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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(6): 554-559, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858207

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is primarily characterized by intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. Arousals interrupt sleep continuity and lead to sleep fragmentation, which can lead to cognitive dysfunction, excessive daytime sleepiness, and adverse cardiovascular outcome events, making arousals important for diagnosing OSA and reducing the risk of complications, including heart disease and cognitive impairment. Traditional arousal interpretation requires sleep specialists to manually score PSG recordings throughout the night, which is time consuming and has low inter-specialist agreement, so the search for simple, efficient, and reliable arousal detection methods can be a powerful tool to clinicians. In this paper, we systematically reviewed different methods for recognizing arousal in OSA patients, including autonomic markers (pulse conduction time, pulse wave amplitude, peripheral arterial tone, heart rate, etc.) and machine learning-based automated arousal detection systems, and found that autonomic markers may be more beneficial in certain subgroups, and that deep artificial networks will remain the main research method for automated arousal detection in the future.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Polissonografia/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 238, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834540

RESUMO

The glutamatergic modulator ketamine is associated with changes in sleep, depression, and suicidal ideation (SI). This study sought to evaluate differences in arousal-related sleep metrics between 36 individuals with treatment-resistant major depression (TRD) and 25 healthy volunteers (HVs). It also sought to determine whether ketamine normalizes arousal in individuals with TRD and whether ketamine's effects on arousal mediate its antidepressant and anti-SI effects. This was a secondary analysis of a biomarker-focused, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) compared to saline placebo. Polysomnography (PSG) studies were conducted one day before and one day after ketamine/placebo infusions. Sleep arousal was measured using spectral power functions over time including alpha (quiet wakefulness), beta (alert wakefulness), and delta (deep sleep) power, as well as macroarchitecture variables, including wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), rapid eye movement (REM) latency, and Post-Sleep Onset Sleep Efficiency (PSOSE). At baseline, diagnostic differences in sleep macroarchitecture included lower TST (p = 0.006) and shorter REM latency (p = 0.04) in the TRD versus HV group. Ketamine's temporal dynamic effects (relative to placebo) in TRD included increased delta power earlier in the night and increased alpha and delta power later in the night. However, there were no significant diagnostic differences in temporal patterns of alpha, beta, or delta power, no ketamine effects on sleep macroarchitecture arousal metrics, and no mediation effects of sleep variables on ketamine's antidepressant or anti-SI effects. These results highlight the role of sleep-related variables as part of the systemic neurobiological changes initiated after ketamine administration. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00088699.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Estudos Cross-Over , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Ketamina , Polissonografia , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos , Ideação Suicida , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(6): e6112, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) experience changes in their level and content of consciousness, but there is little research on biomarkers of consciousness in pre-clinical AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). This study investigated whether levels of consciousness are decreased in people with MCI. METHODS: A multi-site site magnetoencephalography (MEG) dataset, BIOFIND, comprising 83 people with MCI and 83 age matched controls, was analysed. Arousal (and drowsiness) was assessed by computing the theta-alpha ratio (TAR). The Lempel-Ziv algorithm (LZ) was used to quantify the information content of brain activity, with higher LZ values indicating greater complexity and potentially a higher level of consciousness. RESULTS: LZ was lower in the MCI group versus controls, indicating a reduced level of consciousness in MCI. TAR was higher in the MCI group versus controls, indicating a reduced level of arousal (i.e. increased drowsiness) in MCI. LZ was also found to be correlated with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores, suggesting an association between cognitive impairment and level of consciousness in people with MCI. CONCLUSIONS: A decline in consciousness and arousal can be seen in MCI. As cognitive impairment worsens, measured by MMSE scores, levels of consciousness and arousal decrease. These findings highlight how monitoring consciousness using biomarkers could help understand and manage impairments found at the preclinical stages of AD. Further research is needed to explore markers of consciousness between people who progress from MCI to dementia and those who do not, and in people with moderate and severe AD, to promote person-centred care.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Disfunção Cognitiva , Magnetoencefalografia , Humanos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Algoritmos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
4.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 288-298, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829340

