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1.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(3): e14589, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how sports injury epidemiological outcomes (i.e., prevalence, average prevalence, incidence, burden, and time to first injury) vary depending on the response rates to a weekly online self-reported questionnaire for athletes. METHODS: Weekly information on athletics injuries and exposure from 391 athletics (track and field) athletes was prospectively collected over 39 weeks (control group of the PREVATHLE randomized controlled trial) using an online self-reported questionnaire. The data were used to calculate sports injury epidemiological outcomes (i.e., prevalence, average prevalence, incidence, burden, and time to first injury) for sub-groups with different minimum individual athletes' response rates (i.e., from at least 100%, at least 97%, at least 95%, … to at least 0% response rate). We then calculated the relative variation between each sub-group and the sub-group with a 100% response rate as a reference. A substantial variation was considered when the relative variation was greater than one SD or 95% CI of the respective epidemiological outcome calculated in the sub-group with a 100% response rate. RESULTS: Of 15 249 expected weekly questionnaires, 7209 were completed and returned, resulting in an overall response rate of 47.3%. The individual athletes' response rates ranged from 0% (n = 51) to 100% (n = 100). The prevalence, average weekly prevalence, and time to first injury only varied substantially for the sub-groups below a 5%, 10% and 18% minimum individual response rate, respectively. The incidence and injury burden showed substantial variations for all sub-groups with a response rate below 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological outcomes varied depending on the minimum individual athletes' response rate, with injury prevalence, average weekly prevalence, and time to first injury varying less than injury incidence and injury burden. This highlights the need to take into account the individual response rate when calculating epidemiological outcomes, and determining the optimal study-specific cut-offs of the minimum individual response rate needed.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Atletismo , Humanos , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Atletas , Autorrelato
2.
Phys Ther Sport ; 66: 67-75, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe bone injury patterns in elite track and field athletes. To investigate relationships between bone injury and athlete characteristics to inform future injury prevention strategies. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Elite athletics training centres across the United Kingdom and internationally, observed between 2012 and 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 207 Olympic programme senior track and field athletes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury number, Incidence, Severity, Burden, Time Loss. RESULTS: There were 78 fractures during the study period. Gradual repetitive bone injuries were the most common type of injury mode. The foot, pelvis and the lumbar spine were the regions with the highest number of bone stress injuries. Stress fractures had a higher burden overall compared to stress reactions. Average return to full training was 67.4 days (±73.1) for stress reactions and 199 (±205.2) days for stress fractures. There was no relationship between bone injury type and age, sex, ethnicity, side dominance or event group. CONCLUSION: Bone stress injuries in athletics have a high severity and burden warranting continued efforts to prevent their occurrence and optimize management. Age, sex, ethnicity, side dominance and event region do not have any relationship with bone injury occurrence and are therefore unlikely to increase risk in this cohort.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Fraturas de Estresse , Atletismo , Humanos , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Fraturas de Estresse/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Atletas , Incidência
3.
Phys Ther Sport ; 66: 31-36, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore perceptions and beliefs of elite athletics (track and field) athletes, coaches, and health professionals, towards the use of injury prediction as an injury risk reduction strategy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: During the 2022 European Athletics Championships in Munich, registered athletes, coaches, and health professionals were asked to complete an online questionnaire on their perceptions and beliefs of injury prediction use as an injury risk reduction strategy. The perceived level of interest, intent to use, help, potential stress (psychological impact) and dissemination were assessed by a score from 0 to 100. RESULTS: We collected 54 responses from 17 countries. Elite athletics stakeholders expressed a perceived level of interest, intent to use, and help of injury prediction of (mean ± SD) 85 ± 16, 84 ± 16, and 85 ± 15, respectively. The perceived level of potential stress was 41 ± 33 (range from 0 to 100), with an important inter-individual variability in each elite athletics stakeholder's category. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study investigating the perceptions and beliefs of elite athletics stakeholders regarding the use of injury prediction as an injury risk reduction strategy. Regardless of the stakeholders, there was a high perceived level of interest, intent to use and help reported in this potential strategy.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Atletismo , Humanos , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Atletas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 24(1): 1-25, Ene 2, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229616

