disautonomia Familiar , Hipertensão , Adulto , Vias Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Aferentes/metabolismo , Vias Aferentes/fisiopatologia , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Carbidopa/administração & dosagem , Carbidopa/farmacocinética , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Disautonomia Familiar/diagnóstico , Disautonomia Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Disautonomia Familiar/metabolismo , Disautonomia Familiar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 42(4): 111-116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although commercially available levodopa (LD) formulations include carbidopa (CD) or benserazide for gastrointestinal L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibition, little is known how manipulating CD delivery affects the pharmacokinetics of LD. Our research systematically evaluated the peripheral and central pharmacokinetics of LD during continuous subcutaneous CD delivery. METHODS: We conducted pharmacokinetic experiments in pigs, mice, and humans to characterize effects of continuous subcutaneous CD delivery co-administered with LD as compared with oral LD/CD administration on LD pharmacokinetics. The porcine and human studies compared peripheral LD pharmacokinetic parameters (area under the curves [AUCs], peak plasma concentrations [Cmax], and plasma elimination half-life [t1/2]) and the mouse studies compared brain LD and dopamine concentrations. RESULTS: In the pig, supplementary subcutaneous CD delivery significantly increased the LD t1/2 and AUC versus LD/CD alone and versus additional oral CD administration. In mice, administration of supplementary subcutaneous CD substantially increased mean plasma concentrations of both LD and CD versus oral LD/CD alone at all time points. These increases were mirrored by increased brain dopamine levels for at least the 7 hours of study. In healthy human subjects, continuous subcutaneous CD administration, 3.33 mg/h x24h, increased the plasma LD t1/2, Cmax, and AUC by 17.4%, 40.5%, and 22.3%, respectively (P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This series of studies demonstrates that small continuous dosing of subcutaneous CD has an unexpected effect on LD pharmacokinetics greater than the extent of decarboxylase inhibition achieved by additional oral CD administration.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/administração & dosagem , Carbidopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Adulto , Animais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suínos
6.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 9(2): 437-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856121

RESUMO

We present a 48-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease in whom carbidopa was added to Mucuna pruriens, resulting in marked motor improvement (documented on video and using MDS-UPDRS motor scores). This case report shows that adding a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) to Mucuna pruriens could fit well in a personalized approach for patients who are reluctant to start levodopa. Meanwhile, larger trials with a longer follow-up are needed to establish the true effects and tolerability of Mucuna pruriens plus a DDCI.


Assuntos
Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Carbidopa/uso terapêutico , Mucuna , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente
8.
Biochimie ; 160: 76-87, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796964

RESUMO

L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-Dopa to dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to serotonin. Although DDC has been purified from a variety of peripheral organs, including the liver, kidney and pancreas, the physiological significance of the peripherally expressed enzyme is not yet fully understood. DDC has been considered as a potential novel biomarker for various types of cancer, however, the role of DDC in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on the other hand, has been shown to play a key role in the tumorigenesis, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis of HCC by regulating gene expression. We initially identified the interaction of DDC with PI3K by means of the phage display methodology. This association was further confirmed in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, human embryonic kidney cells, human neuroblastoma cells, as well as mouse brain, by the use of specific antibodies raised against DDC and PI3K. Functional aspects of the above interaction were studied upon treatment with the DDC inhibitor carbidopa and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, our data demonstrate the expression of the neuronal type DDC mRNA in HCC cells. The present investigation provides new evidence on the possible link of DDC with the PI3K pathway, underlining the biological significance of this complex enzyme.


Assuntos
Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/química , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 19(9): 1003-1011, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease. Its symptoms and course are heterogeneous. After several years of investigative drug studies, levodopa remains the most efficacious drug despite its long-term limitations. Consequently, research into new drug delivery modes is ongoing. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes past and current advances of levodopa therapy with a focus on long-term patient management. Current research aims to increase drug bioavailability and to deliver it to the brain continuously. Reduced fluctuations improve drug efficacy and levodopa-associated motor complications. Less considered metabolic long-term consequences of levodopa are impaired methylation capacity and antioxidant defense. Both may contribute to disease progression and weaken physiological available human neuronal repair mechanisms. EXPERT OPINION: New developed formulations will improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. The authors suggest the regular supplementation with methyl group-donating and free radical scavenging substrates to weaken the metabolic consequences of chronic and high levodopa dosing. Many patients perform this nutrient supplementation in their diet already.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacocinética , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
11.
Anticancer Res ; 38(1): 353-358, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277794

