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1.
Neuroimage ; 246: 118739, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856375

RESUMO

Language and theory of mind (ToM) are the cognitive capacities that allow for the successful interpretation and expression of meaning. While functional MRI investigations are able to consistently localize language and ToM to specific cortical regions, diffusion MRI investigations point to an inconsistent and sometimes overlapping set of white matter tracts associated with these two cognitive domains. To further examine the white matter tracts that may underlie these domains, we use a two-tensor tractography method to investigate the white matter microstructure of 809 participants from the Human Connectome Project. 20 association white matter tracts (10 in each hemisphere) are uniquely identified by leveraging a neuroanatomist-curated automated white matter tract atlas. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and number of streamlines (NoS) are measured for each white matter tract. Performance on neuropsychological assessments of semantic memory (NIH Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test, TPVT) and emotion perception (Penn Emotion Recognition Test, PERT) are used to measure critical subcomponents of the language and ToM networks, respectively. Regression models are constructed to examine how structural measurements of left and right white matter tracts influence performance across these two assessments. We find that semantic memory performance is influenced by the number of streamlines of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus III (SLF-III), and emotion perception performance is influenced by the number of streamlines of the right SLF-III. Additionally, we find that performance on both semantic memory & emotion perception is influenced by the FA of the left arcuate fasciculus (AF). The results point to multiple, overlapping white matter tracts that underlie the cognitive domains of language and ToM. Results are discussed in terms of hemispheric dominance and concordance with prior investigations.


Assuntos
Associação , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicolinguística , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Conectoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuroimage ; 246: 118767, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856377

RESUMO

The breakdown of rapid and accurate retrieval of words is a hallmark of aphasic speech and a prime target of therapeutic intervention. Complementary, psycho- and neurolinguistic research have developed a spectrum of models, how and by which neuronal network uncompromised speakers can rely on remarkable lexical retrieval capacities. Motivated by both lines of research we invited 32 participants with a chronic left hemispheric brain lesion to name pictures in the presence of distractor words. This picture-word-interference (PWI) paradigm is widely used in psycho- and neurolinguistic research. We find that also after brain lesion categorically related words (CAT â†’ [dog]picture) impede naming, while associatively related words (BONE â†’ [dog]picture) ease access, when compared to unrelated distractor words. The effects largely affecting latencies in neurotypical populations, are reproduced for error rate in our participants with lesions in the language network. Unsurprisingly, overall naming abilities varied greatly across patients. Notably, however, the two effects (categorical interference / associative facilitation) differ between participants. Correlating performance with lesion patterns we find support for the notion of a divergence of brain areas affording different aspects of the task: (i) lesions in the left middle temporal gyurs (MTG) deteriorate overall naming, confirming previous work; more notably, (ii) lesions comprising the inferior frontal hub (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG) of the language-network increase the interference effect for the categorical condition; on the contrary, (iii) lesions to the mid-to-posterior temporal hub (posterior middle and superior temporal gyri, pMTG/ pSTG) increase the facilitatory effect for the associative condition on error rates. The findings can be accommodated in a neuro-linguistic framework, which localizes lexical activation but also lexical interference in posterior parts of the language network (pMTG/pITG); conversely, selection between co-activated categorically related entries is afforded by frontal language areas (IFG). While purely experimental in nature our study highlights that lesion site differentially influences specific aspects of word retrieval. Since confrontational naming is a cornerstone of aphasia rehabilitation, this may be of note when designing and evaluating novel therapeutic regimes.


Assuntos
Afasia , Córtex Cerebral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Rede Nervosa , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Adulto , Idoso , Afasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Afasia/patologia , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Associação , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Semântica
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380158

RESUMO

A falta de segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN) consiste em um fenômeno multifatorial, que pode afetar o estado nutricional do indivíduo por ela acometido de diversas maneiras e em qualquer faixa etária. A falta de SAN pode desencadear tanto desnutrição, como obesidade e assim favorecer o aumento da prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, o que diminui a qualidade de vida e se constitui um importante problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Analisar e comparar a força da associação dos fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos à segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN) no Brasil e áreas geográficas selecionadas. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, transversal e analítico, que utilizou como base os microdados da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF/IBGE), realizada nos anos de 2017-2018, envolvendo 757 famílias residentes no município de São Paulo (MSP), 3.406 famílias do estado de São Paulo (ESP) e 49.365 famílias do Brasil. Utilizou-se a técnica de regressão logística multinomial, do tipo ordinal, para o processamento do modelo de associação entre o nível de SAN (nSAN) e as variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e clínicas, utilizando o módulo survey do Stata versão 14. Adotouse o nível de significância estatística de 5% e o odds ratio proporcional para descrever as associações. Resultados: A grande maioria dos indivíduos de referência dos domicílios componentes da amostra é do sexo masculino, adulta, com obesidade, sem seguro saúde e que não fazem nenhum tipo de dieta, variando as características de raça/cor e escolaridade entre as três localidades analisadas. Para as três localidades estudadas, encontrou-se proporções elevadas da população com segurança alimentar e nutricional garantida (acima de 59%). As associações encontradas demonstraram que as famílias com pessoas de referência do sexo feminino apresentam maior chance de piora do nSAN, bem como aquelas com menores níveis de saneamento básico e estratos de renda mais pobres, para os quais a chance de piora do nSAN em relação aos estratos de renda mais ricos se eleva em até 12 vezes. Ser de raça branca foi fator protetor à IAN, bem como ter idade mais avançada e mais anos de escolaridade. Conclusão: As características sociodemográficas sexo, raçacor, idade e escolaridade, e socioeconômicas, renda e presença de saneamento básico, apresentam importante associação ao nível de SAN das famílias, quando este é analisado por meio da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA). Entretanto, faz-se necessária a construção de um instrumento que avalie todas as dimensões da SAN