RESUMO

El objetivo del estudio fue conocer si existe relación entre la insatisfacción corporal, la ortorexia y la dependencia al ejercicio en una muestra de corredores de resistencia aficionados, así como examinar las variables psicológicas como la identidad, el perfeccionismo y el enfoque a través de la comparación entre grupos y la obtención de perfiles. Para ello, 129 corredores participantes en la edición XIII del Trail 7 Colinas de Tartessos en 2023 (96 hombres y 33 mujeres; media de edad M=45.5; DT=8.4), completaron el cuestionario de imagen corporal (Body Shape Qustionnaire, BSQ 14), la ortorexia 11 (ORTO-11), el Inventario de perfeccionismo multidimensional en el Deporte en competición (MIPS), la Escala de medición de identidad deportiva (AIMS), el cuestionario ad hoc de Satisfacción Manifiesta (CS), el cuestionario de Percepción de Éxito (POSQ). También se registraron los datos y parámetros como corredor. Los resultados mostraron que el 15% de los corredores presentaron insatisfacción corporal y el 16 % ortorexia. Además, el 13 % de los corredores presentaron ambas manifestaciones. Se encontró una correlación significativa positiva entre la insatisfacción corporal y la ortorexia. Ambas variables también presentaron correlaciones negativas con la satisfacción manifiesta sobre la imagen corporal. Sin embargo, no se encontró relación con la dependencia del ejercicio, aunque los componentes de esta última se relacionaron con variables psicológicas; el componente positivo mostró una correlación negativa con el perfeccionismo, y el componente negativo se relacionó positivamente con la identidad deportiva. Ambas variables resultaron relevantes en la comparación de los grupos en relación a la ortorexia, y de manera separadas en la discriminación; el perfeccionismo sobre la insatisfacción manifiesta y la escala de identidad sobre la ortorexia.(AU)


The aim of the present study was to find out whether there is a relationship between body dissatisfaction, orthorexia, and exercise dependence in a sample of amateur endurance runners, as well as to examine psychological variables such as identity, perfectionism, and focus by comparing groups and obtaining profiles. To this end, 129 runners participating in the XIII edition of the Trail 7 Colinas de Tartessos in 2023 (96 men and 33 women; mean age M=45.5; SD=8.4), completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ14),the Orthorexia 11 (ORTO-11), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Inventory in Competitive Sport (MIPS), the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), the ad hoc Satisfaction Questionnaire (CS), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ). Data and parameters as a runner were also recorded. The results showed that 15% of the runners presented body dissatisfaction and 16% orthorexia. In addition, 13 % of the runners had both manifestations. A significant positive correlation was found between body dissatisfaction and orthorexia. Both variables were also negatively correlated with expressed satisfaction with body image. However, no relationshipwas found with exercise dependence, although components of exercise dependence were related to psychological variables; the positive component showed a negative correlation with perfectionism, and the negative component was positively related to sports identity. Both variables were relevant in the comparison of the groups in relation to orthorexia, and separately in discrimination,perfectionism on manifest dissatisfaction and the identity scale on orthorexia.(AU)


O objectivo do estudo foi analisar se existe uma relação entre insatisfação corporal, ortorexia e dependência do exercício numa amostra de corredores amadores de endurance, bem como analisar variáveis psicológicas como a identidade, o perfeccionismo e o foco, através da comparação entre grupos e da obtenção de perfis. Para o efeito, 129 corredores participantes na XIII edição do Trail 7 Colinas de Tartessos em 2023 (96 homens e 33mulheres; idade média M=45.5; DP=8.4), preencheram o Body ShapeQuestionnaire(BSQ 14), o Orthorexia 11 (ORTO-11), o Multidimensional Perfectionism Inventory in Competitive Sport (MIPS), a Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), o ad hoc Satisfaction Questionnaire (CS), e o Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ). Foram igualmente registados os dados e os parâmetros enquanto corredores. Os resultados mostraram que 15% dos corredores apresentavam insatisfação corporal e 16% ortorexia. Para alémdisso, 13% dos corredores apresentavam ambas as manifestações. Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a insatisfação corporal e a ortorexia. Ambas as variáveis estavam também negativamente correlacionadas com a satisfação expressa com a imagem corporal. No entanto, não foi encontrada qualquer relação com a dependência do exercício, embora os componentes da dependência do exercício estivessem relacionados com variáveis psicológicas; a componente positiva evidenciou uma correlação negativa com o perfeccionismo, e a componente negativa estava positivamente relacionado coma identidade desportiva. Ambas as variáveis foram relevantes na comparação dos grupos em relação à ortorexia, e separadamente na discriminação; o perfeccionismo na insatisfação manifesta e a escala de identidade na ortorexia.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Perfeccionismo , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Aditivo , Atletismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esportes/psicologia , Psicologia do Esporte , Medicina Esportiva
5.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 24(1): 216-227, Ene 2, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229628

