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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16623, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404889

RESUMO

The genetic diversity in 11 populations of Gladiolus imbricatus in five mountain ranges, including the Tatra, Pieniny, Gorce, Beskid Niski (Western Carpathians) and Bieszczady Mts (Eastern Carpathians), was studied with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The species is a perennial plant occurring in open and semi-open sites of anthropogenic origin (meadows and forest margins). We checked a hypothesis on the microrefugial character of the plant populations in the Pieniny Mts, a small calcareous Carpathian range of complicated relief that has never been glaciated. Plant populations in the Tatra and Pieniny Mts had the highest genetic diversity indices, pointing to their long-term persistence. The refugial vs. the non-refugial mountain ranges accounted for a relatively high value of total genetic variation [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), 14.12%, p = 0.003]. One of the Pieniny populations was of hybridogenous origin and shared genetic stock with the Tatra population, indicating there is a local genetic melting pot. A weak genetic structuring of populations among particular regions was found (AMOVA, 4.5%, p > 0.05). This could be an effect of the frequent short-distance and sporadic long-distance gene flow. The dispersal of diaspores between the remote populations in the Western Carpathians and Eastern Carpathians could be affected by the historical transportation of flocks of sheep from the Tatra to Bieszczady Mts.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Genes de Plantas , Iridaceae/genética , Asparagales/classificação , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Iridaceae/classificação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 163: 107203, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992785

RESUMO

The astelioid families (Asteliaceae, Blandfordiaceae, Boryaceae, Hypoxidaceae, and Lanariaceae) have centers of diversity in Australasia and temperate Africa, with secondary centers of diversity in Afromontane Africa, Asia, and Pacific Islands. The global distribution of these families makes this an excellent lineage to test if current distribution patterns are the result of vicariance or long-distance dispersal and to evaluate the roles of Tertiary climatic and geological drivers in lineage diversification. Sequence data were generated from five chloroplast regions (petL-psbE, rbcL, rps16-trnK, trnL-trnLF, trnS-trnSG) for 104 ingroup species sampled across global diversity. The astelioid phylogeny was inferred using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Divergence dates were estimated with a relaxed clock applied in BEAST. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed in the R package 'BioGeoBEARS' applying the corrected Akaike information criterion to test for the best-fit biogeographic model. Diversification rates were estimated in Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures (BAMM). Astelioid relationships were inferred as Boryaceae(Blandfordiaceae(Asteliaceae(Hypoxidaceae plus Lanariaceae))). The crown astelioid node was dated to the Late Cretaceous (75.2 million years; 95% highest posterior density interval 61.0-90.0 million years) and an Antarctic-Australasian origin was inferred. Astelioid speciation events have not been shaped by Gondwanan vicariance. Rather long-distance dispersal since the Eocene is inferred to account for current distributions. Crown Asteliaceae and Boryaceae have Australian ancestral ranges and diversified since the Eocene. In Hypoxidaceae, Empodium, Hypoxis, and Pauridia have African ancestral ranges, while Curculigo and Molineria have an Asian ancestral range. Diversification of Pauridia and the Curculigo clade occurred steadily, while diversification of Astelia and Hypoxis was punctuated over time. Diversification of Hypoxis and Astelia coincided temporally with the expansion of the habitat types occupied by extant taxa, e.g., grassland habitat in Africa during the Late Miocene and alpine habitat in New Zealand during the Pliocene, respectively.


Assuntos
Asparagales , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia
3.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 1043-1050, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227943

RESUMO

An extract of Galtonia regalis from the Natural Products Discovery Institute showed moderate antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value less than 1.25 µg/mL. The two known cholestane glycosides 1 and 2 and the five new cholestane glycosides galtonosides A-E (3-7) were isolated after bioassay-directed fractionation. The structures of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and mass spectra. Among these compounds, galtonoside B (4) displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value of 0.214 µM against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Colestanos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Asparagales/química , Colestanos/química , Colestanos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/química
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1660, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015366

