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1.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298896, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507346

RESUMO

Starch residue analysis was carried out on stone tools recovered from the bottom layer of the Anakena site on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). These deposits have been dated to AD 1000-1300 AD and so far, represent the earliest evidence of human settlement on this island. Twenty obsidian tools were analyzed. Analysis of 46 starch grains recovered from 20 obsidian tools from the earliest dated level of the Anakena site on Rapa Nui provides direct evidence for translocation of traditional crop plants at initial stages of the colonization of this island. The analysis of starch grains was based mainly on statistical methods for species identification but was complemented by visual inspection in some cases. Our results identify taxons previously unknown to have been cultivated on the island, such as breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), Zingiber officinale (ginger), and starch grains of the Spondias dulcis and Inocarpus fagifer tropical trees. Additionally, starch grains of Colocasia esculenta (taro) and Dioscorea sp. (yam), both common species in Pacific agriculture, were identified. Furthermore, the presence of four American taxa Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Canna sp. (achira), Manihot esculenta (manioc), and Xanthosoma sp., was detected. The occurrence of Canna sp., M. esculenta, and Xanthosoma sp. starch grains suggests the translocation of previously not described South American cultivars into the Pacific. The detection of I. batatas from this site in Rapa Nui constitutes the earliest record of this cultigen in the Pacific. Our study provides direct evidence for translocation of a set of traditional Polynesian and South American crop plants at the initial stages of colonization in Rapa Nui.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Dioscorea , Ipomoea batatas , Humanos , Amido , Grupos Raciais , Produtos Agrícolas , América do Sul
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 334: 122043, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553239

RESUMO

Here, we prepared ionically crosslinked films using pectin extracted from agro-wastes, specifically ambarella peels (AFP) and jackfruit seed slimy sheath (JFS). Physiochemical properties of pectins, including moisture content, molecular weight (Mw), degree of esterification (DE), and galacturonic acid (GA), were analyzed. Optimal extraction was determined, i.e., citric acid concentration 0.3 M, time 60 min, solid/liquid ratio 1:25, and temperature 90 °C for AFP or 85 °C for JFS. Pectin yields under these conditions were 29.67 % ± 0.35 % and 29.93 ± 0.49 %, respectively. AFP pectin revealed Mw, DE, and GA values of 533.20 kDa, 67.08 % ± 0.68 %, and 75.39 ± 0.82 %, while JFS pectin exhibited values of 859.94 kDa, 63.04 % ± 0.47 %, and 78.63 % ± 0.71 %, respectively. The pectin films crosslinked with Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, or Zn2+ exhibited enhanced tensile strength and Young's modulus, along with reduced elongation at break, moisture content, water solubility, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability. Structural analyses indicated metal ions were effectively crosslinked with carboxyl groups of pectin. Notably, the Cu2+-crosslinked film demonstrated superior water resistance, mechanical properties, and exhibited the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activities among all tested films. Therefore, the pectin films represent a promising avenue to produce eco-friendly food packaging materials with excellent properties.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Pectinas , Artocarpus/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Íons/análise , Pectinas/química , Sementes
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338941

RESUMO

A polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) is known for its excellent bioactivities. However, its impact on small intestinal barrier function is still largely unexplored. The study aimed to examine the protection effect of JFP-Ps against dextran sodium sulfate-induced enteritis and its underlying mechanism. This research revealed that JFP-Ps mitigated small intestinal tissue damage by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in the small intestine. JFP-Ps diminished oxidative stress by bolstering the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the concentration of malondialdehyde in the small intestine. In addition, JFP-Ps may restore the mechanical barrier and inhibit intestinal structure damage by augmenting the expression of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) receptors (GPR41/43) and up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin). In conclusion, JFP-Ps may positively influence intestinal health by relieving oxidative stress in the small intestine, improving mechanical barrier function, activating the SCFA-GPR41/GPR43 axis, and inhibiting TLR4/MAPK pathway activation. The results augment our comprehension of the bioactivities of JFP-Ps, corroborating its great potential as a functional food.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Enterite , Sulfatos , Ratos , Animais , Artocarpus/química , Dextranos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/química , Citocinas , Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade
4.
Nutrients ; 16(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38201995