Lack of food and nutrition security (FNS) is a multifactorial phenomenon, which can impact the nutritional status of individual affected by it in different ways and in any age group. The lack of FNS can trigger both malnutrition and obesity and thus favor the prevalence increase of chronic non-communicable diseases, which reduces lifes quality and constitutes an important public health problem. Objective: To analyze and compare the strength of association of socioeconomic and demographic factors with FNS in Brazil and selected geographical areas. Methodology: Ecological, crosssectional, and analytical study, which used the microdata of the Research as a basis Family Budget (POF / IBGE), carried out in 2017-2018, involving 757 families residing in São Paulo city (SPC), 3,406 families from São Paulo state (SPS) and 49,365 families from Brazil. Multinomial logistic regression technique, of the ordinal type, was used to process the association model between the FNS level (FNSl) and the demographic, socioeconomic and clinical variables, using the survey module of Stata version 14. It was adopted statistical significance of 5% and proportional odds ratio to describe the associations. Results: Most reference individuals in the sample's households are male, adult, obese, without health insurance and who do not follow any type of diet, varying the characteristics of race / color and education between the three locations analyzed. For the three locations studied, high proportions of the population were found with guaranteed FNS (above 59%). Associations found showed that families headed by female individuals are more likely to worsen FNSl, as well as those with lower levels of basic sanitation and poorer income strata, for which the chance of worsening FNSl in relation to strata wealthier income rises to 12 times. Being white was a protective factor for food insecurity, as well as being older and with more years of schooling. Conclusion: Sociodemographic characteristics of sex, race-color, age and education, and socioeconomic, income and presence of basic sanitation, present important association at the FNSl of families, when this is analyzed through the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). However, it is necessary to build an instrument that assesses all dimensions of the FNS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/classificação , Insegurança Alimentar , População/genética , Associação , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Família/etnologia , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos , Saneamento Básico , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Renda/classificação
5.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(Suplemento): 28-39, 2022. ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1380772

RESUMO

Introducción: los grupos sanguíneos ABO han sido utilizados como marcadores de desenlace en diferentes enfermedades, otorgando al grupo O un factor protector y al A uno de riesgo. Durante el brote de SARS CoV-1 se planteó la posible relación entre riesgo de infección y tipo sanguíneo; se presume que en la pandemia por COVID-19 exista una relación entre determinados desenlaces y los grupos ABO. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre los diferentes grupos sanguíneos y los desenlaces de mortalidad, ingreso a cuidados intensivos y requerimiento de intubación orotraqueal (IOT) en población con infección por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos: revisión sistemática y metanálisis entre enero 2020 y marzo 2021 en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Latindex y LILACS, identificando los desenlaces mencionados en pacientes con COVID-19. Resultados: se incluyeron 16 estudios, la mayoría retrospectivos multicéntricos. Se evidenció que pacientes con grupo sanguíneo A tienen mayor riesgo de mortalidad (OR 1.08 ;1.01-0.17), frente al ingreso a UCI no hubo diferencia estadística significativa entre los grupos sanguíneos. Se encontró que el AB representa un factor de riesgo para intubación orotraqueal (OR 1.42 IC95% 1.02-1.96), en tanto que el A demostró proteger contra este desenlace (OR 0.84 IC95%0.73-0.97). Conclusiones: hay evidencia sobre la relación entre el grupo sanguíneo y los desenlaces, asociada con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se requieren estudios prospectivos que evalúen grupo sanguíneo, RH y desenlaces específicos.


Introduction: ABO blood groups have been used as outcome markers in various diseases, conferring group O a protective factor and group A a risk factor. During the SARS CoV-1 outbreak, it was suggested that blood type appeared to have a relationship with the risk of infection; it is believed that in the COVID-19 pandemic, ABO blood types, are relevant for certain outcomes. Objective: to determine the association between blood types and death, admission to intensive care and risk of intubation among COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis from MEDIA, EMBASSY, SCOPUS, Latindex and LILACS databases, identifying the abovementioned outcomes among COVID 19 patients, conducted between January 2020 and March 2021. Results: 16 studies were included, most of them retrospective multicenter studies. It was evidenced that patients with blood group A have a higher mortality risk (OR 1.08:1.01-0.17). There was no statistically significant difference between blood groups for ICU admission. AB was found to be a risk factor for intubation (OR 1.42: CI95% 1.02 -1.96), while type A had a protective effect against this outcome (OR 0.84: CI95% 0.73 -0.97). Conclusions: there is evidence on a relationship between blood groups and outcomes in SARS CoV-2 infection. Prospective studies evaluating ABO and Rh(D) blood types and specific outcomes, are required.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complicações , Associação , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e231656, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1356593