RESUMO

AIM: We evaluated the clinical usefulness of 6-[18F]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine(18F-FDOPA)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in insulinoma detection with contrast enhancement, early acquisition time, and no carbidopa premedication. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients diagnosed with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia underwent an 18F-FDOPA PET/CT examination. Patients without carbidopa premedication and contrast-enhanced CT were included. Imaging findings were compared to the overall final diagnosis (histological findings). RESULTS: In 10 of 26 patients (eight women, two men; mean age=53 years; age range=30-94 years), a detected lesion was confirmed histologically as an insulinoma. 18F-FDOPA PET detected the tumor in five out of ten patients. Contrast-enhanced CT also detected the tumor in five out of ten. Overall, 18F-FDOPA PET/CT, with contrast enhancement and without carbidopa premedication, was able to detect the insulinoma in seven out of ten patients (70%). CONCLUSION: Based on our data, 18F-DOPA PET/CT, with contrast enhancement and without carbidopa premedication, as a 'one-stop' diagnostic modality is a viable option for insulinoma detection.


Assuntos
Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Insulinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Insulinoma/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Medicação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 47: 1-7, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080800

RESUMO

Substantial evidences suggest that reactive oxygen species participate in the normal aging process and in cancer and neurodegenerative age-related diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common oxidative stress-associated pathology in aging people, is treated with a standard pharmacological protocol consisting in a combined therapy l-dopa plus an inhibitor of dopa-decarboxylase, such as carbidopa. The therapy is well validated for the ability to restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission in PD patients, while l-dopa and carbidopa ability in modulating oxidative stress is currently under discussion. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of l-dopa and carbidopa on several biomarkers of exogenously-induced oxidative stress to validate the overall antioxidant effectiveness of the therapy. For this purpose we used peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors treated in vitro with l-dopa and carbidopa and then challenged by different concentrations of H2O2. Glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), malondialdehyde (TBARs), protein carbonyls as well as DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and micronuclei (MN)), modulation was evaluated. Our results show that l-dopa, but not carbidopa, decreases the markers of lipid and protein oxidation and increases the total content of glutathione. Both l-dopa and carbidopa (alone or in combination) are able to counteract the formation of 8-oxodG and to reduce H2O2-induced micronuclei.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Levodopa/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 313(6): H1087-H1097, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916638

RESUMO

Using transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress the human serotonin (5-HT)4a receptor specifically in cardiomyocytes, we wanted to know whether 5-HT can be formed and degraded in the mammalian heart and whether this can likewise lead to inotropic and chronotropic effects in this TG model. We noted that the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP) can exert inotropic and chronotropic effects in cardiac preparations from TG mice but not from wild-type (WT) mice; similar results were found in human atrial preparations as well as in intact TG animals using echocardiography. Moreover, by immunohistochemistry we could detect 5-HT metabolizing enzymes and 5-HT transporters in mouse hearts as well as in human atria. Hence, in the presence of an inhibitor of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, the positive inotropic effects of 5-HTP were absent in TG and isolated human atrial preparations, and, moreover, inhibitors of enzymes involved in 5-HT degradation enhanced the efficacy of 5-HT in TG atria. A releaser of neurotransmitters increased inotropy in the isolated TG atrium, and this effect could be blocked by a 5-HT4a receptor antagonist. Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of 5-HT uptake, elevated the potency of 5-HT to increase contractility in the TG atrium. In addition, inhibitors of organic cation and monoamine transporters apparently reduced the positive inotropic potency of 5-HT in the TG atrium. Hence, we tentatively conclude that a local production and degradation of 5-HT in the mammalian heart and more specifically in mammalian myocytes probably occurs. Conceivably, this formation of 5-HT and possibly impaired degradation may be clinically relevant in cases of unexplained tachycardia and other arrhythmias.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work suggests that inotropically active serotonin (5-HT) can be formed in the mouse and human heart and probably by cardiomyocytes themselves. Moreover, active degradation of 5-HT seems to occur in the mammalian heart. These findings may again increase the interest of researchers for cardiac effects of 5-HT.