RESUMO

'Pollination syndromes' involving floral nectar have eluded satisfactory evolutionary explanation. For example, floral nectars for vertebrate-pollinated plants average low sugar concentrations, while such animals prefer high concentrations, perplexing pollination biologists and arousing recent controversy. Such relationships should result from evolutionary games, with plants and pollinators adopting Evolutionarily Stable Strategies, and nectar manipulating rather than attracting pollinators. Plant potential to manipulate pollinators depends on relationships between neighbouring flowers within plants, for all nectar attributes, but this has not been investigated. We measured nectar volume, concentration and sugar composition for open flowers on naturally-growing Blandfordia grandiflora plants, presenting classic bird-pollinated plant syndrome. To evaluate potential pollinator manipulation through nectar, we analysed relationships between neighbouring flowers for nectar volume, concentration, proportion sucrose, log(fructose/glucose), and sugar weight. To evaluate potential attraction of repeat-visits to flowers or plants through nectar, we compared attributes between successive days. Nearby flowers were positively correlated for all attributes, except log(fructose/glucose) as fructose≈glucose. Most relationships between nectar attributes for flowers and plants on successive days were non-significant. Nectar-feeding pollinators should therefore decide whether to visit another flower on a plant, based on all attributes of nectar just-obtained, enabling plants to manipulate pollinators through adjusting nectar. Plants are unlikely to attract repeat pollinator-visits through nectar production. Floral nectar evolution is conceptually straightforward but empirically challenging. A mutant plant deviating from the population in attributes of nectar-production per flower would manipulate, rather than attract, nectar-feeding pollinators, altering pollen transfer, hence reproduction. However, links between floral nectar and plant fitness present empirical difficulties.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/química , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas/química , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Asparagales/química , Asparagales/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Aves/fisiologia , Carboidratos/análise , Flores/química , Flores/fisiologia
5.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 63: 104920, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945570

RESUMO

The ultrasound assisted purification of asparagus polyphenols by adsorption and desorption on the macroporous resins was investigated. The ultrasound within the selected intensities (12-120 W) and temperatures (25-35 °C) increased the adsorption and desorption capacities of asparagus polyphenols on D101 resins. Higher ultrasound intensity (120 W) and lower temperature (25 °C) benefited the adsorption process and the adsorption capacity of total polyphenols after ultrasound was 3.95 mg/g, which was 2 times than that obtained after shaking at 120 rpm. Meanwhile, ultrasound can significantly shorten the equilibrium time and the adsorption process of asparagus polyphenols could be well described by Pseudo-second order model and Freundlich model. Stereoscopic microscope was first used to investigate the microstructure characterization of resins, indicating that ultrasound mainly enhanced the surface roughness of resins. Interestingly, rutin possessed the highest adsorption capacities and ferulic acid had the highest the desorption capacities among the studied individual polyphenols. The obtained results evidenced on a progressive insight of application of ultrasound assisted resins for purification of asparagus polyphenols.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Polifenóis/química , Resinas Vegetais/química , Sonicação , Adsorção , Microscopia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 307, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. (Asphodelaceae) has traditional reputability in treatment of diarrhea and constipation but no scientific study has been reported for its gastrointestinal effects. Present study was conducted to evaluate antidiarrheal and laxative activities of the plant. METHODS: Aqueous-ethanol crude extract of Asphodelus tenuifolius (At.Cr) was subjected to phytochemical screening and liquid-liquid fractionation. In vivo studies of charcoal meal intestinal transit test, antidiarrheal activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and laxative activity were performed in mice. In vitro experiments were conducted upon rabbit jejunum preparations using standard tissue bath techniques. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening indicated presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and phenols in At.Cr. In charcoal meal intestinal transit test, At.Cr increased (p < 0.001) intestinal motility at 100 mg/kg dose, but decreased (p < 0.001) it at 500 mg/kg dose, when compared to the control group. At.Cr (300-700 mg/kg) provided protection from castor oil induced diarrhea in mice, which was significant (p < 0.001) at 500 and 700 mg/kg doses, as compared to the saline treated control group. At.Cr (50 and 100 mg/kg) enhanced total and wet feces counts in normal mice, as compared to saline treated control. In jejunum preparations, At.Cr inhibited spontaneous, K+ (80 mM) and K+ (25 mM) mediated contractions, similar to verapamil. Pre-incubation of jejunum preparations with At.Cr resulted in rightward nonparallel shift in Ca+ 2 concentration response curves, similar to verapamil. The spasmolytic activity was concentrated in ethylacetate fraction. Aqueous fraction exhibited spasmogenicity upon spontaneous contractions, which was blocked in presence of verapamil, but remained unaffected by other tested antagonists. CONCLUSION: The Asphodelus tenuifolius crude extract possesses gut modulatory activity, which may normalize gut functions in diarrhea and constipation. The spasmolytic activity of the extract was found to be mediated through Ca+ 2 channel blocking action. The spasmogenic activity, found partitioned in aqueous fraction, possibly involves Ca+ 2 influx through voltage gated Ca+ 2 channels. The study supports ethnic uses of the plant in diarrhea and constipation.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/administração & dosagem , Asparagales/química , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antidiarreicos/química , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/fisiopatologia , Laxantes/química , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos
7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533249

