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1.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 6(2): e230241, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634743

RESUMO

Purpose To perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MRI for the detection of pulmonary nodules, with use of CT as the reference standard. Materials and Methods PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other databases were systematically searched for studies published from January 2000 to March 2023 evaluating the performance of MRI for diagnosis of lung nodules measuring 4 mm or larger, with CT as reference. Studies including micronodules, nodules without size stratification, or those from which data for contingency tables could not be extracted were excluded. Primary outcomes were the per-lesion sensitivity of MRI and the rate of false-positive nodules per patient (FPP). Subgroup analysis by size and meta-regression with other covariates were performed. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, or PROSPERO (no. CRD42023437509). Results Ten studies met inclusion criteria (1354 patients and 2062 CT-detected nodules). Overall, per-lesion sensitivity of MRI for nodules measuring 4 mm or larger was 87.7% (95% CI: 81.1, 92.2), while the FPP rate was 12.4% (95% CI: 7.0, 21.1). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that MRI sensitivity was 98.5% (95% CI: 90.4, 99.8) for nodules measuring at least 8-10 mm and 80.5% (95% CI: 71.5, 87.1) for nodules less than 8 mm. Conclusion MRI demonstrated a good overall performance for detection of pulmonary nodules measuring 4 mm or larger and almost equal performance to CT for nodules measuring at least 8-10 mm, with a low rate of FPP. Systematic review registry no. CRD42023437509 Keywords: Lung Nodule, Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer Screening, MRI, CT Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2024.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos , Humanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
2.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(2): 500-507, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408079

RESUMO

The onion aphid, Neotoxoptera formosana, poses a significant threat to Allium crops worldwide, causing considerable economic losses and quality degradation. To develop effective pest management strategies, it is crucial to understand the feeding behavior and life history of this pest on different Allium crops. In this study, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique was used to monitor the thorn-feeding behavior of the onion aphid on 4 Allium crops: leek, chive, garlic, and shallot. The EPG data revealed distinct feeding patterns, with garlic and shallots being more preferred hosts than chives. Additionally, the aphids primarily fed on the phloem in garlic and shallots. Analysis of life history trait showed that chives provided the most favorable conditions for aphid development and reproduction, while leek exhibited relatively unfavorable conditions. Examination of leaf histology also revealed differences among the crops, which may influence aphid feeding behavior. This study provides valuable insights into the interaction between the onion aphid and different Allium crops, aiding in the development of comprehensive pest control strategies to minimize crop damage and economic losses. The use of advanced techniques like EPG contributes to a more detailed understanding of aphid behavior and shows promise for improving pest management in other plant-pest interactions.


Assuntos
Allium , Amaryllidaceae , Afídeos , Asparagales , Características de História de Vida , Animais , Cebolas , Comportamento Alimentar
3.
J Insect Sci ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387434

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata Blume, a valuable traditional Chinese medicine with significant clinical and nutritional importance, is a fungal heterotrophic orchid. We present the first report of the mitochondrial genome structure and characteristics of 3 Scarabaeidae pests affecting G. elata: Sophrops peronosporus Gu & Zhang, Anomala rufiventris Kollar & Redtenbacher, and Callistethus plagiicollis Fairmaire. Each mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region, with no gene rearrangements observed. All 21 tRNAs, except trnS1 that lacks a dihydrouridine, had a stable cloverleaf secondary structure. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on the 13 PCGs produced 2 topologically similar phylogenetic trees, both of with high nodal support. Larvae of these Scarabaeidae pests cause substantial damage by gnawing on the tubers and roots of G. elata, leading to reduced yield and compromised quality. These findings contribute to phylogenetic studies of Scarabaeidae, expand knowledge of G. elata pests, and offer valuable reference materials for their identification and control.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Besouros , Gastrodia , Genoma Mitocondrial , Orchidaceae , Animais , Besouros/genética , Gastrodia/química , Gastrodia/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Asparagales/genética , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes
4.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 91: 20-27, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801760