RESUMO

Este artigo pretende apresentar alguns encontros e diálogos da psicanálise com o Sistema Único de Assistência Social (Suas), amparados na escuta e na pesquisa sobre a prática profissional dos psicanalistas no acompanhamento de jovens em cumprimento de medidas socioeducativas. O Suas representa um importante campo de atuação e de contribuições tanto na assistência direta aos usuários quanto na elaboração de novas tecnologias psicossociais. Cabe destacar a presença da psicanálise como linha teórica norteadora desse debate, que se organiza em torno dos encontros entre psicanálise, assistência social e medidas socioeducativas, no contexto da realidade do adolescente em conflito com a lei na cidade de Fortaleza. Concluímos que, embora as instituições apresentadas não sejam a princípio parte do campo tradicional da psicanálise, o psicanalista pode contribuir para o trabalho com esses jovens com sua escuta singular, seu posicionamento ético e seu rigor teórico. Sua atuação pode colaborar, assim, para que o cidadão de direitos e o sujeito da psicanálise sejam acolhidos e contemplados nas políticas públicas de Assistência Social.


This essay seeks to present possible encounters and dialogues between psychoanalysis and the Brazilian Unified System for Social Assistance (SUAS), based on the practice of listening and on the research concerning psychoanalysts' professional procedures when working with adolescents following socio-educative measures. The SUAS is an important field of action and contribution for psychology professionals, both in the direct assistance to the users and in the development of new psychosocial technologies. Psychoanalysis is the guiding theoretical line for this discussion, which organizes itself based on the association of psychoanalysis, the work of social assistance, and socio-educational measures, in the context of youngsters in conflict with the law in the municipality of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará. We conclude that, even though the discussed institutions are not traditionally linked to the field of psychoanalysis, psychoanalysts may contribute to the work with these adolescents with their individual attention, ethical positioning, and theoretical rigor. These professionals may, thus, be an important asset in the appropriate reception and support to the citizens and psychoanalytical subjects of Social Assistance public policies.


Este artículo pretende presentar algunos encuentros y diálogos de la psicoanálisis con el "Sistema Único de Assistencia Social" (SUAS), apoyados en la escucha y la investigación sobre práctica profesional de los psicoanalistas en el acompañamiento de jóvenes en cumplimiento de medidas socioeducativas. Para la Psicología, el SUAS representa un importante campo de actuación y de contribuciones tanto en la asistencia directa a los usuarios cuanto en la elaboración de nuevas tecnologías psicosociales. Cabe destacar la presencia del psicoanálisis como línea teórica de ese debate, que se organiza en torno a los encuentros entre psicoanálisis, asistencia aocial y medidas socioeducativas, en el contexto de la realidad del adolescente en conflicto con la ley en la ciudad Fortaleza. Concluimos que, aunque las instituciones presentadas no sean previamente el campo tradicional del psicoanálisis, el psicoanalista puede contribuir para el trabajo con esos jóvenes con su escucha singular, su posicionamiento ético y su rigor teórico. Su actuación puede colaborar, así, para que el ciudadano de derechos y el sujeto del psicoanálisis sean acogidos y contemplados en las políticas públicas de Asistencia Social.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Psicanálise , Ensino de Recuperação , Adolescente , Educação , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Associação , Apoio Social , Inclusão Escolar , Proteção da Criança
7.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 34: e234435, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1376077

RESUMO

Resumo A pesquisa buscou analisar a história de formação de cooperativas de trabalho, verificar a importância de atores externos nesse processo e compreender a trajetória laboral dos associados e seus ingressos nos empreendimentos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa em três empreendimentos econômicos solidários localizados no Estado do Ceará: associação de catadores de materiais recicláveis, cooperativa de costureiras e cooperativa de produtores de castanha-de-caju, por meio de entrevistas com 24 associados. Os resultados mostraram que os grupos foram auxiliados externamente no início dos empreendimentos. A trajetória laboral dos associados apresentou, de maneira geral, aspectos semelhantes, como a precarização do trabalho, informalidade e escassez de alternativas laborais. Pode-se concluir que os empreendimentos representam uma forma de inserção social por constituírem-se em espaços de oferecimento de trabalho e renda para pessoas que, por questões históricas, geográficas, sociais e/ou culturais, encontravam-se afastadas do mercado formal.


Resumen La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la historia de la formación de cooperativas de trabajo, verificar la importancia de los actores externos en este proceso y comprender la trayectoria laboral de los asociados y su ingreso en las cooperativas. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa a través de entrevistas con 24 asociados en tres empresas económicas solidarias: una asociación de recolectores de materiales reciclables, una cooperativa de costureras y una cooperativa de productores de anacardos. Los resultados mostraron que los grupos recibieron ayuda externa al comienzo de los proyectos. La trayectoria laboral de los asociados presentó aspectos similares, como la inseguridad laboral, la informalidad y la escasez de alternativas de trabajo. Se puede concluir que los grupos representan una forma de inserción social porque constituyen espacios para ofrecer trabajo a personas que, por razones históricas, geográficas, sociales y / o culturales, estaban lejos del mercado laboral formal.


