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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(3): e202301965, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237081

RESUMO

Herein, it was aimed to evaluate three different extracts of the plant Asphodelus aestivus in terms of their antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, flavonoid profile, and anticholinergic and antidiabetic activity. In addition, the phenolic content of the A. aestivus extracts was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The results obtained in the antioxidant studies were checked against butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, Trolox, and α-tocopherol antioxidants, which are reference standards. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of A. aestivus for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) removal activity were 245.015-285.851 and 285.818-371.563 µg/mL, respectively. Then, the reducing impact of A. aestivus extracts was evaluated by the cupric ion (Cu2+ ), ferric ion (Fe3+ ), and Fe3+ -TPTZ reducing capabilities. Moreover, 0.058, 0.064, and 0.100 µg of gallic acid equivalent of phenolic and 0.500, 1.212, and 2.074 µg of quercetin equivalent of flavonoid contents were determined from 1 mg of ethanol, water, and water-ethanol extracts, respectively. For water-ethanol, ethanol, and water extracts of A. aestivus, IC50 values of 0.062±0.0001, 0.068±0.0002, and 0.090±0.0001 µg/mL against acetylcholinesterase, respectively, were calculated. In addition, against the enzyme α-glucosidase IC50 values of 16.376±0.2216, 18.907±0.3004, and 24.471±0.4929 µg/mL, respectively, were calculated. Extracts showed considerable biological activities thanks to the important molecules they contain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Asphodelaceae , Hipoglicemiantes , Antioxidantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Acetilcolinesterase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fenóis/química , Etanol , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Água
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251336, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355879

RESUMO

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


Resumo Bulbine natalensis Baker e Chorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques são potenciais fontes medicinais para o tratamento de cânceres. A Leucemia Mieloide Crônica (LMC) é um distúrbio das células-tronco hematopoiéticas que é tratado com inibidores da tirosina quinase, mas frequentemente, causa recorrência da leucemia após a interrupção da terapia, portanto, requer um tratamento alternativo. Este estudo determinou o efeito anticancerígeno de extratos metanólicos e aquosos de folha, raiz e bulbo de B. natalensis e C. comosum na linhagem celular de leucemia mieloide humana crônica (K562) por ensaios de MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimida nuclear e anexina V. O extrato metanólico da raiz de B. natalensis e C. comosum apresentou alta citotoxidade de 8,6% e 16,7% respectivamente, na linhagem celular K562 com a concentração de 1,000 μg / ml. Perda morfológica da integridade da membrana celular causando degradação dos núcleos, citoplasma e encolhimento celular foi observada no extrato metanólico da raiz de ambas as plantas. Uma alta apoptose (p <0,0001) foi induzida nas células K562 por extratos de folhas e raízes de C. comosum em comparação com B. natalensis. Este estudo mostrou que ambas as plantas possuem efeito apoptótico contra leucemia mieloide in vitro que contribui para as propriedades anticâncer gerais de B. natalensis e C. comosum para justificar futuras aplicações terapêuticas contra câncer de sangue de LMC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Asphodelaceae , Apoptose , Células K562
3.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(2): 126-132, 2023 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224035

RESUMO

There is great plant diversity in Saudi Arabia. The Asphodelaceae family is within this great diversity, especially the rare species such as the plant, Aloe saudiarabica. Such plants must be preserved in their natural ranges, hence, the need to document them. Genetic markers have become the approved and widely used method for documenting rare plants. The current study deals with the use of three genetic markers to document A. saudiarabica for the first time. The used genetic markers were Maturase-K (matK), Ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase (rbcL), and Internal-transcribed-spacer (ITS). The study found that the primers used for the rbcL gene were not effective in achieving identification. Sequencing of the matK and ITS were achieved successfully. The sequences were determined for both markers using two pairs of primers and deposited in the NCBI databases (GenBank). These markers were effective in identifying A. saudiarabica and determining its evolutionary relationship with other Aloe species in various databases. The study showed that A. vera is high similar (>99%) to the other species. In conclusion, the study showed the likelihood of the different genetic markers to document A. saudiarabica, especially the currently investigated matK and ITS.