RESUMO

The question of how to frame agential preferences in economics finds one caught between Scylla and Charybdis. If preferences are framed in as minimal and deflationary a manner as revealed preference theory recommends, the theory falls prey to objections about its predictiveness and explanatory power. Alternatively, if too many cognitive and causal intricacies are incorporated into the preference concept, revealed preference models will violate pragmatic norms of model construction, surrendering model simplicity and generality. This paper charts a middle course, arguing that the path to salvation lies through an understanding of revealed preference models as program explanations.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Causalidade , Fases de Leitura
5.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 507(1): 357-363, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36781531

RESUMO

For Ledebouria socialis, a superior ovary with interlocular septal nectaries that are confined to both ascidiate and plicate zones of the carpel is typical. It is impossible to describe the gynoecium zonation consistently, since the existing terminology does not allow us to display all its peculiarities. A part of the nectaries located in the gynophore and ascidiate zone is internalized from the very beginning of development and postgenital fusion is not required for their formation. For the formation of the distal part of the nectary confined to the plicate zone of the carpel, postgenital fusion is required to isolate nectar cavities from the center of the gynoecium. The nectary is internalized along the gynoecium periphery through the outgrowth of receptacle tissues. The structure of nectaries, as in Ledebouria, can be found in many Asparagales with a superior ovary.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Flores , Néctar de Plantas
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16623, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404889

RESUMO

The genetic diversity in 11 populations of Gladiolus imbricatus in five mountain ranges, including the Tatra, Pieniny, Gorce, Beskid Niski (Western Carpathians) and Bieszczady Mts (Eastern Carpathians), was studied with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The species is a perennial plant occurring in open and semi-open sites of anthropogenic origin (meadows and forest margins). We checked a hypothesis on the microrefugial character of the plant populations in the Pieniny Mts, a small calcareous Carpathian range of complicated relief that has never been glaciated. Plant populations in the Tatra and Pieniny Mts had the highest genetic diversity indices, pointing to their long-term persistence. The refugial vs. the non-refugial mountain ranges accounted for a relatively high value of total genetic variation [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), 14.12%, p = 0.003]. One of the Pieniny populations was of hybridogenous origin and shared genetic stock with the Tatra population, indicating there is a local genetic melting pot. A weak genetic structuring of populations among particular regions was found (AMOVA, 4.5%, p > 0.05). This could be an effect of the frequent short-distance and sporadic long-distance gene flow. The dispersal of diaspores between the remote populations in the Western Carpathians and Eastern Carpathians could be affected by the historical transportation of flocks of sheep from the Tatra to Bieszczady Mts.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Genes de Plantas , Iridaceae/genética , Asparagales/classificação , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Iridaceae/classificação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 163: 107203, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992785

RESUMO

The astelioid families (Asteliaceae, Blandfordiaceae, Boryaceae, Hypoxidaceae, and Lanariaceae) have centers of diversity in Australasia and temperate Africa, with secondary centers of diversity in Afromontane Africa, Asia, and Pacific Islands. The global distribution of these families makes this an excellent lineage to test if current distribution patterns are the result of vicariance or long-distance dispersal and to evaluate the roles of Tertiary climatic and geological drivers in lineage diversification. Sequence data were generated from five chloroplast regions (petL-psbE, rbcL, rps16-trnK, trnL-trnLF, trnS-trnSG) for 104 ingroup species sampled across global diversity. The astelioid phylogeny was inferred using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Divergence dates were estimated with a relaxed clock applied in BEAST. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed in the R package 'BioGeoBEARS' applying the corrected Akaike information criterion to test for the best-fit biogeographic model. Diversification rates were estimated in Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures (BAMM). Astelioid relationships were inferred as Boryaceae(Blandfordiaceae(Asteliaceae(Hypoxidaceae plus Lanariaceae))). The crown astelioid node was dated to the Late Cretaceous (75.2 million years; 95% highest posterior density interval 61.0-90.0 million years) and an Antarctic-Australasian origin was inferred. Astelioid speciation events have not been shaped by Gondwanan vicariance. Rather long-distance dispersal since the Eocene is inferred to account for current distributions. Crown Asteliaceae and Boryaceae have Australian ancestral ranges and diversified since the Eocene. In Hypoxidaceae, Empodium, Hypoxis, and Pauridia have African ancestral ranges, while Curculigo and Molineria have an Asian ancestral range. Diversification of Pauridia and the Curculigo clade occurred steadily, while diversification of Astelia and Hypoxis was punctuated over time. Diversification of Hypoxis and Astelia coincided temporally with the expansion of the habitat types occupied by extant taxa, e.g., grassland habitat in Africa during the Late Miocene and alpine habitat in New Zealand during the Pliocene, respectively.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia
8.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 1043-1050, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227943