RESUMO

Emotional properties of words can profoundly affect their processing, depending on both the valence (pleasantness) and the degree of arousal (excitation) that the word elicits. Words that are strongly emotionally arousing (such as taboo words) can interfere with subsequent language processing (White & Abrams, 2021). However, little is known about whether or how aging affects the processing of highly arousing language. The present study provides a characterization of how adults across the lifespan evaluate highly arousing language with a simple rating task that included taboo words, which have previously been used to examine lexical interference caused by arousal, and humorous words, which are also highly arousing without being negatively valenced. While arousal ratings were strongly positively correlated with both tabooness and humor ratings for young adults, these relationships weakened with age and overall arousal ratings were lower for middle-aged and older adults compared to young adults. Age effects cannot be readily accounted for by age-related differences in psychosocial variables such as self-reported profanity avoidance or religiosity. The effect of age on arousal should be considered in the design of studies examining age-related changes in emotional language processing. Furthermore, age differences in arousal should be considered as a potential mechanism in studies exploring emotional language processing across adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Emoções/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
5.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 299-312, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829341

RESUMO

Emotional content, specifically negative valence, can differentially influence speech production in younger and older adults' autobiographical narratives, which have been interpreted as reflecting age differences in emotion regulation. However, age differences in emotional reactivity are another possible explanation, as younger and older adults frequently differ in their affective responses to negative and positive pictures. The present experiment investigated whether a picture's valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity) influenced older adults' production of narratives about those pictures. Thirty younger and 30 older participants produced narratives about pictures that varied in valence (positive, negative, and neutral) and arousal (high, low). Narratives were recorded via Zoom, transcribed, and analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count-22 to get measures of emotional word use, disfluencies, and linguistic distance. Results showed that negative valence increased age differences in speech production independent of picture arousal: Relative to younger adults, older adults used more positive words, fewer negative words, and had more silent pauses when telling narratives about negative pictures. In contrast, high arousal decreased age differences such that older adults used fewer positive words in narratives about positive pictures and more linguistically distant words evidenced by fewer present-tense verbs, relative to narratives about low-arousal pictures. Contrary to an explanation of enhanced regulation or control over emotions in older adulthood, these findings support the idea that older adults' speech production is influenced by their reactivity or affective response to emotional stimuli even when the task is not to communicate one's emotions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Narração , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fala , Estimulação Luminosa , Adolescente
6.
J Comp Psychol ; 138(2): 77-79, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829346

RESUMO

Comments on an article by Jay W. Schwartz , Kayleigh H. Pierson, and Alexander K. Reece (see record 2024-19488-001). In this issue, Schwartz et al. (2024) tackle the pitch rule in humans by testing to what extent we use pitch alone to judge emotional arousal across closely and distantly related animal species. The findings of Schwartz et al. open a number of intriguing possibilities for future research: Notably important additional steps would include to further investigate the accuracy of the pitch rule across closely and distantly related species. Upon this, in order to study the evolutionary ancestry of the pitch rule, it will be necessary to study its applicability across nonhumans. Particularly interesting would be the inclusion of subject species that have been found to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls. Previous research (see Hoeschele, 2017 for a review) as well as present findings on human ratings of macaque versus cricket calls also suggest that we should additionally focus on sound features that compliment emotional arousal rating beyond pitch such as spectral information. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Animais , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13491, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866813

RESUMO

Emotion recognition based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been applied in various fields, including human-computer interaction and healthcare. However, for the popular Valence-Arousal-Dominance emotion model, researchers often classify the dimensions into high and low categories, which cannot reflect subtle changes in emotion. Furthermore, there are issues with the design of EEG features and the efficiency of transformer. To address these issues, we have designed TPRO-NET, a neural network that takes differential entropy and enhanced differential entropy features as input and outputs emotion categories through convolutional layers and improved transformer encoders. For our experiments, we categorized the emotions in the DEAP dataset into 8 classes and those in the DREAMER dataset into 5 classes. On the DEAP and the DREAMER datasets, TPRO-NET achieved average accuracy rates of 97.63%/97.47%/97.88% and 98.18%/98.37%/98.40%, respectively, on the Valence/Arousal/Dominance dimension for the subject-dependent experiments. Compared to other advanced methods, TPRO-NET demonstrates superior performance.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Emoções/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Adulto
8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(8): e26711, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798103