Assuntos
Aloe , Asphodelaceae , Marcadores Genéticos , Aloe/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Primers do DNA
4.
Diabet Med ; 40(2): e14770, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919745

RESUMO

AIMS: Bulbine natalensis (BN) and Bulbine frutescens (BF) are recommended in South African traditional medicine to treat diabetes, but their modes of action are unknown. This study assessed the phenolic acid profiles, mineral composition and in vitro functional effects of BN and BF to better understand their glucose-lowering capabilities. METHODS: Phenolic acid and mineral composition of BN and BF methanolic extracts were determined by HPLC and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy respectively. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by potassium ferricyanide reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, and inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and DPP4 was evaluated by standard enzyme assays. The effects of BN and BF extracts on insulin secretion were investigated using static incubations of isolated mouse islets and molecular docking analysis was used to identify interactions of BN and BF with partners that could mediate stimulatory effects on insulin secretion. RESULTS: Methanolic extracts of BN and BF contained high concentrations of protocatechuic and gallic acids, and high levels of Zn, Mn and Cr. The extracts inhibited alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, pancreatic lipase and DPP4 activities, and they also inhibited free radical generation. Both extracts significantly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without significantly affecting basal insulin secretion or islet cell viability. Protocatechuic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in the extracts, showed high affinity for PKA, PKC, DPP4 and CaMK II in the docking analysis. CONCLUSIONS: BN and BF have multiple beneficial effects on glucoregulatory pathways and they, or their derivatives, could be developed to treat type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Camundongos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Fenóis/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Lipase , Glucose
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2116021119, 2022 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617429

RESUMO

For thousands of years, the unique physicochemical properties of plant exudates have defined uses in material culture and practical applications. Native Australian plant exudates, including resins, kinos, and gums, have been used and continue to be used by Aboriginal Australians for numerous technical and cultural purposes. A historic collection of well-preserved native Australian plant exudates, assembled a century ago by plant naturalists, gives a rare window into the history and chemical composition of these materials. Here we report the full hierarchical characterization of four genera from this collection, Xanthorrhoea, Callitris, Eucalyptus, and Acacia, from the local elemental speciation, to functional groups and main molecular markers. We use high-resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) to achieve bulk-sensitive chemical speciation of these plant exudates, including insoluble, amorphous, and cross-linked fractions, without the limitation of invasive and/or surface specific methods. Combinatorial testing of the XRS data allows direct classification of these complex natural species as terpenoid, aromatic, phenolic, and polysaccharide materials. Differences in intragenera chemistry was evidenced by detailed interpretation of the XRS spectral features. We complement XRS with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and pyrolysis­GC-MS (Py-GC-MS). This multimodal approach provides a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of these natural materials long used by Aboriginal Australian peoples.


Assuntos
Acacia , Asphodelaceae , Eucalyptus , Pinales , Exsudatos de Plantas , Acacia/química , Austrália , Eucalyptus/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pinales/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Terpenos/análise , Asphodelaceae/química
6.
Planta Med ; 88(12): 975-984, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359083

RESUMO

Bulbine natalensis, an emerging medicinal herb on the global market with androgenic properties, is often formulated in dietary supplements that promote perceived sexual enhancement. However, to date, comprehensive safety studies of B. natalensis are lacking, particularly those related to its herb-drug interaction potential. The purpose of this study was to assess the inductive and inhibitory effects of extracts and pure compounds of B. natalensis on human cytochrome P-450 isozymes in vitro. Our findings demonstrated that both water and methanolic extracts of B. natalensis as well as knipholone, bulbine-knipholone, and 6'-O-methylknipholone dose-dependently increased mRNA expression encoded by CYP2B6, CYP1A2, and ABCB1 genes. Functional analyses showed that water (60 to 2.20 µg/mL) and methanolic (30 to 3.75 µg/mL) extracts and knipholones (10 to 0.33 µM) increased CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, water extract (60 µg/mL), methanolic extract (30 µg/mL), and knipholone (10 µM) caused activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor up to 11.1 ± 0.7, 8.9 ± 0.6, and 7.1 ± 2.0-fold, respectively. Furthermore, inhibition studies revealed that methanolic extract attenuated the activity of metabolically active CYP1A2 (IC50, 22.6 ± 0.4 µg/mL) and CYP2B6 (IC50, 34.2 ± 6.6 µg/mL) proteins, whereas water extracts had no inhibitory effect on either isoform. These findings suggest that chronic consumption of B. natalensis may affect normal homeostasis of select CYPs with subsequent risks for HDIs when concomitantly ingested with conventional medications that are substrates of CYP2B6 and CYP1A2. However, more in-depth translational studies are required to validate our current findings and their clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2 , Antraquinonas , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Humanos , Isoenzimas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Água
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251336, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932629