RESUMO

An extract of Galtonia regalis from the Natural Products Discovery Institute showed moderate antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value less than 1.25 µg/mL. The two known cholestane glycosides 1 and 2 and the five new cholestane glycosides galtonosides A-E (3-7) were isolated after bioassay-directed fractionation. The structures of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and mass spectra. Among these compounds, galtonoside B (4) displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value of 0.214 µM against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Colestanos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Asparagales/química , Colestanos/química , Colestanos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/química
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1660, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015366

RESUMO

'Pollination syndromes' involving floral nectar have eluded satisfactory evolutionary explanation. For example, floral nectars for vertebrate-pollinated plants average low sugar concentrations, while such animals prefer high concentrations, perplexing pollination biologists and arousing recent controversy. Such relationships should result from evolutionary games, with plants and pollinators adopting Evolutionarily Stable Strategies, and nectar manipulating rather than attracting pollinators. Plant potential to manipulate pollinators depends on relationships between neighbouring flowers within plants, for all nectar attributes, but this has not been investigated. We measured nectar volume, concentration and sugar composition for open flowers on naturally-growing Blandfordia grandiflora plants, presenting classic bird-pollinated plant syndrome. To evaluate potential pollinator manipulation through nectar, we analysed relationships between neighbouring flowers for nectar volume, concentration, proportion sucrose, log(fructose/glucose), and sugar weight. To evaluate potential attraction of repeat-visits to flowers or plants through nectar, we compared attributes between successive days. Nearby flowers were positively correlated for all attributes, except log(fructose/glucose) as fructose≈glucose. Most relationships between nectar attributes for flowers and plants on successive days were non-significant. Nectar-feeding pollinators should therefore decide whether to visit another flower on a plant, based on all attributes of nectar just-obtained, enabling plants to manipulate pollinators through adjusting nectar. Plants are unlikely to attract repeat pollinator-visits through nectar production. Floral nectar evolution is conceptually straightforward but empirically challenging. A mutant plant deviating from the population in attributes of nectar-production per flower would manipulate, rather than attract, nectar-feeding pollinators, altering pollen transfer, hence reproduction. However, links between floral nectar and plant fitness present empirical difficulties.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/química , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas/química , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Asparagales/química , Asparagales/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Aves/fisiologia , Carboidratos/análise , Flores/química , Flores/fisiologia
10.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 63: 104920, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945570