RESUMO

Bellevalia saviczii is a medicinal plant used as anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy in Iraqi-Kurdistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of its extract and the isolated homoisoflavonoid (Dracol) by studying the Ca2+-dependent NF-kB pathway. Nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kB subunit, as parameter of NF-kB activation, was visualized in human leukemic monocytes by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, after cell treatment with B. saviczii root extract or Dracol followed by Lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In parallel, Ca2+ signals responsible for NF-kB activation and levels of inflammatory cytokines were investigated. LPS-induced p65 translocation was evident in monocytes and both treatments, in particular that with Dracol, were able to counteract this activation. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were halted and the cytokine release reduced. These results confirm the traditional anti-inflammatory efficacy of B. saviczii and identify one of the molecules in the extract which appears to be responsible of this action.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asparagales/química , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(18): 9842-9856, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392988

RESUMO

To elucidate the molecular nature of evolutionary changes of telomeres in the plant order Asparagales, we aimed to characterize telomerase RNA subunits (TRs) in these plants. The unusually long telomere repeat unit in Allium plants (12 nt) allowed us to identify TRs in transcriptomic data of representative species of the Allium genus. Orthologous TRs were then identified in Asparagales plants harbouring telomere DNA composed of TTAGGG (human type) or TTTAGGG (Arabidopsis-type) repeats. Further, we identified TRs across the land plant phylogeny, including common model plants, crop plants, and plants with unusual telomeres. Several lines of functional testing demonstrate the templating telomerase function of the identified TRs and disprove a functionality of the only previously reported plant telomerase RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Importantly, our results change the existing paradigm in plant telomere biology which has been based on the existence of a relatively conserved telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) associating with highly divergent TRs even between closely related plant taxa. The finding of a monophyletic origin of genuine TRs across land plants opens the possibility to identify TRs directly in transcriptomic or genomic data and/or predict telomere sequences synthesized according to the respective TR template region.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Allium/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Asparagales/genética , Embriófitas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5028, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903007

RESUMO

DNA transfer between internal organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondrion, and plastid is a well-known phenomenon in plant evolution, and DNA transfer from the plastid and mitochondrion to the nucleus, from the plastid to the mitochondrion, and from the nucleus to the mitochondrion has been well-documented in angiosperms. However, evidence of the transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to the plastid has only been found in three dicotyledons and one monocotyledon. In the present study, we characterised and analysed two chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of Convallaria keiskei and Liriope spicata, and found that C. keiskei has the largest cp genome (162,109 bp) in the Asparagaceae. Interestingly, C. keiskei had a ~3.3-kb segment of mtDNA in its cp genome and showed similarity with the mt gene rpl10 as a pseudogene. Further analyses revealed that mtDNA transfer only occurred in C. keiskei in the Nolinoideae, which diverged very recently (7.68 million years ago (mya); 95% highest posterior density (HPD): 14.55-2.97 mya). These findings indicate that the C. keiskei cp genome is unique amongst monocotyledon land plants, but further work is necessary to understand the direction and mechanism involved in the uptake of mtDNA by the plastid genome of C. keiskei.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Convallaria/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Asparagales/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 128: 648-654, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708016