RESUMO

Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 µg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Apoptose , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(5): 1503-1518, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435283

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and protective effect of E. persicus leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EPE) in preventing gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats. Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into five groups. These groups included negative control (normal) group, positive control (ethanolic) group, comparative control (ranitidine recipient) group, group recipient the dose of 250 mg/kg plant extract, and group recipient the dose of 500 mg/kg plant extract. One hour after gavage of the drug and extract, the gastric ulcer was induced by feeding 1 ml of 96% ethanol to each animal except the rats of the negative control group. After one hour, the rats were killed, and their stomachs were separated. Then, the gastric Ulcer index (UI), pH, oxidative stress parameters, and histopathological changes in the stomach of all groups were measured. Pre-treatment of ethanol-induced rats with the EPE reduced (P < 0.05) the ulcer index and gastric juice pH, compared to ethanolic group rats. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EPE at a dose-dependent manner, alleviated the gastric oxidative stress injury in rats through increase the activity of CAT, tissue NO· and GSH levels. EPE also was able to decrease the levels of ROS, MDA, PCO and serum NO·. According to the results, it can be concluded that pre-treatment with EPE prevents the formation of gastric ulcers caused by ethanol, which can be attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant polyphenols compounds.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asphodelaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ranitidina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6622318, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935597

RESUMO

Bulbine asphodeloides (L.) Spreng (Xanthorrhoeaceae family), popularly known in South Africa as "ibhucu" or "Balsamkopieva," is a perennial plant traditionally used to treat skin diseases, including sunburns, rough skin, dressing burns, itches, and aging. The present study reports the cytotoxic, cellular antioxidant, and antiglucuronidase properties of the ethanol leaf extract from B. asphodeloides. The cytotoxic effect of the plant extract on human dermal fibroblast (MRHF) cells was evaluated by the bis-Benzamide H 33342 trihydrochloride/propidium iodide (Hoechst 33342/PI) dual-staining method. A validated biological cell-based assay was used to determine the cellular antioxidant activity of the extract. The antiglucuronidase and metal chelating activities were evaluated using standard in vitro methods. Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cell model was used to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract, and the immune-modulatory activity was performed using RAW 264.7 cells. The extract demonstrated no cytotoxic effect towards the MRHF cells at all the tested concentrations. Furthermore, the extract also possessed significant cellular antioxidant and antiglucuronidase activities, but a weak effect of metal chelating activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the extract showed no significant anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory activities. Overall, the results showed that B. asphodeloides may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of skin diseases, therefore supporting its ethnomedicinal usage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asphodelaceae/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bioensaio , Quelantes/isolamento & purificação , Quelantes/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J AOAC Int ; 104(5): 1394-1407, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bulbine natalensis Baker and Bulbine frutescens (L.) Willd., belonging to the family Asphodelaceae, are widely distributed in South Africa and traditionally used as an aphrodisiac and skin remedies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for chemical profiling and identification of components in Bulbine species, which would be useful for herbal identification and understanding of the biological activity of B. natalensis in terms of safety and benefits to human health. METHOD: The anthraquinone-type compounds were structurally characterized from the extracts of dried stem and roots of Bulbine species and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF) with negative and positive ion electrospray. The calculated accurate masses of the protonated and deprotonated molecules and fragment ions were used for identification of the components from two Bulbine species. RESULTS: A total of 55 anthraquinone-type compounds, including 11 standard compounds, were identified in the crude extracts of two Bulbine species. Two Bulbine species and dietary supplements were clustered into different groups and possible chemical markers were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The developed analytical method provided a fast and economic method for quality assessment of Bulbine species in dietary supplements based on anthraquinone-type compounds. HIGHLIGHTS: This study reports holistic chemical profiling of Bulbine species using LC-QToF. The developed analytical method enabled non-targeted analysis of components in B. natalensis and B. frutescens, and is recommended for commercial and regulatory purposes.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Antraquinonas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
12.
Malar J ; 20(1): 3, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kniphofia foliosa is a flamboyant robust perennial herb which has dense clumps and tick upright rhizomes with leaves at the base. In Ethiopia, it has several vernacular names including Abelbila, Ashenda, Amelmela, Yeznjero Ageda, Shemetmetie and Yezinjero Ageda. The plant is endemic to Ethiopian highlands, where its rhizomes are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria, abdominal cramps and wound healing. In the present study, the 80% methanol extract of K. foliosa rhizomes and its constituents are tested against Plasmodium berghei in mice. METHODS: Isolation was carried out using column and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC). The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR). Peters' 4-day suppressive test against P. berghei in mice was utilized for in vivo anti-malarial evaluation of the test substances. RESULTS: Two compounds, namely knipholone and dianellin were isolated from the 80% methanolic extract of K. foliosa rhizomes, and characterized. The hydroalcoholic extract (400 mg/kg) and knipholone (200 mg/kg) showed the highest activity with chemosuppression values of 61.52 and 60.16%, respectively. From the dose-response plot, the median effective (ED50) doses of knipholone and dianellin were determined to be 81.25 and 92.31 mg/kg, respectively. Molecular docking study revealed that knipholone had a strong binding affinity to Plasmodium falciparum l-lactate dehydrogenase (pfLDH) target. CONCLUSION: Results of the current study support the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Asphodelaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/química , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113693, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326818