RESUMO

In recent years, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) polysaccharides (namely JFP-Ps) have attracted much attention due to their multiple biological activities. This study aimed to explore the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of JFP-Ps on cyclophosphamide (Cp)-induced liver damage. The protective effect of JFP-Ps was evaluated using HE staining, antioxidant testing, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blot and ultra-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) metabolomics analysis. The results showed that Cp caused pathological liver damage, activated oxidative stress and downregulated cytokine expression, while JFP-Ps treatment was found to exert antioxidant effects and play immune regulatory roles through mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-κB (MAPK/NF-κB) related inflammation and cell apoptosis pathways to protect the Cp-induced liver injury. Metabolomic results showed that the liver-protective effects of JFP-Ps were mainly related to aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) biosynthesis, sphingolipid metabolism, purine metabolism and the citrate cycle. These results indicate that JFP-Ps have great potential application in alleviating liver injury.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Animais , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fígado , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 1): 127848, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924905

RESUMO

The urgent need for eco-friendly and cost-effective cellulose paper substrates in thermal management for biomedical electronic devices has driven the exploration of agro-waste materials. In this study, jackfruit peduncle waste was utilized as a precursor to produce a hybrid of AgNPs-tempo-mediated oxidation cellulose strands (AgNPs-TOCS) through acid hydrolysis, TEMPO oxidation, and an in-situ generation process. The resulting hybrid AgNPs-TOCS composite exhibited a cylindrical cellulose structure with a diameter of 27.3 µm, on which spherical AgNPs with a diameter of 16.3 nm were embedded. This hybrid AgNPs-TOCS displayed an impressive inhibition zone diameter against E. coli bacteria (15.2 nm) and exhibited excellent thermal stability up to 269 °C. Furthermore, the AgNPs-TOCS composite paper substrate was fabricated using non-solvent techniques, and its mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties were investigated. This composite paper substrate exhibits good tensile strength (65 ± 2 MPa), in-plane thermal conductivity (5.8 ± 0.2 W/(m·K)), and electrical resistivity (0.0575 KΩ·m). These findings strongly suggest that this type of composite paper substrate holds promise for applications in thermal management within the field of biomedical electronics.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Celulose/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prata/química , Escherichia coli , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Materiais Dentários/farmacologia
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 257(Pt 1): 128502, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040139

RESUMO

As a natural raw material to replace synthetic chemicals, cellulose and its derivatives are the most popular choices in the pharmaceutical industry. For drug delivery applications, cellulose is usually used as a cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC-based hydrogels are widely utilized for drug delivery because drug molecules can be encapsulated in their pore-like structures. This study aims to develop CNC hydrogels for the delivery of doripenem antibiotics. CNC was obtained from jackfruit peel extraction, and alginate was used as a network polymer to produce hydrogels. Ionotropic gelation was used in the synthesis of CNC-alginate hydrogel composites. The maximum adsorption of doripenem by CNC was 65.7 mg/g, while the maximum adsorption by CNC-alginate was 98.4 mg/g. One of the most challenging aspects of drug delivery is predicting drug release from a solid matrix using simple and complex mathematical equations. The sigmoidal equation could represent the doripenem release from CNC, while the Ritger-Peppas equation could describe the doripenem release from CNC-Alginate. The biocompatibility testing of CNC and CNC-alginate against a 7F2 cell line indicates that both materials were non-toxic.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Nanopartículas , Hidrogéis/química , Celulose/química , Doripenem , Alginatos/química , Adsorção , Nanopartículas/química
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 3): 127234, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797851