RESUMO

A heteropolysaccharide ESP, was separated from a water extract of dried roots of Eremurus spectabilis by column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose A52 and Sephadex G-100. Specific optical rotation, molecular mass and total carbohydrate content of ESP were -36.3°, 43.8 kDa and 97.2%, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that ESP consisted of glucose and mannose at a molar ratio of 1.0:2.9. Structural characterization of ESP was done by various chemical and instrumental techniques (methylation, partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, periodate oxidation, GLC-MS and 1D/2D NMR). The repeating unit of ESP was determined as following.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Água/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Metilação , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Solubilidade
11.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(4): 6209-6222, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474871

RESUMO

Aging contributes to an increased risk of developing a number of neurodegenerative and chronic disorders, predominantly related to oxidative stress (OS) and defects in the antioxidant balance. This study focused on the antisenescence effect of four plant species (Falcaria vulgaris, Ixiolirion tataricum, Ajuga chamaecistus, and Scabiosa flavida) on H2 O2 -induced premature senescence in rat NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were found to be rich in effective phytochemicals with traditional ethnobotanical backgrounds. Plant materials were collected, identified, and extracted. To determine the viability of NIH3T3 cells, an MTT assay was conducted. The levels of OS markers and the senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-GAL) activity were analyzed by the Elisa reader. The cell cycle pattern was evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of senescence-related inflammatory cytokines and the molecules involved in aging signaling pathways were investigated using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). H2 O2 treatment decreased cell viability and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in NIH3T3s. However, S. flavida exhibited low cytotoxicity, reduced OS and SA-ß-GAL activities in NIH3T3 cells compared with the H2 O2 -treated group. I. tataricum was the second best plant, although it was more toxic to NIHT3T cells. S. flavida decreased G0/G1 arrest and facilitated the G2/M transition of NIH3T3s, also downregulated the expression of p38, p53, p16, and the related inflammatory mediators. S. flavida potentially modulated senescence-associated hallmarks in fibroblasts exposed to H2 O2 , thus it may inhibit the aging process via controlling the OS. Therefore it is a promising candidate for future antiaging explorations.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae/química , Asparagales/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipsacaceae/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/química , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 92-98, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521911

RESUMO

A lectin with a molecular mass of 12 ±â€¯1 kDa was isolated for the first time from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) rhizome (GDL). The lectin exhibited hemagglutination activity both in mice and human erythrocytes which was inhibited by 4-nitrophenyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside among the tested 26 sugars. The lectin was heat stable and showed its full activity in the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0. The lectin did not lose its activity in the presence of urea but the activity lost significantly when treated with EDTA. Divalent cation Ca2+ and Mg2+ also partially inhibited the activity of the lectin. The lectin strongly agglutinated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and inhibited the cells growth by 60% at 160 µg/ml protein concentration but unable to inhibit the growth of HeLa cells in vitro. The growth inhibition was due to the induction of apoptosis in the EAC cells which was confirmed by annexin-V and caspase-3 substrate and finally by apoptosis-related genes expression. An intensive expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-X gene was observed only in untreated EAC cells while pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax genes expressed only in GDL treated EAC cells with the remarkable increase of the p53 gene expression. In the treated EAC cells NFκB expression was down regulated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Asparagales/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma de Ehrlich , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(1): 40-42, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162457

RESUMO

A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of Amaryllis belladonna Steud. bulbs resulted in the isolation and identification of the new crinane alkaloid 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy powellan (1), along with the 3 known crinane alkaloids 2-4 and the two lycorane alkaloids 5-6. The structures were elucidated by interpretation of combined HR-ESIMS, CD and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Among these isolated compounds the lycorane-type alkaloid acetylcaranine (5) exhibited strong antiplasmodial activity, while compounds 3 and 4 were moderately active, and compounds 1 and 6 were inactive.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/química , Antimaláricos/química , Asparagales/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Asparagales/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
14.
Genome ; 60(4): 337-347, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177838