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. (Asphodelaceae), a wild, terrestrial, annual stemless herb, is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and circulatory problems. A previous research study from our laboratory revealed that A. tenuifolius has beneficial effects in reducing blood pressure and improves aortic endothelial dysfunction in chronically glucose fed rats. Despite the fact that A. tenuifolius reduces blood pressure and improves endothelial function in vivo, there are no detailed studies about its possible mechanism of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to provide pharmacological basis and mechanism of action for the traditional use of A. tenuifolius in hypertension and circulatory problems. We explored the vasorelaxant effect of A. tenuifolius and its underlying vasorelaxation mechanism in porcine coronary artery rings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous methanolic crude extract of A. tenuifolius was prepared by maceration process and then activity guided fractionation was carried out by using different polarity based solvents. Phytochemical studies were carried out using LC-DAD-MS. Segments of porcine distal coronary artery were set up in a wire myograph for isometric force measurements. Extract/fractions of A. tenuifolius seeds were tested for vasodilator activity by measurement of changes in tone after pre-contraction with the thromboxane mimetic U46619 in the presence or absence of inhibitors of intracellular signaling cascades. RESULTS: Crude extract/fractions of A. tenuifolius produced dose dependent endothelium independent vasorelaxant response in coronary rings, whereas, the butanol fraction of A. tenuifolius (BS-AT) produced the largest relaxation response with 100% relaxation at 1 mg/ml, therefore the mechanism of relaxation of this fraction was determined. The relaxation to BS-AT was unaffected by removal of the endothelium, pre-contraction with KCl, or the presence of the non-selective potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, indicating that the relaxation was endothelium-independent, and does not involve activation of potassium channels. BS-AT (1 mg/ml) inhibited the contractile response to calcium,the L-type calcium channel activator BAY K8664,and ionomycin, indicating that it inhibits calcium-induced contractions. The relaxation response to BS-AT was attenuated in the absence of extracellular calcium. However, relaxations to BS-AT were also reduced after deletion of calcium from intracellular stores with cyclopiazonic acid. Incubation with 1 mg/ml BS-AT also inhibited phosphorylation of myosin light chains in homogenates of coronary artery. CONCLUSION: The butanol extract of Asphodelus tenuifolius produces a large endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery through inhibition of calcium-induced contractions. The effect appears to be downstream of calcium influx, possibly through inhibition of myosin light chain kinase. This study supports previous studies demonstrating that A. tenuifolius reduces blood pressure. Future studies will aim to determine the active compounds underlying this response.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Vasos Coronários/enzimologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Vasodilatadores/isolamento & purificação
14.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(2): 483-497, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064243