Abstract The research aimed to analyze the history of work cooperatives, to verify the importance of external actors in this process and to understand the work trajectory of the associates and their access in the cooperatives. A qualitative research was carried out through interviews with 24 associates from three solidarity economy enterprises: an association of recyclable material collectors, a seamstress cooperative and a cashew nut producer cooperative. The results showed that the groups were helped externally at the beginning of the projects. The work trajectory of the associates presented, in general, similar aspects, such as job insecurity, informality and scarcity of work alternatives. It can be concluded that the enterprises represent a form of social insertion because they constitute spaces to offer work to people who, for historical, geographic, social or cultural reasons, were far from the formal labor market.


Assuntos
Associação , Trabalho , Comportamento Cooperativo , Catadores
8.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 490-499, 01-dic-2021. tab, grap
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355275

RESUMO

Introducción: en México existe escasa información respecto al vínculo entre el síndrome metabólico (MetS), el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y la calidad de vida (CdV) de la población. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre sujetos que tienen alto riesgo de desarrollar MetS con NSE y CdV. Métodos: se invitó a participar a pacientes de la UMF-2 del IMSS y del Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1. Se recolectaron medidas antropométricas y se aplicaron los cuestionarios AMAI, SF12 y ESF-I para NSE, CdV y MetS, respectivamente. La asociación se determinó calculando rho de Spearman. El riesgo se evaluó mediante regresión logística (razon de momios e intervalo de confianza del 95%). Resultados: la diferencia entre NSE (193  53 frente a 124  50) y CdV (86.3  14.8 frente a 56.0  25.4) fue significativa entre los grupos de bajo y alto riesgo, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Hubo una fuerte correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones de la ESF-I y NSE (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) así como con la CdV (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). El riesgo de MetS aumentó al disminuir el NSE (C+: OR = 6.4, IC95%: 3.2 - 13.0; D: OR = 66.1, IC95%: 23.2 - 188.3), mientras que el aumento de la CdV lo atenuó (OR = 0.93, IC95%: 0.91 - 0.94). Interesantemente, la CdV mitigó el efecto del NSE (C+: OR = 4.5, IC95%: 2.1 - 9.6; D: OR = 11.9, IC95%: 3.8 - 37.6). Conclusión: Una menor CdV y NSE aumentan el riesgo de MetS en la región centro de México; sin embargo, el aumento en la CdV podría disminuir el efecto que tiene el NSE en el desarrollo de MetS.


Background: In Mexico there is little information regarding the link between metabolic syndrome (MetS), socioeconomic status (SES) and quality of life (QoL) Objective: To assess the association between subjects who are at high risk of developing MetS with SES and QoL. Methods: Patients attending UMF-2 IMSS or Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1 were asked to participate. Anthropometric measures were collected, the AMAI, SF12, and ESF-I questionnaire where apply for SES, QoL, and MetS, respectively. Association were determined by calculating Spearman's rho and the risk (odds ratio and 95% confidence-interval) was assessed using logistic regression. Results: The difference of SES (193  53 vs. 124  50) and QoL (86.3  14.8 vs. 56.025.4) questionnaires were significantly between low-risk and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between ESF-I and SES (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) as well as the QoL (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). MetS risk was augmented by decreasing SES (C+: OR = 6.4, 95%IC: 3.2-13.0; D: OR = 66.1, 95%IC: 23.2-188.3), whereas increasing QoL attenuated it (OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.91-0.94). However, QoL mitigated the effect of SES (C+: OR = 4.5, 95%IC: 2.1-9.6; D: OR = 11.9, 95%IC: 3.8-37.6).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Grupos de Risco , Saúde Pública , Síndrome Metabólica , Associação , Modelos Logísticos , México
9.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e100, Oct.-Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341235

RESUMO

The S.C.A.R.E. members assembly held on March 3ist, 2021, was quite revealing: its leitmotiv was the challenging work situation experienced by the colleagues across the country. The similarity with the very first assembly meeting I attended in Pasto in 1990 as a young anesthetist, invited by the tireless of doctor Jorge Osorio, was mystifying. It is rather striking to see how history repeats itself after 31 years, bringing back times that we thought were something of the past.


La asamblea de socios de la S.C.A.R.E. celebrada el 3 de marzo de 2021 fue bastante reveladora: su leitmotiv fue la desafiante situación laboral que viven los colegas de todo el país. La similitud con la primera asamblea a la que asistí en Pasto en 1990 como joven anestesista, invitado por el incansable del doctor Jorge Osorio, fue desconcertante. Es bastante llamativo ver cómo la historia se repite después de 31 años, trayendo de vuelta tiempos que creíamos que eran cosa del pasado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anestesistas , Anestesiologia , Associação , Pensamento , Colômbia , História
10.
Elife ; 102021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622779

RESUMO

The brain has a remarkable capacity to acquire and store memories that can later be selectively recalled. These processes are supported by the hippocampus which is thought to index memory recall by reinstating information stored across distributed neocortical circuits. However, the mechanism that supports this interaction remains unclear. Here, in humans, we show that recall of a visual cue from a paired associate is accompanied by a transient increase in the ratio between glutamate and GABA in visual cortex. Moreover, these excitatory-inhibitory fluctuations are predicted by activity in the hippocampus. These data suggest the hippocampus gates memory recall by indexing information stored across neocortical circuits using a disinhibitory mechanism.