RESUMO

Although a standard DNA barcode has been identified for plants, it does not always provide species-level specimen identifications for investigating important ecological questions. In this study, we assessed the species-level discriminatory power of standard (rbcLa + matK) and complementary barcodes (ITS1 and trnH-psbA) within the subfamily Alooideae (Asphodelaceae), a large and recent plant radiation, whose species are important in horticulture yet are threatened. Alooideae has its centre of endemism in southern Africa, with some outlier species occurring elsewhere in Africa and Madagascar. We sampled 360 specimens representing 235 species within all 11 genera of the subfamily. With three distance-based methods, all markers performed poorly for our combined data set, with the highest proportion of correct species-level specimen identifications (30%) found for ITS1. However, when performance was assessed across genera, the discriminatory power varied from 0% for all single markers and combinations in Gasteria to 63% in Haworthiopsis, again for ITS1, suggesting that DNA barcoding success may be related to the evolutionary history of the lineage considered. Although ITS1 could be a good barcode for Haworthiopsis, the generally poor performance of all markers suggests that Alooideae remains a challenge. As species boundaries within Alooideae remain controversial, we call for continued search for suitable markers or the use of genomics approaches to further explore species discrimination in the group.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA Complementar/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Asparagales/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 32(1): 60-67, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774819

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to evaluate multicomponent pattern, biological and enzymatic activities of seven Asphodeline taxa root extracts as useful ingredients, due to the fact that these plants are commonly used as traditional food supplements in Turkish regions. The extracts were characterized for free anthraquinones and phenolics to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint useful for quality control. These analyzes were coupled to biological and enzymatic activities in order to obtain comprehensive information of the natural product. Free anthraquinones and phenolics were determined using validated HPLC-PDA methods. Antioxidant properties were determined by different procedures including free radical scavenging, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Ames assay was performed to evaluate mutagenic/antimutagenic properties. Enzyme inhibitory activities were tested against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. From the herein reported results, Asphodeline could be valuable for the production of bioactive products or food supplements for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Asparagales/química , Asparagales/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Plant Physiol ; 171(3): 1867-78, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208281

RESUMO

Subcellular lipid droplets (LDs) in diverse plant cells and species are coated with stabilizing oleosins of at least five phylogenic lineages and perform different functions. We examined two types of inadequately studied LDs for coated oleosins and their characteristics. The epidermis but not mesophyll of leaves of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and most other Asparagales species contained solitary and clustered LDs (<0.5 µm), some previously studied by electron microscopy and speculated to be for cuticle formation. In vanilla leaves, transcripts of oleosins of the U lineage were present in both epidermis and mesophyll, but oleosin occurred only in epidermis. Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the LDs were coated with oleosins. LDs in isolated fractions did not coalesce, and the fractions contained heterogeneous proteins including oleosins and diverse lipids. These findings reflect the in situ structure and possible functions of the LDs. Fruit mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana) and other Lauraceae species possessed large LDs, which likely function in attracting animals for seed dispersal. They contained transcripts of oleosin of a novel M phylogenic lineage. Each avocado mesocarp fatty cell possessed one to several large LDs (5 to 20 µm) and at their periphery, numerous small LDs (<0.5 µm). Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that oleosin was present mostly on the small LDs. LDs in isolated fractions coalesced rapidly, and the fraction contained oleosin and several other proteins and triacylglycerols as the main lipids. These two new types of oleosin-LDs exemplify the evolutionary plasticity of oleosins-LDs in generating novel functions in diverse cell types and species.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Persea/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vanilla/citologia , Asparagales/citologia , Frutas/citologia , Liliaceae/citologia , Células do Mesofilo/química , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Filogenia , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química
17.
Evolution ; 70(5): 1136-44, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27061096