RESUMO

Asphodelus tenuifolius is traditionally used in the management of rheumatic pain and inflamed body parts. The current study validated its traditional use as an anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent using a series of in vivo models. Carrageenan and histamine-induced acute oedema models were employed to study the effects of n-hexane (n-HeAT) and ethanolic (EeAT) extracts on acute inflammatory mediators and were found to inhibit oedema formation in a dose-dependent manner. Formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) were injected into the hind paw of rats for the induction of arthritis. In the formalin model both n-HeAT and EeAT showed significantly better (p < 0.05) anti-oedema effects from day 6 onward. In CFA model rats were treated on 8th day of induction with extracts at the doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg respectively. Piroxicam (10 mg/kg) and normal saline (10 mL/kg) were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Both n-HeAT and EeAT significantly (p < 0.05) decreased arthritis development in a time-dependent manner and at 28th day extent of inflammation was even less than that observed at day 8. The arthritic score was measured at day 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 and was observed to be significantly less (p < 0.05) in animals treated with 750 mg/kg of n-HeAT and EeAT, respectively. Joint inflammation (p < 0.01), bone erosion (p < 0.001) and, pannus formation (p < 0.01) were significantly declined in A. tenuifolius treatment groups. Radiographic evaluations (X-ray) were conducted to check bone integrity and extent of inflammation and were observed to be diminished at day 28 in A. tenuifolius extracts treated groups. HPLC was performed to screen the phytochemical profile of n-HeAT and EeAT and were found to contain flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to detect effects of n-HeAT and EeAT treatments on inflammatory markers i.e., IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, NF-κB, and I-κB using blood samples. ELISA assays were performed for the detection of levels of C-reactive proteins, respectively. Significant downregulation of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1ß, COX-2, NF-κB with simultaneous upregulation of IL-10 and I-κB was observed in n-HeAT and EeAT treatment groups. ELISA assays also showed significant (p < 0.05) down-modulation in the serum levels of CRP and TNF-α. Both extracts showed relatively weak antioxidant activities as compared with ascorbic acid in in vitro assay. Based on findings of the current study it is concluded that A. tenuifolius has anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects and thus has potential to be used as an adjunct to standard NSAIDs therapy.Graphic abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Asphodelaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(18): 3063-3070, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711303

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic separation of extracts from the aerial parts of Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. (synonym Dianella nemorosa Lam. Ex. Schiler f.) led to the isolation of 10 compounds, the structures of which were determined by HR-ESI-MS and 1 D- and 2 D-NMR spectroscopies, and by comparisons with published studies. Among the isolated compounds were three flavans, a biflavan, a biflavone, a tetralone, a naphthalen glycoside, an aromatic compound, and two steroids. Six of these were known chemicals, while three were identified as new compounds: 7-acetyl-4R,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone, 2(S),2',4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavan, and diaensi-biflavan. 2(S),7,4'-dimethoxy flavan was obtained for the first time as a natural product.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae/química , Fenóis , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais
16.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153416, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bulbine natalensis is an African-folk medicinal plant used as a dietary supplement for enhancing sexual function and muscle strength in males by presumably boosting testosterone levels, but no scientific information is available about the possible herb-drug interaction (HDI) risk when bulbine-containing supplements are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs. PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the HDI potential of B. natalensis in terms of the pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated induction of major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme isoforms (i.e., CYP3A4 and CYP2C9) as well as inhibition of their catalytic activity. RESULTS: We found that a methanolic extract of B. natalensis activated PXR (EC50 6.2 ± 0.6 µg/ml) in HepG2 cells resulting in increased mRNA expression of CYP3A4 (2.40 ± 0.01 fold) and CYP2C9 (3.37 ± 0.3 fold) at 30 µg/ml which was reflected in increased activites of the two enzymes. Among the constituents of B. natalensis, knipholone was the most potent PXR activator (EC50 0.3 ± 0.1 µM) followed by bulbine-knipholone (EC50 2.0 ± 0.5 µM), and 6'-methylknipholone (EC50 4.0 ± 0.5 µM). Knipholone was also the most effective in increasing the expression of CYP3A4 (8.47 ± 2.5 fold) and CYP2C9 (2.64 ± 0.3 fold) at 10 µM. Docking studies further confirmed the unique structural features associated with knipholones for their superior inductive potentials in the activation of PXR compared to other anthraquinones. In a CYP inhibition assay, the methanolic extract as well as the anthraquinones strongly inhibited the catalytic activity of CYP2C9 while, inhibition of CYP3A4 was weak. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that consumption of B. natalensis may pose a potential risk for HDI if taken with conventional medications that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 and may contribute to unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings and establish their clinical relevancy.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae/química , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/química , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/química , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Receptor de Pregnano X/química , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo
17.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 16(1)2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987371

RESUMO

The complex structure of natural bio-organic matter has inspired scientists to utilise these as templates to design 'biomorphic materials', which retain the intricate architecture of the materials while acting as a useful bioactive material. Biomorphic hydroxyapatite-based fibres were synthesised usingHarakekeleaf fibre as a template, which constitutes a powerful method for manufacturing bioactive ceramic fibres. Furthermore, in creating the hydroxyapatite-based fibres, a natural source of calcium and phosphate ions (from bovine bone) was utilised to create the digest solution in which the leaf fibres were immersed prior to their calcination to form the inorganic fibres. Chemical, thermogravimetric and microscopic characterisation confirmed that the final product was able to successfully replicate the shape of the fibres and furthermore be transformed into calcium deficient, bone-like hydroxyapatite.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Durapatita , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Cálcio , Bovinos , Folhas de Planta
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 260: 112986, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492493