Memories are stored by distributed groups of neurons in the brain, with individual neurons contributing to multiple memories. In a part of the brain called the neocortex, memories are held in a silent state through a balance between excitatory and inhibitory activity. This is to prevent them from being disrupted by incoming information. When a memory is recalled, an area of the brain called the hippocampus is thought to instruct the neocortex to activate the appropriate neuronal network. But how the hippocampus and neocortex coordinate their activity to switch memories 'on' and 'off' is unclear. The answer may lie in the fact that neurons in the neocortex consist of two broad types: excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory neurons increase the activity of other neurons. They do this by releasing a chemical called glutamate. Inhibitory neurons reduce the activity of other neurons, by releasing a chemical called GABA. Koolschijn, Shpektor et al. hypothesized that the hippocampus activates memories by changing the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity in neocortex. To test this idea, Koolschijn, Shpektor et al. invited healthy volunteers to explore a virtual reality environment. The volunteers learned that specific sounds in the environment predicted the appearance of particular visual patterns. The next day, the volunteers returned to the environment and viewed these patterns again. After each pattern, they were invited to open a virtual box. Volunteers learned that some patterns led to money in the virtual box, while other patterns did not. Finally, on day three, the volunteers listened to the sounds from day one again, this time while lying in a brain scanner. The volunteers' task was to infer whether each of the sounds would lead to money. Given that the sounds were never directly paired with the content of the virtual box, the volunteers had to solve the task by recalling the associated visual patterns. As they did so, the brain scanner measured their overall brain activity. It also assessed the relative levels of excitatory and inhibitory activity in visual areas of the neocortex, by measuring glutamate and GABA. The results revealed that as the volunteers recalled the visual cues, activity in both the hippocampus and the visual neocortex increased. Moreover, the ratio of glutamate to GABA in visual neocortex also increased which was predicted by activity in the hippocampus. This suggests that the hippocampus reactivates memories stored in neocortex by temporarily increasing excitatory activity to release memories from inhibitory control. Disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition occur in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy and Tourette's syndrome. Damage to the hippocampus is known to cause amnesia. The current findings suggest that memories may become inaccessible ­ or may be activated inappropriately ­ when the interaction between the hippocampus and neocortex goes awry. Future studies could test this possibility in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Inibição Neural , Plasticidade Neuronal , Estimulação Acústica , Associação , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neocórtex/diagnóstico por imagem , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Tempo , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
11.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(5): 423-430, 01-oct-2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357991

RESUMO

Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 fue notificado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud en enero de 2020 como emergencia mundial debido a su intenso contagio y cuadro clínico, que se agrava en personas susceptibles. Objetivo: describir factores asociados a defunción en pacientes con COVID-19 y neumonía hospitalizados en tercer nivel.Material y métodos: estudio de casos y controles no pareado. Se obtuvo información general mediante entrevista; del expediente se tomaron datos de hospitalización, imágenes radiológicas, parámetros de laboratorio y tratamientos. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, t de student, U de Mann-Whitney y chi cuadrada para identificar variables asociadas a defunción, y modelos de regresión logística binaria ajustada para proponer variables de antecedentes del paciente, parámetros clínicos y tratamientos que explicaran la defunción.Resultados: atendimos 5339 pacientes sospechosos de COVID-19: 3117 positivos (59%), 1029 hospitalizados por neumonía y 513 defunciones (16.46%). Para el análisis, se tomaron 1110, se seleccionaron 399 casos de defunción y 357 controles egresados por mejoría. La edad promedio fue 57.8 años; 59% fueron hombres. La estancia hospitalaria en casos fue 9.8 (DE 10.9) y en controles 12.5 (DE 10.2).Conclusiones: las variables asociadas a mortalidad fueron: mayores de 40 años, radiografía de tórax > 50% de afectación, intubación, deshidrogenasa láctica > 500, proteína C reactiva > 10 e insuficiencia orgánica; las asociadas a mejoría: estancia en unidad de cuidados intensivos, uso de antibióticos parenterales de amplio espectro, esteroides y anticoagulante enoxiheparina. El sexo, la diabetes y las comorbilidades no mostraron asociación.


Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus was notified by the World Health Organization in January 2020 as a global emergency, due to its intense transmission, and the clinical picture, that is aggravated in susceptible people.Objective: To describe the factors associated with death in COVID-19 and pneumonia patients hospitalized in a third-level center. Material and methods: An undivided case-control study was conducted. It was conducted an interview to obtain general information; from the medical record were collected hospitalization data, radiological images, laboratory parameters, and treatments used. It was used descriptive statistics. Student's t, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-squared were used to identify variables associated with death, and models of adjusted binary logistic regression to propose which variables of the patient's history, clinical parameters and treatments explained the death. Results: We treated 5339 patients with suspicion of COVID-19: 3117 positive (59%), 1029 hospitalized due to pneumonia, and 513 deaths (16.46%). For the analysis, 1110 patients were taken, 399 death cases were selected and 357 controls discharged due to improvement. The average age was 57.8 years; 59% were male. The hospital stay in cases was 9.8 (SD 10.9), and in controls 12.5 (SD 10.2). Conclusions: The variables associated with mortality were: patients older than 40 years, chest radiography image > 50% involvement, intubation, lactic dehydrogenase > 500, C-reactive protein > 10, and organ failure; variables associated with improvement were: stay in the intensive care unit, use of broad spectrum parenteral antibiotics, steroids, and use of the anticoagulant enoxyheparin. Sex, diabetes, and comorbidities did not show significant association.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Associação , Modelos Logísticos , Registros Médicos , Emergências , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação , México
12.
J Neurophysiol ; 126(2): 680-692, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232752