RESUMO

Appetitive conditioning plays an important role in the development and maintenance of pornography-use and gaming disorders. It is assumed that primary and secondary reinforcers are involved in these processes. Despite the common use of pornography and gaming in the general population appetitive conditioning processes in this context are still not well studied. This study aims to compare appetitive conditioning processes using primary (pornographic) and secondary (monetary and gaming-related) rewards as unconditioned stimuli (UCS) in the general population. Additionally, it investigates the conditioning processes with gaming-related stimuli as this type of UCS was not used in previous studies. Thirty-one subjects participated in a differential conditioning procedure in which four geometric symbols were paired with either pornographic, monetary, or gaming-related rewards or with nothing to become conditioned stimuli (CS + porn, CS + game, CS + money, and CS-) in an functional magnetic resonance imaging study. We observed elevated arousal and valence ratings as well as skin conductance responses for each CS+ condition compared to the CS-. On the neural level, we found activations during the presentation of the CS + porn in the bilateral nucleus accumbens, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and the right ventral anterior cingulate cortex compared to the CS-, but no significant activations during CS + money and CS + game compared to the CS-. These results indicate that different processes emerge depending on whether primary and secondary rewards are presented separately or together in the same experimental paradigm. Additionally, monetary and gaming-related stimuli seem to have a lower appetitive value than pornographic rewards.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Literatura Erótica , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304107, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781193

RESUMO

AIM: In a previous study, we reported that watching two-dimensional videos of earthquakes significantly reduced sympathetic nerve activity in healthy young adults. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional responses to earthquakes using immersive virtual reality (VR), which can provide a more realistic experience. METHODS: In total, 24 healthy young adults (12 males, 21.4 ± 0.2 years old) participated. Participants were required to watch earthquake and neutral videos while wearing a head-mounted display and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), during which physiological signals, including pulse rate and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were measured. We also analyzed changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic indices and obtained seven emotion ratings: valence, arousal, dominance, fear, astonishment, anxiety, and panic. RESULTS: The VR earthquake videos evoked negative subjective emotions, and the pulse rate significantly decreased. Sympathetic nerve activity tended to decrease, whereas CBF in the left prefrontal cortex showed a slight increase, although this was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that measurements combined with NIRS and immersive VR have the potential to capture emotional responses to different stimuli.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Emoções , Frequência Cardíaca , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300786, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748663

RESUMO

Cognitive Arousal, frequently elicited by environmental stressors that exceed personal coping resources, manifests in measurable physiological markers, notably in galvanic skin responses. This effect is prominent in cognitive tasks such as composition, where fluctuations in these biomarkers correlate with individual expressiveness. It is crucial to understand the nexus between cognitive arousal and expressiveness. However, there has not been a concrete study that investigates this inter-relation concurrently. Addressing this, we introduce an innovative methodology for simultaneous monitoring of these elements. Our strategy employs Bayesian analysis in a multi-state filtering format to dissect psychomotor performance (captured through typing speed), galvanic skin response or skin conductance (SC), and heart rate variability (HRV). This integrative analysis facilitates the quantification of expressive behavior and arousal states. At the core, we deploy a state-space model connecting one latent psychological arousal condition to neural activities impacting sweating (inferred through SC responses) and another latent state to expressive behavior during typing. These states are concurrently evaluated with model parameters using an expectation-maximization algorithms approach. Assessments using both computer-simulated data and experimental data substantiate the validity of our approach. Outcomes display distinguishable latent state patterns in expressive typing and arousal across different computer software used in office management, offering profound implications for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and productivity analysis. This research marks a significant advancement in decoding human productivity dynamics, with extensive repercussions for optimizing performance in telecommuting scenarios.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Teorema de Bayes , Cognição , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Teletrabalho , Eficiência/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1390614, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813427