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Bulbine (Asphodelaceae) is spread across Southern Africa and Australia and has been traditionally used for various medicinal applications such as treating skin diseases, burns, diarrhoea, and sexually transmitted diseases. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: The aim is to present a critical review of the ethnomedicinally important species of the genus Bulbine with a comprehensive overview of their chemical constituents and biological activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper is an overview of literature published on the genus Bulbine in the last six decades with regards to phytochemical composition and their respective pharmacological potentials with the aid of data obtained from the search engine Google Scholar with string searches performed using keywords to obtain relevant publications from scientific databases including ACS Journals, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO, Sci Finder, Springer, Tailor & Francis, The Plant List Database, Web of Science and Wiley. RESULTS: The literature survey reveals that only 12 species in the genus Bulbine have been reported to be used traditionally with scientific records of ethnomedicinal usage Anthraquinones appeared as the most abundant phytochemicals in the genus. Other isolated/detected metabolites include isofuranonaphthoquinones, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Promising pharmacological activities have been reported by members of the genus with antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomal, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity, potent wound healing properties as well as improved reproduction. CONCLUSIONS: This review showed the traditional uses of this genus and its preventative and curative properties in the management of the listed diseases providing support from bioassays of the tested compounds and extracts. State-of-the-art analytical techniques are required for the characterisation and quantification of the compounds within the genus. The efficacy of the therapeutic potential of the Bulbine species need to be further confirmed with pre-clinical and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae/química , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
Planta Med ; 86(2): 144-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766069

RESUMO

A UHPLC-photodiode array-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of one chromone and six anthraquinone type of compounds from Bulbine natalensis plant samples and dietary supplements. Metabolites 1:  -  7: were identified based on their retention times and electrospray ionization-MS spectra compared with a mix of previously isolated compounds. The quantification of 1:  -  7: was based on photodiode array detection. The optimized separation was achieved using a CORTECS C18 column with a gradient of water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Seven compounds were separated within 15 minutes with detection limits of 50 pg on the column. The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 5% and the recovery efficiency was 98 - 101%. Nine dietary supplements labeled as containing B. natalensis were examined. Anthraquinone-type compounds were detected in only five out of nine dietary supplements, with the total amount ranging from 11.3 to 90.4 mg per daily dose. The analytical method is simple, economic, rapid, and can be applied for quality assessment of B. natalensis and dietary supplements. Electrospray ionization-MS was used for the identification of these compounds in plant samples and dietary products.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/análise , Asphodelaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Zootaxa ; 4597(1): zootaxa.4597.1.1, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716065

RESUMO

An account is given of the communities of Chalcidoidea, mostly based upon species of Bruchophagus Ashmead (Eurytomidae), which feed as larvae in seeds of Asphodelus and Asphodeline (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Eight new species of Eurytomidae, namely B. abscedus Askew sp. n., B. asphodelinae Askew Stojanova sp. n., B. gijswijti Askew Ribes sp. n., B. insulare Delvare sp. n., B. lecomtei Delvare sp. n., B. ribesi Askew sp. n., Eurytoma genale Askew Stojanova sp. n., and Aximopsis balajasi Delvare sp. n., are described together with the new species Idiomacromerus asphodeli Ribes sp. n. (Torymidae). Eurytoma setigera Mayr, 1878 is again synonymized with E. pistaciae Rondani, 1877 syn. rev. Puklina dillerae Doganlar, 1993 and P. asphodelinae Boyadzhiev, 2003 are synonymized with P. depilata Graham, 1987 syn n. The use, respectively of the mitochondrial genes COI and Cyt B and of the nuclear gene EF1-α, allowed us to discriminate pairs of sibling species in the three genera of Eurytomidae and to circumscribe the limits of the hypervariable Eurytoma asphodeli Hedqvist, 1976. The trophic webs associated with five species/subspecies of asphodels are fully described and illustrated, the distributions of the chalcid wasps involved are figured, and the phenology of the most common species is quoted and figured.


Assuntos
Asphodelaceae , Biodiversidade , Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Insetos , Sementes
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