RESUMO

The ultrasound assisted purification of asparagus polyphenols by adsorption and desorption on the macroporous resins was investigated. The ultrasound within the selected intensities (12-120 W) and temperatures (25-35 °C) increased the adsorption and desorption capacities of asparagus polyphenols on D101 resins. Higher ultrasound intensity (120 W) and lower temperature (25 °C) benefited the adsorption process and the adsorption capacity of total polyphenols after ultrasound was 3.95 mg/g, which was 2 times than that obtained after shaking at 120 rpm. Meanwhile, ultrasound can significantly shorten the equilibrium time and the adsorption process of asparagus polyphenols could be well described by Pseudo-second order model and Freundlich model. Stereoscopic microscope was first used to investigate the microstructure characterization of resins, indicating that ultrasound mainly enhanced the surface roughness of resins. Interestingly, rutin possessed the highest adsorption capacities and ferulic acid had the highest the desorption capacities among the studied individual polyphenols. The obtained results evidenced on a progressive insight of application of ultrasound assisted resins for purification of asparagus polyphenols.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Polifenóis/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Sonicação , Adsorção , Microscopia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 307, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. (Asphodelaceae) has traditional reputability in treatment of diarrhea and constipation but no scientific study has been reported for its gastrointestinal effects. Present study was conducted to evaluate antidiarrheal and laxative activities of the plant. METHODS: Aqueous-ethanol crude extract of Asphodelus tenuifolius (At.Cr) was subjected to phytochemical screening and liquid-liquid fractionation. In vivo studies of charcoal meal intestinal transit test, antidiarrheal activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and laxative activity were performed in mice. In vitro experiments were conducted upon rabbit jejunum preparations using standard tissue bath techniques. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening indicated presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and phenols in At.Cr. In charcoal meal intestinal transit test, At.Cr increased (p < 0.001) intestinal motility at 100 mg/kg dose, but decreased (p < 0.001) it at 500 mg/kg dose, when compared to the control group. At.Cr (300-700 mg/kg) provided protection from castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, which was significant (p < 0.001) at 500 and 700 mg/kg doses, as compared to the saline treated control group. At.Cr (50 and 100 mg/kg) enhanced total and wet feces counts in normal mice, as compared to saline treated control. In jejunum preparations, At.Cr inhibited spontaneous, K+ (80 mM) and K+ (25 mM) mediated contractions, similar to verapamil. Pre-incubation of jejunum preparations with At.Cr resulted in rightward nonparallel shift in Ca+ 2 concentration response curves, similar to verapamil. The spasmolytic activity was concentrated in ethylacetate fraction. Aqueous fraction exhibited spasmogenicity upon spontaneous contractions, which was blocked in presence of verapamil, but remained unaffected by other tested antagonists. CONCLUSION: The Asphodelus tenuifolius crude extract possesses gut modulatory activity, which may normalize gut functions in diarrhea and constipation. The spasmolytic activity of the extract was found to be mediated through Ca+ 2 channel blocking action. The spasmogenic activity, found partitioned in aqueous fraction, possibly involves Ca+ 2 influx through voltage gated Ca+ 2 channels. The study supports ethnic uses of the plant in diarrhea and constipation.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/administração & dosagem , Asparagales/química , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antidiarreicos/química , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/fisiopatologia , Laxantes/química , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos
12.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533249

RESUMO

Bellevalia saviczii is a medicinal plant used as anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy in Iraqi-Kurdistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of its extract and the isolated homoisoflavonoid (Dracol) by studying the Ca2+-dependent NF-kB pathway. Nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kB subunit, as parameter of NF-kB activation, was visualized in human leukemic monocytes by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, after cell treatment with B. saviczii root extract or Dracol followed by Lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In parallel, Ca2+ signals responsible for NF-kB activation and levels of inflammatory cytokines were investigated. LPS-induced p65 translocation was evident in monocytes and both treatments, in particular that with Dracol, were able to counteract this activation. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were halted and the cytokine release reduced. These results confirm the traditional anti-inflammatory efficacy of B. saviczii and identify one of the molecules in the extract which appears to be responsible of this action.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asparagales/química , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(18): 9842-9856, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392988