RESUMO

In the current research, the pomegranate peel extract of varying concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1 g/mL) were incorporated into jackfruit seed starch (5 % w/w) based edible films and coatings for the evaluation their effects on the mechanical, physical, barrier and thermal properties. Furthermore, the effects of the optimized edible coating were investigated on the postharvest shelf life of white grapes at room storage (30 ± 5 °C, RH = 70 ± 5 %) conditions for up to 8 days. The obtained results showed a significant increment in thickness (p ≤ 0.05) with higher concentration (0.1 g/mL) of pomegranate peel extract (PPE), total phenolic content (959.33 ± 43.36 mg/100 g) and antioxidant activity (87.35 ± 1.64 %) of the prepared edible films but have negative impacts on the water vapor permeability (2.82 × 10-6 ± 6.48 × 10-7 g-1h-1pa-1) and oxygen permeability (1.62 × 10-14 ± 9.32 × 10-15 cm3·cm/cm2·s·cmHg), solubility (23.24 ± 3.21 %), and tensile strength (1.60 ± 0.43 MPa). The edible film enriched with 0.4 g/mL of PPE showed higher thermal stability in terms of glass transition temperature (98.2 ± 0.21 °C) and peak temperature (110.3 ± 0.35 °C). Additionally, the application of coating treatment significantly maintains the postharvest shelf life of white grapes throughout the storage period.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Filmes Comestíveis , Punica granatum , Vitis , Amido , Sementes
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 258(Pt 2): 128988, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158071

RESUMO

Fermentation is a novel technology for modifying polysaccharides in fruits and improving their bioactivities. In this work, we introduced Lactobacillus plantarum FM 17 to ferment jackfruit pulp and subsequently purified polysaccharides from unfermented (JP) and fermented jackfruit pulp (JP-F). Furthermore, the physicochemical, structural, and bioactive properties of JP and JP-F were investigated. Results showed fermentation dropped the glucuronic acid, molecular weight, and particle size of JP-F by 15.62 %, 23.92 %, and 39.43 %, respectively, compared with those of JP. JP-F showed higher solubility than JP but lower apparent viscosity and thermal stability. Additionally, FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that fermentation did not alter the different types of glycosidic bonds and the fundamental polysaccharide structure. Moreover, JP-F exhibited stronger DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging properties than JP and stronger stimulation on macrophage secretion of NO and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. Therefore, using L. plantarum FM 17 for fermentation can alter physical and chemical properties of jackfruit pulp polysaccharides, enhancing their bioactivities.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fermentação , Polissacarídeos/química
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(6): 3654-3664, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot-air drying is a popular method for preserving the production of jackfruit, but heat treatment damages its nutritional qualities. Cold plasma is one of the pretreatment methods used to preserve quality attributes of fruits before drying. In the present work, we studied the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the drying characteristics, microstructure, and bioactive compounds of jackfruit slices with different pretreatment times (15, 30, 45, and 60 s), followed by hot-air drying at 50, 60, and 70 °C. A homemade DBD device was operated via three neon transformers. RESULTS: Optical emission spectrophotometry revealed the emitted spectra of the reactive species in DBD plasma, including the N2 second positive system, N2 first negative system, nitrogen ion, and hydroxyl radical. The results showed that the DBD plasma promoted moisture transfer and enhanced the drying rate, related to the changes in the surface microstructure of samples damaged by DBD plasma. The modified Overhults model was recommended for describing the drying characteristics of jackfruit slices. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, and antioxidant activity in pretreated jackfruit slices were improved by 9.64%, 42.59%, 25.77%, 27.00%, and 23.13%, respectively. However, the levels of color and carotenoids were reduced. CONCLUSION: Thus, the bioactive compounds in dried jackfruit slices can be improved using the DBD plasma technique as a potential pretreatment method for the drying process. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico , Dessecação/métodos , Fenóis
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(11): 1266, 2023 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37787870

RESUMO

Kinetic studies play an instrumental role in determining the most appropriate reaction rate model for industrial-scale applications. This study focuses on the kinetics of methylene blue (MB) adsorption from aqueous solutions by biochar derived from jackfruit peel. Various kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), intra-diffusion, and Elovich models, were applied to study MB adsorption kinetics of jackfruit peel biochar. The experiments were performed with two initial concentrations of MB (24.23 mg/L and 41.42 mg/L) over a span of 240 min. Our findings emphasized that the Elovich model provided the best fit of the experimental data for MB adsorption. When compared to other materials, biochar from jackfruit peel emerges as an eco-friendly adsorbent for dye decolorization, with potential applications in the treatment of environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Azul de Metileno , Cinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água , Adsorção
11.
Anticancer Drugs ; 34(10): 1085-1093, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37823283