RESUMO

Although the phylogenetic relationships between monocot orders are sufficiently understood, a timescale of their evolution is needed. Several studies on molecular clock dating are available, but their results have been biased by their calibration schemes. Recently, the fossilized birth-death model, a type of Bayesian dating method, was proposed, and it does not require prior calibration and allows the use all available fossils. Using this model, we conducted divergence-time estimations of monocots to explore their evolutionary timeline without calibration bias. This is the first application of this model to seed plants. The dataset contained the matK and rbcL chloroplast genes of 118 monocot genera covering all extant orders. We employed information from 247 monocot fossils, which exceeded previous dating analyses that used a maximum of 12 monocot fossils. The crown group of monocots was dated to approximately the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous periods, and most extant monocot orders were estimated to diverge throughout the Early Cretaceous. Our results overlapped with the divergence time of insect lineages, such as beetles and flies, suggesting an association with pollinators in early monocot evolution. In addition, we proposed three new orders based on divergence time: Orchidales separated from Asparagales and Tofieldiales and Arales separated from Aslimatales.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fósseis , Orchidaceae/genética , Animais , Asparagales/classificação , Asparagales/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Especiação Genética , Insetos/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Polinização/genética
18.
Planta ; 244(3): 589-606, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105886

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Xylans in the cell walls of monocots are structurally diverse. Arabinofuranose-containing glucuronoxylans are characteristic of commelinids. However, other structural features are not correlated with the major transitions in monocot evolution. Most studies of xylan structure in monocot cell walls have emphasized members of the Poaceae (grasses). Thus, there is a paucity of information regarding xylan structure in other commelinid and in non-commelinid monocot walls. Here, we describe the major structural features of the xylans produced by plants selected from ten of the twelve monocot orders. Glucuronoxylans comparable to eudicot secondary wall glucuronoxylans are abundant in non-commelinid walls. However, the α-D-glucuronic acid/4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid is often substituted at O-2 by an α-L-arabinopyranose residue in Alismatales and Asparagales glucuronoxylans. Glucuronoarabinoxylans were the only xylans detected in the cell walls of five different members of the Poaceae family (grasses). By contrast, both glucuronoxylan and glucuronoarabinoxylan are formed by the Zingiberales and Commelinales (commelinids). At least one species of each monocot order, including the Poales, forms xylan with the reducing end sequence -4)-ß-D-Xylp-(1,3)-α-L-Rhap-(1,2)-α-D-GalpA-(1,4)-D-Xyl first identified in eudicot and gymnosperm glucuronoxylans. This sequence was not discernible in the arabinopyranose-containing glucuronoxylans of the Alismatales and Asparagales or the glucuronoarabinoxylans of the Poaceae. Rather, our data provide additional evidence that in Poaceae glucuronoarabinoxylan, the reducing end xylose residue is often substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid or at O-3 with arabinofuranose. The variations in xylan structure and their implications for the evolution and biosynthesis of monocot cell walls are discussed.


Assuntos
Alismatales/química , Asparagales/química , Parede Celular/química , Xilanos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Genetika ; 52(5): 605-10, 2016 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368487

RESUMO

Sequence variability of the ITS spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene was examined in 11 accessions of the subfamily Scilloideae, including seven accessions of rare and endangered species Bellevalia sarmatica from Volgograd region. The intraspecific polymorphism level of the examined ITS1­5.8S­ITS2 sequence of B. sarmatica accessions constituted 1.3%. The phylogenetic position of B. sarmatica within the genus Bellevalia was determined. It was demonstrated that B. sarmatica belonged to the section Nutantes, and the most closely related species were B. webbiana and B. dubia. Nucleotide substitutions in the 5.8S rRNA gene sequence of the analyzed Scilloideae accessions were identified and studied. The predicted secondary structure of 5.8S rRNA gene was constructed. It was demonstrated that in the examined accessions, mutations in the 5.8S rRNA gene were mainly localized in the third hairpin region and had no effect on the secondary structure of the 5.8S rRNA molecule.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Variação Genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Asparagales/química , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/química , Federação Russa
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