RESUMO

To elucidate the molecular nature of evolutionary changes of telomeres in the plant order Asparagales, we aimed to characterize telomerase RNA subunits (TRs) in these plants. The unusually long telomere repeat unit in Allium plants (12 nt) allowed us to identify TRs in transcriptomic data of representative species of the Allium genus. Orthologous TRs were then identified in Asparagales plants harbouring telomere DNA composed of TTAGGG (human type) or TTTAGGG (Arabidopsis-type) repeats. Further, we identified TRs across the land plant phylogeny, including common model plants, crop plants, and plants with unusual telomeres. Several lines of functional testing demonstrate the templating telomerase function of the identified TRs and disprove a functionality of the only previously reported plant telomerase RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Importantly, our results change the existing paradigm in plant telomere biology which has been based on the existence of a relatively conserved telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) associating with highly divergent TRs even between closely related plant taxa. The finding of a monophyletic origin of genuine TRs across land plants opens the possibility to identify TRs directly in transcriptomic or genomic data and/or predict telomere sequences synthesized according to the respective TR template region.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Allium/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Asparagales/genética , Embriófitas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5028, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903007

RESUMO

DNA transfer between internal organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondrion, and plastid is a well-known phenomenon in plant evolution, and DNA transfer from the plastid and mitochondrion to the nucleus, from the plastid to the mitochondrion, and from the nucleus to the mitochondrion has been well-documented in angiosperms. However, evidence of the transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to the plastid has only been found in three dicotyledons and one monocotyledon. In the present study, we characterised and analysed two chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of Convallaria keiskei and Liriope spicata, and found that C. keiskei has the largest cp genome (162,109 bp) in the Asparagaceae. Interestingly, C. keiskei had a ~3.3-kb segment of mtDNA in its cp genome and showed similarity with the mt gene rpl10 as a pseudogene. Further analyses revealed that mtDNA transfer only occurred in C. keiskei in the Nolinoideae, which diverged very recently (7.68 million years ago (mya); 95% highest posterior density (HPD): 14.55-2.97 mya). These findings indicate that the C. keiskei cp genome is unique amongst monocotyledon land plants, but further work is necessary to understand the direction and mechanism involved in the uptake of mtDNA by the plastid genome of C. keiskei.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Convallaria/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Asparagales/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 128: 648-654, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708016

RESUMO

A heteropolysaccharide ESP, was separated from a water extract of dried roots of Eremurus spectabilis by column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose A52 and Sephadex G-100. Specific optical rotation, molecular mass and total carbohydrate content of ESP were -36.3°, 43.8 kDa and 97.2%, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that ESP consisted of glucose and mannose at a molar ratio of 1.0:2.9. Structural characterization of ESP was done by various chemical and instrumental techniques (methylation, partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, periodate oxidation, GLC-MS and 1D/2D NMR). The repeating unit of ESP was determined as following.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Água/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Metilação , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Solubilidade
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 92-98, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521911

RESUMO

A lectin with a molecular mass of 12 ±â€¯1 kDa was isolated for the first time from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) rhizome (GDL). The lectin exhibited hemagglutination activity both in mice and human erythrocytes which was inhibited by 4-nitrophenyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside among the tested 26 sugars. The lectin was heat stable and showed its full activity in the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0. The lectin did not lose its activity in the presence of urea but the activity lost significantly when treated with EDTA. Divalent cation Ca2+ and Mg2+ also partially inhibited the activity of the lectin. The lectin strongly agglutinated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and inhibited the cells growth by 60% at 160 µg/ml protein concentration but unable to inhibit the growth of HeLa cells in vitro. The growth inhibition was due to the induction of apoptosis in the EAC cells which was confirmed by annexin-V and caspase-3 substrate and finally by apoptosis-related genes expression. An intensive expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-X gene was observed only in untreated EAC cells while pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax genes expressed only in GDL treated EAC cells with the remarkable increase of the p53 gene expression. In the treated EAC cells NFκB expression was down regulated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Asparagales/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma de Ehrlich , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(4): 6209-6222, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474871