RESUMO

Every food source contains both edible and inedible waste components. Millions of tonnes of trash from the food business are made from fruits, and these wastes are containing higher-value medicinal components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic contents, a huge amount of proteins and secondary metabolites. These bioactive phytoconstituents are being used for the treatment of many serious fatal diseases. So, utilizing the recovered bioactive molecules from food wastes as functional ingredients offers a long-term alternative source of therapeutically active components that will lead to the discovery of novel phytoconstituents or novel treatment approaches. The goal of this systematic study is to provide an overview of the jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, Moraceae) edible byproducts, such as jackfruit seeds that are largely neglected. This seed contains numerous bioactive lead molecules, such as carbohydrate-binding protein jacalin, which exhibits potent anticancer activity against colon cancer, blood cancer and breast cancer as well as can enlighten the new possible treatment approaches in targeted therapy and photodynamic chemotherapy. Moreover, jackfruit waste seed can be taken as a dietary food, which is having property to prevent and treat cancer and other lifestyle diseases. The works that have been carried out to utilize jackfruit waste other than the juicy edible bulbs have been reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Lectinas , Humanos , Lectinas/análise , Lectinas/química , Artocarpus/química , Lectinas de Plantas/análise , Sementes/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 11158, 2023 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37429933

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of jackfruit inner skin fibre (JS) incorporated with whey protein isolate (WPI) and soybean oil (SO) as a wall material for probiotic encapsulation to improve probiotic stability against freeze-drying and gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions. Bifidobacterium bifidum TISTR2129, Bifidobacterium breve TISTR2130, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR1338 were studied in terms of SCFA production and the antibiotic-resistant profile and in an antagonistic assay to select suitable strains for preparing a probiotic cocktail, which was then encapsulated. The results revealed that B. breve and L. acidophilus can be used effectively as core materials. JS showed the most influential effect on protecting probiotics from freeze-drying. WPI:SO:JS at a ratio of 3.9:2.4:3.7 was the optimized wall material, which provided an ideal formulation with 83.1 ± 6.1% encapsulation efficiency. This formulation presented > 50% probiotic survival after exposure to gastro-intestinal tract conditions. Up to 77.8 ± 0.1% of the encapsulated probiotics survived after 8 weeks of storage at refrigeration temperature. This study highlights a process and formulation to encapsulate probiotics for use as food supplements that could provide benefits to human health as well as an alternative approach to reduce agricultural waste by increasing the value of jackfruit inner skin.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Probióticos , Humanos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pele , Agricultura , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Óleo de Soja
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 116(4): 1205-1210, 2023 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289434

RESUMO

Artocarpus lacucha, a plant in the Moraceae family, has traditionally been used in Southeast Asian medicine to treat various ailments. This study investigated the insecticidal potential against Spodoptera litura of several compounds extracted from A. lacucha using a topical application method. A sequential extraction method was employed with A. lacucha stems to identify the most toxic crude extract by using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvents. Subsequently, the most toxic crude extract was analyzed for chemical composition by HPLC, followed by the isolation process. Among these crude extracts, the ethyl acetate crude extract was the most toxic to second-instar S. litura larvae (24-h LD50 value of ~9.07 µg/larva). Our results showed that the catechin isolated from the ethyl acetate crude extract exhibited the highest toxicity against this insect (24-h LD50 value of ~8.37 µg/larva). Additionally, catechin significantly decreased the activities of acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferase in the larvae. These findings suggest that catechin isolated from A. lacucha could be a potential insecticidal agent against S. litura. However, the toxicity and persistence of catechin under field conditions need to be further investigated to develop this novel insecticide.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Catequina , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Spodoptera , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Artocarpus/química , Acetilcolinesterase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 242(Pt 2): 124940, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37210058