Assuntos
Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , 5-Hidroxitriptofano/metabolismo , 5-Hidroxitriptofano/farmacologia , Animais , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleosídeo Equilibrativas/metabolismo , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Átrios do Coração/enzimologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/genética , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotoninérgicos/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Presse Med ; 46(2 Pt 1): 218-224, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279509

RESUMO

The treatment of Parkinson's disease is symptomatic with the use of dopaminergic medications: levodopa, dopaminergic agonists and enzymatic inhibitors. At the initial stage, the main goals are to improve the quality of life of patients and delay the onset of motor complications, using a combination of these therapies taking into account both clinical disability and tolerance of different treatments. At the stage of motor and non-motor fluctuations inhibitors of MAO-B and COMT are proposed; amantadine may limit moderate dyskinesias. At the stage of disabling fluctuations continuous dopaminergic strategy is discussed: deep brain stimulation of different targets, subcutaneous apomorphine pump and intra intestinal Duodopa® administration. The monitoring of side effects remains essential for an early adjustment of medications; mainly nausea, orthostatic hypotension, drowsiness and sleep attacks, dyskinesias and behavioral disorders (hallucinations, impulse control disorders). A care pathway published in 2014 by the HAS develops the management process of parkinsonism and its multidisciplinary outpatient.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Apomorfina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Reação a Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Seleção de Pacientes , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Drugs ; 76(13): 1293-1300, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498199

RESUMO

Oral opicapone (Ongentys(®)), a potent, third-generation, long-acting, peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, is approved as adjunctive treatment to levodopa (L-Dopa)/dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) therapy in adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) and end-of-dose motor fluctuations who cannot be stabilized on those combinations. In 14- to 15-week, double-blind, multinational trials and in 1-year, open-label extension studies in this patient population, opicapone was an effective and generally well tolerated adjunctive therapy to L-Dopa plus a DDCI and other PD therapy. During the double-blind phase, adjunctive opicapone 50 mg once daily provided significantly greater improvements in motor fluctuations than placebo, with these improvements noninferior to those with entacapone. These beneficial improvements in motor fluctuations with opicapone were maintained in patients who continued adjunctive opicapone during the extension studies, with patients who switched from placebo or entacapone to opicapone experiencing significant improvements in motor fluctuations during this year. No new unexpected safety concerns were identified after ≈1.4 years' treatment with opicapone, with no serious cases of hepatotoxicity reported in clinical trials. With its convenient once-daily regimen, oral opicapone is an emerging COMT inhibitor option for use as adjunctive therapy to L-Dopa/DDCI therapy in adults with PD and end-of dose motor fluctuations who cannot be stabilized on those combinations.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Oxidiazóis/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/metabolismo , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Oxidiazóis/metabolismo , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética
16.
J Neurol Sci ; 365: 175-80, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition. Levodopa (LD) is the gold standard therapy for PD patients. Most PD patients in low-income areas cannot afford long-term daily Levodopa therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate if Mucuna pruriens (MP), a legume with high LD content that grows in tropical regions worldwide, might be potential alternative for poor PD patients. METHODS: We analyzed 25 samples of MP from Africa, Latin America and Asia. We measured the content in LD in various MP preparations (dried, roasted, boiled). LD pharmacokinetics and motor response were recorded in four PD patients, comparing MP vs. LD+Dopa-Decarboxylase Inhibitor (DDCI) formulations. RESULTS: Median LD concentration in dried MP seeds was 5.29%; similar results were obtained in roasted powder samples (5.3%), while boiling reduced LD content up to 70%. Compared to LD+DDCI, MP extract at similar LD dose provided less clinical benefit, with a 3.5-fold lower median AUC. CONCLUSION: Considering the lack of a DDCI, MP therapy may provide clinical benefit only when content of LD is at least 3.5-fold the standard LD+DDCI. If long-term MP proves to be safe and effective in controlled clinical trials, it may be a sustainable alternative therapy for PD in low-income countries.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/sangue , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/sangue , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Mucuna/química , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/sangue , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos/economia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
17.
Curr Drug Metab ; 17(5): 513-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27025882

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Backround: Parkinson's disease is a pathology involving the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. L-DOPA combined with an inhibitor of DOPA decarboxylase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is still the most effective treatment for symptoms of Parkinson's disease. LDOPA increases synaptic dopamine, while the inhibitor of peripheral DOPA decarboxylase reduces the conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine in the systemic circulation, allowing for greater L-DOPA distribution into the central nervous system. CarbiDOPA and benserazide are the inhibitors currently used in Parkinson's disease treatment. However, carbiDOPA and trihydroxybenzylhydrazine, the active metabolite of benserazide, are substrate analogues both endowed with a hydrazine function, which irreversibly bind not only to DDC but also to free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Therefore, the lack of DOPA decarboxylase specificity, responsible for various side effects and adverse reactions, is a negative factor in such treatment of the disease. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Aim of this review is to report on the most recent investigations regarding new DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors that could represent the starting point for possible Parkinson's disease drugs development. We focused on the common chemical features among all the identified inhibitors in order to seek shared structural motifs that could be involved in inhibition. Then, we highlighted the extent of inhibition, measured by means of in vitro and/or cell-based assays. Finally, we pointed out the state of the art in the metabolism of such classes of compounds, and discussed the possible advances in Parkinson's disease pharmacological treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
18.
J Neurotrauma ; 33(12): 1150-60, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830512