RESUMO

Aging contributes to an increased risk of developing a number of neurodegenerative and chronic disorders, predominantly related to oxidative stress (OS) and defects in the antioxidant balance. This study focused on the antisenescence effect of four plant species (Falcaria vulgaris, Ixiolirion tataricum, Ajuga chamaecistus, and Scabiosa flavida) on H2 O2 -induced premature senescence in rat NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were found to be rich in effective phytochemicals with traditional ethnobotanical backgrounds. Plant materials were collected, identified, and extracted. To determine the viability of NIH3T3 cells, an MTT assay was conducted. The levels of OS markers and the senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-GAL) activity were analyzed by the Elisa reader. The cell cycle pattern was evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of senescence-related inflammatory cytokines and the molecules involved in aging signaling pathways were investigated using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). H2 O2 treatment decreased cell viability and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in NIH3T3s. However, S. flavida exhibited low cytotoxicity, reduced OS and SA-ß-GAL activities in NIH3T3 cells compared with the H2 O2 -treated group. I. tataricum was the second best plant, although it was more toxic to NIHT3T cells. S. flavida decreased G0/G1 arrest and facilitated the G2/M transition of NIH3T3s, also downregulated the expression of p38, p53, p16, and the related inflammatory mediators. S. flavida potentially modulated senescence-associated hallmarks in fibroblasts exposed to H2 O2 , thus it may inhibit the aging process via controlling the OS. Therefore it is a promising candidate for future antiaging explorations.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae/química , Asparagales/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipsacaceae/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/química , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(1): 40-42, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162457

RESUMO

A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of Amaryllis belladonna Steud. bulbs resulted in the isolation and identification of the new crinane alkaloid 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy powellan (1), along with the 3 known crinane alkaloids 2-4 and the two lycorane alkaloids 5-6. The structures were elucidated by interpretation of combined HR-ESIMS, CD and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Among these isolated compounds the lycorane-type alkaloid acetylcaranine (5) exhibited strong antiplasmodial activity, while compounds 3 and 4 were moderately active, and compounds 1 and 6 were inactive.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/química , Antimaláricos/química , Asparagales/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Asparagales/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Genome ; 60(4): 337-347, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177838

RESUMO

Although a standard DNA barcode has been identified for plants, it does not always provide species-level specimen identifications for investigating important ecological questions. In this study, we assessed the species-level discriminatory power of standard (rbcLa + matK) and complementary barcodes (ITS1 and trnH-psbA) within the subfamily Alooideae (Asphodelaceae), a large and recent plant radiation, whose species are important in horticulture yet are threatened. Alooideae has its centre of endemism in southern Africa, with some outlier species occurring elsewhere in Africa and Madagascar. We sampled 360 specimens representing 235 species within all 11 genera of the subfamily. With three distance-based methods, all markers performed poorly for our combined data set, with the highest proportion of correct species-level specimen identifications (30%) found for ITS1. However, when performance was assessed across genera, the discriminatory power varied from 0% for all single markers and combinations in Gasteria to 63% in Haworthiopsis, again for ITS1, suggesting that DNA barcoding success may be related to the evolutionary history of the lineage considered. Although ITS1 could be a good barcode for Haworthiopsis, the generally poor performance of all markers suggests that Alooideae remains a challenge. As species boundaries within Alooideae remain controversial, we call for continued search for suitable markers or the use of genomics approaches to further explore species discrimination in the group.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA Complementar/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Asparagales/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 32(1): 60-67, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774819

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to evaluate multicomponent pattern, biological and enzymatic activities of seven Asphodeline taxa root extracts as useful ingredients, due to the fact that these plants are commonly used as traditional food supplements in Turkish regions. The extracts were characterized for free anthraquinones and phenolics to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint useful for quality control. These analyzes were coupled to biological and enzymatic activities in order to obtain comprehensive information of the natural product. Free anthraquinones and phenolics were determined using validated HPLC-PDA methods. Antioxidant properties were determined by different procedures including free radical scavenging, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Ames assay was performed to evaluate mutagenic/antimutagenic properties. Enzyme inhibitory activities were tested against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. From the herein reported results, Asphodeline could be valuable for the production of bioactive products or food supplements for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Asparagales/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
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