RESUMO

This study aims to extract the starch from seeds of the Thai aromatic fruit (Artocarpus species), champedak (Artocarpus integer) and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) and evaluate its potential use as a raw material to develop compact powder as substitute for talcum in powder formulations. The chemical and physical characteristics as well as the physicochemical properties of the starch were also determined. Moreover, compact powder formulations using the extracted starch as an ingredient were developed and investigated. This study found that champedak (CS) and jackfruit starch (JS) provided a maximum average granule size of 10 µm. The bell or semi-oval shape and smooth surface of the starch granules was perfectly suited to compact powder development under the cosmetic powder pressing machine, which could reduce the opportunity of fracture during the process. CS and JS presented low swelling power and solubility but high water and oil absorption capacities, which could potentially increase the absorbency of the compact powder. Finally, the developed compact powder formulations provided a smooth surface with a homogeneous and intense colour. All formulations presented a highly adhesive property and were resistant to transport and normal handling by users.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Amido , Artocarpus/química , Frutas , Pós , Sementes/química , Amido/química
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(6): 1553-1557, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37005843

RESUMO

Two prenylated 2-arylbenzofurans were isolated from roots of Artocarpus heterophyllus, with a combination of various chromatographic approaches, including ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). They were identified as 5-[6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5,7-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzofuran-2-yl]-1,3-benzenediol(1) and 5-[2H,9H-2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-furo[2,3-f]pyrano[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-6-yl]-1,3-benzenediol(2) with spectroscopic methods, such as HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR, and named artoheterins B(1) and C(2), respectively. The anti-respiratory burst activities of the two compounds were evaluated with rat polymorphonuclear neutrophils(PMNs) stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA). The results showed that 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on respiratory burst of PMNs with IC_(50) values of 0.27 and 1.53 µmol·L~(-1), respectively.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Ratos , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Artocarpus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Raízes de Plantas/química
16.
Food Chem ; 418: 135807, 2023 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36989643

RESUMO

While fruit biowastes pose an environmental hazard, they can be utilized as a source of beneficial biopolymers such as pectin. However, conventional extraction techniques require long processing time with low, impure yields, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) can suffer from these drawbacks. Here, MAE was applied to extract pectin from jackfruit rags and compared with conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE). Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize pectin yield, based on pH (1.0-2.0), solid-liquid ratio (1:20-1:30), time (5-90 min), and temperature (60-95 °C). Pectin extraction by MAE required lower temperatures (65.99 °C) and shorter reaction times (10.56 min). Pectin HRE resulted in a product with amorphous structures and rough surfaces, while pectin-MAE was high crystalline with smooth surfaces. Although both pectin samples showed shear-thinning behavior, pectin-MAE exhibited higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Therefore, microwave assisted extraction was an efficient method to extract pectin from jackfruit rags.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Pectinas , Artocarpus/química , Frutas/química , Micro-Ondas , Pectinas/química , Temperatura , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(10): 4956-4965, 2023 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36960787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jackfruit seed flour can be used as a cocoa aroma replacer with similar technological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo toxicity and in vitro antioxidant activity of fermented jackfruit seed flour (Fjs) and non-alkaline cocoa powder (Nac). RESULTS: Fjs and Nac extracts (Fjs-E and Nac-E) were produced and submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion producing digested fractions named Fjs-D and Nac-D, respectively. Nac-E showed over two-fold higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) than Fjs-E. However, after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (in vitro), there were no significant differences between Nac-D and Fjs-D (P < 0.01). Similarly, the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of Nac-D and Fjs-D was not significantly different (P < 0.01). The anti-inflammatory assay in transgenic RAW 264.7 murine macrophages showed that Fjs-E did not affect cell viability up to 300 µg mL-1 (P > 0.05) and reduced by 15% the release of TNF-α (P < 0.05). Fjs-D did not affect cell viability up to 300 µg mL-1 (P > 0.05) and showed 58% reduction of NF-κB activation (P < 0.05), with no effects on TNF-α levels. Treatment with Nac-E up to 300 µg mL-1 did not decrease cell viability (P > 0.05) and reduced the release of TNF-α levels by 34% and 66% at 100 and 300 µg mL-1 , respectively (P < 0.05). Nac-D did not reduce the NF-κB activation or TNF-α levels at any tested concentration. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings indicate that Fjs is a safe and promising functional ingredient with biological activities even after gastrointestinal digestion. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Chocolate , Camundongos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Artocarpus/química , Farinha/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Sementes/química , Digestão
18.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): R75-R77, 2023 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693314