RESUMO

The investigation of action control processes is one major field in cognitive neuroscience and several theoretical frameworks have been proposed. One established framework is the "Theory of Event Coding" (TEC). However, only rarely, this framework has been used in the context of response inhibition and how stimulus-response association or binding processes modulate response inhibition performance. Particularly the neural dynamics of stimulus-response representations during inhibitory control are elusive. To address this, we examined n = 40 healthy controls and combined temporal EEG signal decomposition with source localization and temporal generalization multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). We show that overlaps in features of stimuli used to trigger either response execution or inhibition compromised task performance. According to TEC, this indicates that binding processes in event file representations impact response inhibition through partial repetition costs. In the EEG data, reconfiguration of event files modulated processes in time windows well-known to reflect distinct response inhibition mechanisms. Crucially, event file coding processes were only evident in a specific fraction of neurophysiological activity associated with the inferior parietal cortex (BA40). Within that specific fraction of neurophysiological activity, the decoding of the dynamics of event file representations using temporal generalization MVPA suggested that event file representations are stable across several hundred milliseconds, and that event file coding during inhibitory control is reflected by a sustained activation pattern of neural dynamics.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The "mental representation" of how stimulus input translate into the appropriate response is central for goal-directed behavior. However, little is known about the dynamics of such representations on the neurophysiological level when it comes to the inhibition of motor processes. This dynamic is shown in the current study.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Generalização Psicológica , Inibição Neural , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adulto , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
13.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 313-321, 01/07/2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359020

RESUMO

Introducción: la relación de los indicadores antropométricos y de composición corporal, con la evolución de la enfermedad renal en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sigue siendo controversial. Objetivo: identificar la asociación de los indicadores de la enfermedad renal con indicadores de control metabólico y antropométricos en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en 395 pacientes del primer nivel de atención. La glucosa, hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c), perfil de lípidos y creatina se midió en ayuno. La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) se consideró cuando la excreción de albumina urina- ria (EAU) > 30 mg/g y con la reducción del nivel de la tasa de filtrado glomerular < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, utilizando la ecuación CKD-EPI. Se midió el peso y circunferencia de cintura, así como la composición corporal a través de bioimpedancia. Resultados: un 17% de la población presentó ERC con alteración de la EAU y 6.6% con una TFG reducida. Un mayor tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, mayor nivel de HbA1c y menor nivel grasa corporal se asoció a una EAU > 30 mg/g, (p < 0.05). La disminución de la TFG (< 60 mL/ min/1.73 m2) se asoció con mayor edad, ser mujer, tener mayor circunferencia de cintura y menor porcentaje de grasa corporal (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: un mayor nivel de circunferencia de cintura y menor porcentaje de grasa corporal se asocian a mayor evolución de la ERC en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. El descontrol glucémico se identificó en pacientes con mayor excreción de albumina urinaria.


Background: The relationship of anthropometric and body composition indicators with the evolution of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, is still inconsistent. Objective: To identify the association of indicators of kid- ney disease with indicators of metabolic and anthropometric control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 395 patients of the first level of care. The glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and lipid profile were measured. The kidney disease (CKD) was made when urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 30 mg/g and with a reduction in the level of glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, using the CKD-formula. Weight and waist circumference were measured, as well as the body composition through bioimpedance. Results: Seventeen percent of the population has a diagnosed with CKD with alteration of the UAE and 6.6% had a reduced GFR. A longer time of diagnosis of the diabetes, hig- her HbA1c level and body fat were associated with an UAE > 30 mg/g, (p < 0.05). The decline in GFR (< 60 mL/min/ 1.73 m2) was associated with older age, being a woman, greater waist circumference, and a higher percentage of body fat (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A higher level of waist circumference and a lower percentage of body fat are associated with a greater evolution of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Glycemic uncontrol is identified in patients with high urinary albumin excretion.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Associação , Análise Química do Sangue
14.
Neuroimage ; 236: 118230, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089873

RESUMO

The flexible retrieval of knowledge is critical in everyday situations involving problem solving, reasoning and social interaction. Current theories emphasise the importance of a left-lateralised semantic control network (SCN) in supporting flexible semantic behaviour, while a bilateral multiple-demand network (MDN) is implicated in executive functions across domains. No study, however, has examined whether semantic and non-semantic demands are reflected in a common neural code within regions specifically implicated in semantic control. Using functional MRI and univariate parametric modulation analysis as well as multivariate pattern analysis, we found that semantic and non-semantic demands gave rise to both similar and distinct neural responses across control-related networks. Though activity patterns in SCN and MDN could decode the difficulty of both semantic and verbal working memory decisions, there was no shared common neural coding of cognitive demands in SCN regions. In contrast, regions in MDN showed common patterns across manipulations of semantic and working memory control demands, with successful cross-classification of difficulty across tasks. Therefore, SCN and MDN can be dissociated according to the information they maintain about cognitive demands.