RESUMO

Introduction: Light's non-visual effects on the biological clock, cognitive performance, alertness, and mental health are getting more recognized. These are primarily driven by blue light, which triggers specific retinal cells containing melanopsin. Traditionally, research on light has relied on correlated color temperature (CCT) as a metric of its biological influence, given that bluer light corresponds to higher Kelvin values. However, CCT proves to be an inadequate proxy of light's biological effects. A more precise metric is melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance (mel-EDI), which aligns with melanopsin spectrum. Studies have reported positive cognitive impacts of blue-enriched white light. It's unclear if the mixed results are due to different mel-EDI levels since this factor wasn't assessed. Method: Given recent recommendations from experts to aim for at least 250 mel-EDI exposure daily for cognitive benefits, our aim was to assess if a 50-minute exposure to LED light with 250 mel-EDI could enhance concentration and alertness, without affecting visual performance or comfort compared to conventional lighting producing around 150 mel-EDI. To ensure mel-EDI's impact, photopic lux levels were kept constant across conditions. Conditions were counterbalanced, parameters included subjective sleepiness (KSS; Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), concentration (d2-R test), visual performance (FrACT; Freiburg Visual Acuity and Contrast Test), general appreciation (VAS; Visual Analogous Scale), preferences and comfort (modified OLS; Office Lighting Survey). Results: The experimental light significantly reduced sleepiness (p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.42) and also decreased contrast sensitivity (p = 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.50). The conventional light was found to be more comfortable (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.62), cheerful (p = 0.02, Cohen's d = 0.46) and pleasant (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.55) while the experimental light was perceived as brighter (p = 0.004, Cohen's d = 0.58) and tended to be more stimulating (p = 0.10). Notably, there was a preference for conventional lighting (p = 0.004, Cohen's d=0.56) and concentration was equally improved in both conditions. Discussion: Despite the lack of further improvement in concentration from exposure to blue-enriched light, given the observed benefits in terms of vigilance, further research over an extended period would be justified. These findings could subsequently motivate cognitive optimization through lighting for workers that would benefit from artificial lighting such as in northern regions.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Cognição , Luz , Iluminação , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Cor , Brancos
12.
Learn Mem ; 31(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740426

RESUMO

Emotional stimuli are usually remembered with high confidence. Yet, it remains unknown whether-in addition to memory for the emotional stimulus itself-memory for a neutral stimulus encountered just after an emotional one can be enhanced. Further, little is known about the interplay between emotion elicited by a stimulus and emotion relating to affective dispositions. To address these questions, we examined (1) how emotional valence and arousal of a context image preceding a neutral item image affect memory of the item, and (2) how such memory modulation is affected by two hallmark features of emotional disorders: trait negative affect and tendency to worry. In two experiments, participants encoded a series of trials in which an emotional (negative, neutral, or positive) context image was followed by a neutral item image. In experiment 1 (n = 42), items presented seconds after negative context images were remembered better and with greater confidence compared to those presented after neutral and positive ones. Arousal ratings of negative context images were higher compared to neutral and positive ones and the likelihood of correctly recognizing an item image was related to higher arousal of the context image. In experiment 2 (n = 59), better item memory was related to lower trait negative affect. Participants with lower trait negative affect or tendency to worry displayed higher confidence compared to those with high negative affect or tendency to worry. Our findings describe an emotional "carry-over" effect elicited by a context image that enhances subsequent item memory on a trial-by-trial basis, however, not in individuals with high trait negative affect who seem to have a general memory disadvantage.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Emoções , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Memória/fisiologia
13.
PLoS Biol ; 22(5): e3002614, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743775

RESUMO

The processing of sensory information, even at early stages, is influenced by the internal state of the animal. Internal states, such as arousal, are often characterized by relating neural activity to a single "level" of arousal, defined by a behavioral indicator such as pupil size. In this study, we expand the understanding of arousal-related modulations in sensory systems by uncovering multiple timescales of pupil dynamics and their relationship to neural activity. Specifically, we observed a robust coupling between spiking activity in the mouse dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus and pupil dynamics across timescales spanning a few seconds to several minutes. Throughout all these timescales, 2 distinct spiking modes-individual tonic spikes and tightly clustered bursts of spikes-preferred opposite phases of pupil dynamics. This multi-scale coupling reveals modulations distinct from those captured by pupil size per se, locomotion, and eye movements. Furthermore, coupling persisted even during viewing of a naturalistic movie, where it contributed to differences in the encoding of visual information. We conclude that dLGN spiking activity is under the simultaneous influence of multiple arousal-related processes associated with pupil dynamics occurring over a broad range of timescales.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Nível de Alerta , Corpos Geniculados , Pupila , Animais , Pupila/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Camundongos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vias Visuais/fisiologia
14.
Behav Res Methods ; 56(4): 3757-3778, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702502

RESUMO

Music is omnipresent among human cultures and moves us both physically and emotionally. The perception of emotions in music is influenced by both psychophysical and cultural factors. Chinese traditional instrumental music differs significantly from Western music in cultural origin and music elements. However, previous studies on music emotion perception are based almost exclusively on Western music. Therefore, the construction of a dataset of Chinese traditional instrumental music is important for exploring the perception of music emotions in the context of Chinese culture. The present dataset included 273 10-second naturalistic music excerpts. We provided rating data for each excerpt on ten variables: familiarity, dimensional emotions (valence and arousal), and discrete emotions (anger, gentleness, happiness, peacefulness, sadness, solemnness, and transcendence). The excerpts were rated by a total of 168 participants on a seven-point Likert scale for the ten variables. Three labels for the excerpts were obtained: familiarity, discrete emotion, and cluster. Our dataset demonstrates good reliability, and we believe it could contribute to cross-cultural studies on emotional responses to music.