RESUMO

New interdisciplinary research on breadfruit helps reconcile cultivar names with genotypic and phenotypic diversity across time, continents, and cultures. The findings will advance breeding and conservation initiatives for this underutilized crop, but also highlight methodological challenges commonplace in crop evolutionary studies.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Frutas , Frutas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Segurança Alimentar
19.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): 287-297.e3, 2023 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608689

RESUMO

Every crop has a story. The story of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), an increasingly valued staple crop in tropical agroforestry systems, is filled with intrigue, oppression, and remains incomplete. The Caribbean is a major producer and consumer of breadfruit, yet most breadfruit there came from a single 1793 introduction aimed at providing a cheap food source for slaves forced to work on British plantations. St. Vincent was the first significant point of Caribbean introduction and played a vital role in subsequent breadfruit distribution throughout the region. Hundreds of cultivars are documented in breadfruit's native Oceania. It remains a mystery, however, which ones were introduced to the Caribbean 230 years ago-still comprising the vast diversity found there today. Integrating local knowledge, historical documents and specimens, morphological data, and DNA, we identify eight major global breadfruit lineages-five of which are found in the Caribbean and likely represent the original 1793 introduction. Genetic data were able to match two Caribbean cultivar names confidently to their Oceania counterparts. Genetics and morphology together enabled additional possible matches. Many other named cultivars within lineages are too genetically similar to differentiate, highlighting difficulties of defining and identifying variation among clonally propagated triploid crops. Breadfruit is important in resilient agroforestry in tropical islands predicted to be especially affected by climate change. Findings reveal global links, building upon collective knowledge that can be used to inform breadfruit management. Results are also summarized in a brochure about breadfruit history and diversity in St. Vincent, and the Caribbean more broadly.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Artocarpus/genética , Produtos Agrícolas , Região do Caribe
20.
J Food Sci ; 88(3): 926-941, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36704897

RESUMO

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) production is abundant during the summer season in Southeast Asia and is also produced throughout the year in some parts of South India. Attributed to the absence of viable process technology, the pulp is predominantly consumed fresh and has not been used effectively for other applications such as in ice cream, beverages, custard preparations, or as a flavor enhancer. The conversion of the high sugar-containing pulp to powder is difficult. Hence, the foam-mat drying of jackfruit pulp was carried out using different foaming agents and stabilizers. The effect of maltodextrin (MD; 3%, 4%, and 5% w/w), glycerol-monostearate (GMS; 2%, 3%, and 4% w/w), or soy protein (SP; 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% w/w), and 0.5% methylcellulose added to the pulp at a concentration of 8 °Brix on foam expansion (FE; %), foam retention (FR; %), total carotenoids (TC; mg/100 g pulp), and overall acceptability (OA) were investigated, and their levels were optimized using central composite design of response surface methodology. The foam mats were dried at a drying air temperature of 70°C along with a foam thickness of 4 mm. The samples were evaluated based on drying time, foaming, functional, biochemical, and sensory qualities. The optimum levels of MD and GMS were 3.96% (4.0%) and 3.01% (3.0%), respectively, which led to the foam-mat-dried jackfruit powder with properties within the desirable range. At these optimum conditions, the predicted FE, FR, TC, and OA were 69.84%, 89.42%, 0.152 mg/100 g pulp, and 7.73, respectively. The optimum levels of MD and SP were 3.95% (4.0%) and 1.02% (1.0%), respectively, and the corresponding properties (considered as responses) of this foam-mat-dried jackfruit powder such as FE, FR, TC, and OA were 74.45%, 84.80%, 0.14 mg/100 g pulp, and 7.6, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study is one of the few studies that is focused on the development of a technique for the long-term preservation of jackfruit powder for further applications that will also reduce the wastage of jackfruit attributed to its fast perishability. This technology can be replicated in other parts of the world. This article has demonstrated foam-mat drying as a useful technique to achieve high-quality jackfruit pulp powders with desirable drying, foaming, functional, biochemical, and sensory qualities using different foaming agents and stabilizers.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Artocarpus/química , Pós/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Tensoativos
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