Assuntos
Associação , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250068, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878122

RESUMO

The ReAL model is a multinomial processing tree model that quantifies the contribution of three qualitatively distinct processes-recoding, associations, and accuracy-to responses on the implicit association test (IAT), but has only been validated on a modified version of the IAT procedure. The initial goal of the present research was to validate an abbreviated version of the ReAL model (i.e., the Brief ReAL model) on the standard IAT procedure. Two experiments replicated previous validity evidence for the ReAL model on the modified IAT procedure, but did not produce valid parameter estimates for the Brief ReAL model on the standard IAT procedure. A third, pre-registered experiment systematically manipulated all of the task procedures that vary between the standard and modified IAT procedures-response deadline, number of trials, trial constraints-to determine the conditions under which the Brief ReAL model can be validly applied to the IAT. The Brief ReAL model estimated theoretically-interpretable parameters only under a narrow range of IAT conditions, but the ReAL model generally estimated theoretically-interpretable parameters under most IAT conditions. We discuss the application of these findings to implicit social cognition research, and their implications to social cognitive theory.


Assuntos
Associação , Psicometria/métodos , Cognição Social , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 181: 107426, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794376

RESUMO

This review is intended primarily to provide cognitive benchmarks and perhaps a new mindset for behavioral neuroscientists who study memory. Forgetting, defined here broadly as all types of decreases in acquired responding to stimulus-specific eliciting cues, is commonly attributed to one or more of the following families of mechanisms: (1) (4) associative interference by information similar to, but different from the target information, (2) spontaneous decay of memory with increasing retention intervals, (3) displacement from short-term memory by irrelevant information, and (4) inadequate retrieval cues at test. I briefly review each of these families and discuss data suggesting that many apparent instances of spontaneous forgetting and displacement from short-term memory can be viewed as variants of inadequate retrieval cues and associative interference. The potential for recovery of target information from each of these families of forgetting without further relevant training is then reviewed, with a conclusion that most forgetting is due to retrieval failure as opposed to irreversible erasure of memory. The more general point is made that there are logical problems with ever talking about attenuating or erasing a memory as a consequence of conventional forgetting or disrupted consolidation/reconsolidation. Consideration is then given to the frequently overlooked but highly beneficial consequences of most forgetting. Lastly, the major variables that moderate forgetting are summarized, including (a) the similarities of the target information including training context to the explicit retrieval cues and context present at test, (b) the similarities of potentially interfering acquired information to the retrieval cues and context present at test, and (c) the retention interval for the target information relative to that for the potentially interfering information. Appropriate manipulation of these variables can reduce forgetting, and increase forgetting when desired.


Assuntos
Associação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental , Animais , Humanos , Consolidação da Memória
17.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 112-115, abr. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251558

RESUMO

Resumen La lengua negra pilosa (LNP) es una alteración benigna caracterizada por coloración oscura e hipertrofia con hiperqueratosis en las papilas filiformes de la superficie de la lengua. Han sido implicados varios factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos como causales, entre ellos la pobre higiene dental, el tabaquismo, la ingesta de bebidas oscuras, el uso de antibióticos y algunas patologías malignas. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con carcinoma escamocelular avanzado de esófago medio conjunto con LNP, asociación no encontrada previamente en la literatura.


Abstract Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign disorder characterized by dark coloration and hypertrophy with hyperkeratosis in filiform papillae on the surface of the tongue. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including poor dental hygiene, smoking, drinking dark beverages, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, and some malignant diseases, have been proposed as potential causes. This is the case of a patient with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the mid esophagus in conjunction with BHT, a previously unknown association.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Língua , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Esôfago , Higiene Bucal , Associação , Tabagismo , Fumar
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 406: 113242, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731276

RESUMO

Different memory systems operate in parallel to support behaviour. To evaluate procedural and reference subcategories of long-term memory as early as possible in the mouse, the Helico Maze (HM) was developed. BALB/c AnNCrl (BALB), C57BL/6JRj (C57) and DBA/2 JRj (DBA) mice were trained on this new maze. The three strains learned how to use the HM (procedural memory), and they then learned and remembered four odour-reward associations (reference memory). The three strains differed in the number of correct responses. BALB mice showed better performance than C57 and DBA mice. The results of the first block of each session revealed that only the BALB and C57 mice remembered the odour-reward associations. DBA mice needed to relearn the associations each day. With this new apparatus, the number of olfactory cue-reward associations was increased from 2 to 4 in comparison to a previous olfactory tubing maze. Consequently, a supplementary effort of memory was required, and the chance level was decreased from 50 % to 25 %. Thus, in several important respects, the HM can be considered to measure the hippocampus-dependent behaviour of the mouse, allowing to study, as early as possible in young mice, the different subcategories of long-term memory, such as those observed in humans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Animais , Associação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Recompensa
19.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 38-45, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341358