Assuntos
Emoções , Música , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , China , Adulto Jovem , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , População do Leste Asiático
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 223, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811568

RESUMO

Empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exist, but research suggests these therapies are less effective, acceptable, and feasible to deliver to active duty service members (SMs) compared to civilians. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) procedure, in which a local anesthetic is injected around the cervical sympathetic chain or stellate ganglion to temporarily inhibit sympathetic nervous activity, is gaining popularity as an alternative PTSD treatment in military settings. However, it is unknown whether certain PTSD symptoms are more responsive to SGB than others. The current study involved a secondary analysis of data collected from a previous randomized controlled trial of SGB compared to sham (normal saline) injection (N = 113 SMs). PTSD symptoms were assessed via clinical interview and self-report at baseline and 8 weeks post-SGB or sham. Logistic regression analyses showed that the marked alterations in arousal and reactivity PTSD symptom cluster demonstrated the greatest symptom severity reductions after SGB, relative to sham. The reexperiencing cluster also showed pronounced response to SGB in clinician-rated but not self-reported outcomes. Post-hoc item-level analyses suggested that arousal and reactivity cluster findings were driven by reductions in hypervigilance, concentration difficulties, and sleep disturbance, whereas clinician-rated reexperiencing cluster findings were driven by reductions in physiological reactions to trauma cues, emotional reactions to trauma cues, and intrusions. Our findings align with a burgeoning literature positioning SGB as a potential novel or adjunctive PTSD treatment. Results could guide future hypothesis-driven research on mediators of therapeutic change during SGB for PTSD symptoms in SMs.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Gânglio Estrelado , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Gânglio Estrelado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Militares , Resultado do Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Autorrelato
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(5): e1012104, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748738

RESUMO

Synchronization is widespread in animals, and studies have often emphasized how this seemingly complex phenomenon can emerge from very simple rules. However, the amount of flexibility and control that animals might have over synchronization properties, such as the strength of coupling, remains underexplored. Here, we studied how pairs of marmoset monkeys coordinated vigilance while feeding. By modeling them as coupled oscillators, we noted that (1) individual marmosets do not show perfect periodicity in vigilance behaviors, (2) nevertheless, marmoset pairs started to take turns being vigilant over time, a case of anti-phase synchrony, (3) marmosets could couple flexibly; the coupling strength varied with every new joint feeding bout, and (4) marmosets could control the coupling strength; dyads showed increased coupling if they began in a more desynchronized state. Such flexibility and control over synchronization require more than simple interaction rules. Minimally, animals must estimate the current degree of asynchrony and adjust their behavior accordingly. Moreover, the fact that each marmoset is inherently non-periodic adds to the cognitive demand. Overall, our study provides a mathematical framework to investigate the cognitive demands involved in coordinating behaviors in animals, regardless of whether individual behaviors are rhythmic or not.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Animais , Callithrix/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Modelos Biológicos , Periodicidade
17.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 85(2)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780528

RESUMO

Objective: This secondary analysis investigated the relationship of anxious arousal, as measured by the Tension Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States (TA-POMS), to treatment outcome across diagnoses for each phase of the study. Sequential treatment phases of virtual reality (VR) mindfulness followed by left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) accelerated transcranial magnetic stimulation (accel-TMS) and then dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) accel-TMS were used to treat dysphoria across diagnoses in an open trial from September 2021 to August 2023.Methods: The change in the TA-POMS subscale was compared to the percent change in primary clinician scale scores using a bivariate analysis. Baseline TA-POMS subscales were compared to treatment response using linear regression models to assess anxious arousal's impact on treatment outcome for the 3 phases. Significance was defined as P < .05, 2-tailed.Results: Twenty-three participants were enrolled in VR mindfulness, 19 in left dlPFC accel-TMS, and 12 in dmPFC accel TMS. Although the change in TA-POMS scores did not significantly correlate with the percent change in primary clinician scale ratings for the VR phase, they did for both the dlPFC (P = .041) and the dmPFC (P = .003) accel-TMS treatment phases. Importantly, baseline anxious arousal levels as measured by TA-POMS were not predictive of treatment outcome in any treatment phase.Conclusion: The outcome of accel-TMS treatment was not adversely affected by anxious arousal and similarly improved along with primary rating scales.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05061745.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Atenção Plena , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Atenção Plena/métodos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ansiedade/terapia , Realidade Virtual , Resultado do Tratamento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745558