RESUMO

Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) cells are widely distributed in the spinal cord, and their functions are largely unknown. We have previously found that AADC cells in the spinal cord could increase their ability to produce serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from 5-hydroxytryptophan after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because AADC is a common enzyme catalyzing 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) to dopamine (DA), it seems likely that the ability of AADC cells using l-dopa to synthesize DA is also increased. To prove whether or not this is the case, a similar rat sacral SCI model and a similar experimental paradigm were adopted as that which we had used previously. In the chronic SCI rats (> 45 days), no AADC cells expressed DA if there was no exogenous l-dopa application. However, following administration of a peripheral AADC inhibitor (carbidopa) with or without a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (pargyline) co-application, systemic administration of l-dopa resulted in ∼94% of AADC cells becoming DA-immunopositive in the spinal cord below the lesion, whereas in normal or sham-operated rats none or very few of AADC cells became DA-immunopositive with the same treatment. Using tail electromyography, spontaneous tail muscle activity was increased nearly fivefold over the baseline level. When pretreated with a central AADC inhibitor (NSD-1015), further application of l-dopa failed to increase the motoneuron activity although the expression of DA in the AADC cells was not completely inhibited. These findings demonstrate that AADC cells in the spinal cord below the lesion gain the ability to produce DA from its precursor in response to SCI. This ability also enables the AADC cells to produce 5-HT and trace amines, and likely contributes to the development of hyperexcitability. These results might also be implicated for revealing the pathological mechanisms underlying l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Levodopa/farmacologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 22(6): 461-7, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with motor complications known as l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) and on/off fluctuations, which are linked to unsteady pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. AIM: The objective of this study was to improve l-DOPA treatment by slowing and stabilizing dopamine (DA) production in the brain and increasing water solubility to provide a rescue therapy for PD. RESULTS: We synthesized l-DOPA-amide, a novel l-DOPA precursor called DopAmide. DopAmide is water soluble and, as a prodrug, requires hydrolysis prior to decarboxylation by the aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28; AAAD). In the 6-OH-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, DopAmide maintained steady rotations for up to 4 h compared with 2 h by l-DOPA, suggesting that this rate-limiting step generated a sustained level of DA at dopaminergic neurons. Pharmacokinetic studies showed elimination half-life of l-DOPA in the plasma after DopAmide treatment of t1/2 = 4.1 h, significantly longer than t1/2 = 2.9 h after treatment with l-DOPA, consistent with the 6-OHDA results. CONCLUSIONS: The slow conversion of DopAmide to l-DOPA provides a sustained level of DA in the dopaminergic cells, shown by the long 6-OHDA steady rotations. The water solubility and improved bioavailability may help reduce medication frequency associated with l-DOPA treatment of PD. Sustained levels of DA might lower the super-sensitization of DA signaling and potentially attenuate l-DOPA adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Levodopa/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Anfetamina/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/análogos & derivados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rotação , Simpatolíticos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0136541, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309254

RESUMO

Pain is an important and distressing symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of pain, its various types and characteristics, as well as its impact on depression and quality of life (QoL) in patients with PD. How pain differs in early- and advanced-stage PD and male and female PD patients was of special interest. One hundred PD patients on dopaminergic medications had a neurological examination and participated in a structured interview on pain characteristics and completed standardized questionnaires. A total of 76% of the patients had pain. The following types of pain were present: musculoskeletal pain accounted for 41% of the total pain, dystonic pain for 17%, central neuropathic pain for 22%, radicular pain for 27%, and other pains (non-radicular low back pain, arthritic, and visceral pain) made up 24%. One type of pain affected 29% of all the subjects, two types 35%, three types 10%, and four types of pain were reported by 2%. All types of pain were more prevalent in advanced-stage PD subjects than in early-stage PD subjects, except for arthritic pain (subclassified under"other pain"). The frequency and intensity of actual, average, and worst experienced pain were significantly more severe in advanced-stage subjects. PD subjects with general pain and in advanced stages were more depressed and had poorer QoL. Depression correlated with worst pain in the last 24 hours and with pain periodicity (the worst depression score in patients with constant pain). QoL correlated with average pain in the last 7 days. Pain is a frequent problem in PD patients, and it worsens during the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores das Descarboxilases de Aminoácidos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...