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: El uso de los fármacos modificadores de la enfermedad (FAME) en pacientes con artritis reumatoide (AR) es esencial para alcanzar y mantener un control adecuado de la enfermedad y prevenir un daño funcional irreversible. Sin embargo, la tasa de adherencia a la terapia farmacológica varía entre el 20% y el 107%. Esta variabilidad puede deberse a los métodos de medición utilizados en los diferentes estudios. Objetivo: Evaluar la adherencia global al tratamiento oral con FAME en pacientes con AR mediante el autodiligenciamiento del cuestionario Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology (CQR) y la actividad de la enfermedad e identificar los factores potenciales asociados con la baja adherencia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal que incluyó pacientes mayores de 18 años con AR clasificados por criterios ACR-EULAR 2010, con prescripción de FAME durante al menos 3 meses y control con reumatólogo en el último año. Los participantes llenaron el cuestionario CQR y se les indagó acerca del conocimiento de la enfermedad, la percepción sobre el tratamiento, los efectos adversos, el índice de comorbilidad de Charlson, el índice global de apoyo social, el número de medicamentos y FAME prescritos, el acceso a los servicios de salud y la actividad de la enfermedad por DAS 28 o CDAI. Se definió como buena adherencia un punto de corte de CQR >80 y ausencia de actividad (remisión o actividad baja). Para la búsqueda de factores asociados con adherencia se analizaron los datos por medio de mediana y rango intercuartílico, así como frecuencias y proporciones. La comparación entre los grupos de adherentes y no adherentes se hizo con comparaciones absolutas, por medio de test de Mann-Whitney para las variables continuas y chi-cuadrado (para valores esperados > 5), o Fisher (para valor esperado < 5) para variables categóricas, tomando como nivel de significancia un valor de p<0,05. Se utilizaron OR y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%). Resultados: De los 170 participantes incluidos, el 50% (n = 85) tuvo un valor de CQR mayor de 80 (buena adherencia). La mayoría de los pacientes se encontraba en remisión (60,6%) o baja actividad de la enfermedad (17%). El análisis posterior únicamente encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre adherencia medida por CQR y el número de amigos (p = 0,0012) y entre adherencia medida por actividad de la enfermedad y el índice de soporte social global (p = 0,004). Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra un nivel de adherencia similar al reportado en otras poblaciones, lo cual puede deberse a comportamientos propios de nuestra población, aunque los autores percibieron dificultades reportadas por los pacientes para entender los enunciados del instrumento en todos los niveles de escolaridad. Únicamente las variables de soporte social tuvieron una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la adherencia, asociación descrita en la literatura. Se requieren más estudios para evaluar las características operacionales del CQR en nuestra población.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is essential in order to achieve and maintain adequate disease control, and thus preventing irreversible functional damage. However, the rate of adherence to drug therapy has been reported to be between 20% and 107%. This variability may be due to the measurement methods used in the different studies. Objective: To test the overall medication adherence to oral treatment with DMARD in patients with RA using the self-report Spanish version Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology (CQR) and to identify potential factors associated with non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted that included patients older than 18 years with RA diagnosed according to the ACR-EULAR 2010 criteria. They also had to have been prescribed oral DMARD for the previous 3 months, and had been seen by a rheumatologist in the last year. Patients completed the CQR to assess adherence, and were asked about disease knowledge, perception about treatment, side effects, Charlson Comorbidity Index, global index of social support, number of medications and DMARD prescribed, access to health resources, and disease activity measured by DAS 28 or CDAI. Good adherence was defined as a cut-off point of CQR > 80 or non-activity (remission or low activity). In the search for factors associated with adherence, the data were analysed using means of median and interquartile range, as well as frequencies and proportions. The comparison between adherent and non-adherent groups was performed using absolute comparisons, with the Mann-Whitney test for continuous, and chi-squared (for expected values > 5), or Fisher (for expected values < 5) tests for categorical variables, taking as a level of significance a value of P < .05. OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. Results: Of 170 participants included, 50% (n = 85) had a value greater than 80% (good drug adherence). Most patients had remission (60.6%) or low disease activity (17%). The subsequent analysis showed statistically significant association between adherence measured by CQR and the number of friends (P = .0012). An association was also found between disease activity as an indirect indicator of adherence and the global social support index (P = .004). Conclusions: This study found a similar level of adherence to that reported in other populations, which could be due to the behaviour of our population, although the authors perceived difficulties reported by patients in understanding the statements of the questionnaire at all levels of education. Only the social support variables had a statistically significant relationship with adherence, which had also been described in the literature. Further studies are required to evaluate the operational characteristics of the CQR in our population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Colômbia , Associação , Terapêutica , Comorbidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adesão à Medicação
20.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 28(3): 953-961, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528819

RESUMO

We examined affective consequences arising from the kinds of memory retrieval failures that often accompany social interaction. To do so, we measured the influence of cued-recall outcomes for biographical information on the rated attractiveness of faces. The data demonstrate that retrieval of names (Experiment 1a) and professions (Experiment 1b) increases the rated attractiveness of target faces relative to faces that failed to produce recall of associative information. This was predicted by a confirmation of search (COS) model originally developed on verbal memoranda, which assumes that confirmation bias during memory search leads to affective consequences depending upon retrieval's success or failure. The current study extends this model, showing that evaluative judgments of individuals are in part contingent upon the memory retrieval skills of their assessors. We conclude by discussing potential extensions of the COS paradigm to the measurement of implicit attitudes and special populations.


Assuntos
Associação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Beleza , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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