RESUMO

Arousal state is regulated by subcortical neuromodulatory nuclei, such as locus coeruleus, which send wide-reaching projections to cortex. Whether higher-order cortical regions have the capacity to recruit neuromodulatory systems to aid cognition is unclear. Here, we hypothesized that select cortical regions activate the arousal system, which, in turn, modulates large-scale brain activity, creating a functional circuit predicting cognitive ability. We utilized the Human Connectome Project 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset (n = 149), acquired at rest with simultaneous eye tracking, along with extensive cognitive assessment for each subject. First, we discovered select frontoparietal cortical regions that drive large-scale spontaneous brain activity specifically via engaging the arousal system. Second, we show that the functionality of the arousal circuit driven by bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (associated with the default mode network) predicts subjects' cognitive abilities. This suggests that a cortical region that is typically associated with self-referential processing supports cognition by regulating the arousal system.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Encéfalo , Cognição , Conectoma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Descanso , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Conectoma/métodos , Adulto , Descanso/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(745): eadj4303, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691619

RESUMO

Consciousness is composed of arousal (i.e., wakefulness) and awareness. Substantial progress has been made in mapping the cortical networks that underlie awareness in the human brain, but knowledge about the subcortical networks that sustain arousal in humans is incomplete. Here, we aimed to map the connectivity of a proposed subcortical arousal network that sustains wakefulness in the human brain, analogous to the cortical default mode network (DMN) that has been shown to contribute to awareness. We integrated data from ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of three human brains, obtained at autopsy from neurologically normal individuals, with immunohistochemical staining of subcortical brain sections. We identified nodes of the proposed default ascending arousal network (dAAN) in the brainstem, hypothalamus, thalamus, and basal forebrain. Deterministic and probabilistic tractography analyses of the ex vivo diffusion MRI data revealed projection, association, and commissural pathways linking dAAN nodes with one another and with DMN nodes. Complementary analyses of in vivo 7-tesla resting-state functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project identified the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area in the midbrain as a widely connected hub node at the nexus of the subcortical arousal and cortical awareness networks. Our network-based autopsy methods and connectivity data provide a putative neuroanatomic architecture for the integration of arousal and awareness in human consciousness.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico , Estado de Consciência , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vigília , Humanos , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Conectoma , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia
20.
Curr Biol ; 34(10): 2186-2199.e3, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723636

RESUMO

Animals exhibit rhythmic patterns of behavior that are shaped by an internal circadian clock and the external environment. Although light intensity varies across the day, there are particularly robust differences at twilight (dawn/dusk). These periods are also associated with major changes in behavioral states, such as the transition from arousal to sleep. However, the neural mechanisms by which time and environmental conditions promote these behavioral transitions are poorly defined. Here, we show that the E1 subclass of Drosophila evening clock neurons promotes the transition from arousal to sleep at dusk. We first demonstrate that the cell-autonomous clocks of E2 neurons primarily drive and adjust the phase of evening anticipation, the canonical behavior associated with "evening" clock neurons. We next show that conditionally silencing E1 neurons causes a significant delay in sleep onset after dusk. However, rather than simply promoting sleep, activating E1 neurons produces time- and light-dependent effects on behavior. Activation of E1 neurons has no effect early in the day but then triggers arousal before dusk and induces sleep after dusk. Strikingly, these activation-induced phenotypes depend on the presence of light during the day. Despite their influence on behavior around dusk, in vivo voltage imaging of E1 neurons reveals that their spiking rate and pattern do not significantly change throughout the day. Moreover, E1-specific clock ablation has no effect on arousal or sleep. Thus, we suggest that, rather than specifying "evening" time, E1 neurons act, in concert with other rhythmic neurons, to promote behavioral transitions at dusk.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Drosophila melanogaster , Neurônios , Sono , Animais , Sono/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética
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