RESUMO

El Efecto de la Edad Relativa (EER) es un fenómeno caracterizado por una sobrerrepresentación significativa de atletas nacidos en los primeros meses del año competitivo en la misma categoría deedad que se ha observado en categorías juveniles de atletismo. Sin embargo, hay una falta de investigación para investigar este fenómeno y su relación con el deporte para, y no está claro si este efectoestá presente en los jóvenes atletas. Por lo tanto, nuestro estudio examinó la existencia de EER en jóvenes atletaspara-atléticos (categorías U16, U18 y U20) y el rendimiento en eventos deportivos individuales según el cuartil denacimiento (Q1, Q2, Q3 yQ4). Las fechas de nacimiento se recogieron de 700 jóvenes atletas masculinos de deportes para que participaran en eventos deportivos individuales entre 2018 y 2019 en las categorías U16, U18 y U20. En resumen, se observó una distribución desigual de las fechas de nacimiento por cuartil cuando un mayor número de jóvenes para-atletas nació en el primer trimestre del año para U16 (χ²3= 18.785; p = .0003; Phi efecto = 0.45), U18 (χ²3= 6.846; p= .05; Phi efecto = 0.17), y U20 (χ²3= 10.156; p = .017; Phiefecto = 0.17). Sin embargo, cuando comparamos el desempeño de los atletas por evento (eventos de atletismo) y por separado por cuartil, no se encontró diferencia significativa (p> .05). En conclusión, nuestro estudio evidenció el papel influyente de laedad relativa en atletismo, pero parece que este fenómeno no está relacionado con el rendimiento en atletismo.(AU)


The Relative Age Effect (RAE) is a phenomenon characterized by a significant over-representation ofathletes born in the first months of the competitive year in the same age category that has been observed in athletics juvenile categories. However, there is a lack of research to investigate this phenomenon and its relationship with para-sport, and it isnot clear whether this effect is present in young para-athletes. Thus, the present study aims to examine the existence of RAE in young para-athletics athletes (U16, U18, and U20 categories) and the performance in individual athletic events according to the birth quartile (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). Birth dates were collected from 700 young male athletes from para-sport who participated in individual athletic eventsbetween 2018 and 2019 in the U16, U18, and U20 categories. In summary, unequal distribution of birth dates per quartile was observed where a greater number of young para-athletes was born in the Q1 of the year for U16 (χ²3= 18.785; p = .0003; Phi effect = .45), U18 (χ²3= 6.846; p= .05; Phi effect = .17), and U20 (χ²3= 10.156; p= .017; Phi effect =.17). However,when we compared the performance of the athletes by event (track and field events) and separately by quartile, no significant difference was found (p> .05). In conclusion, our study evidenced the influential role of relative age in track and field para-athletes, but it seems that this phenomenon is not related to performance in track and field events.(AU)


O Efeito da Idade Relativa (EIR) é um fenômeno caracterizado por uma significativa representação de atletas nascidos nos primeiros meses do ano competitivo na mesma faixa etária que tem sido observada em categorias juvenis de atletismo. No entanto, há ainda uma lacuna em termos de investigaçãopara analisar esse fenômeno e sua relação com o para-desporto. Assim, o obejtivo do presente estudo foi analisar a existência de EIR em atletas jovens de para-atletismo (categorias Sub-16, Sub-18 e Sub-20) e sua relação com o desempenho em eventos atléticos individuais de acordo com o quartil de nascimento (Q1, Q2, Q3 e Q4). As datas de nascimento foram recolhidas de 700 jovens atletas do sexo masculino de paradesporto que participaram de eventos de atletismo individuais entre 2018 e 2019 nas categorias Sub-16, Sub-18 e Sub-20. No geral, observou-se uma distribuição desigual das datas de nascimento por quartil, onde um maior número de jovens para-atletas nasceu no Q1 do ano para Sub-16 (χ²3= 18.785; p = .0003; Phi effect = .45), Sub-18 (χ²3= 6.846; p= .05; Phi effect = .17), e Sub-20 (χ²3= 10.156; p= .017; Phi effect = .17). Entretanto, quando comparamos o desempenho dos atletas por evento (provas de atletismo) e separadamente por quartil, não houve diferenças significativas (p> .05). Em conclusão, nosso estudo evidenciou o papel influente da idade relativa em paraatletas de atletismo, mas parece que esse fenômeno não está relacionadoao desempenho em eventos desta modalidade.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Etários , Atletismo , Pessoas com Deficiência , Atletas/classificação
6.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 24(1): 228-241, Ene 2, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229629

RESUMO

La existencia de rachas en baloncesto ha sido estudiada en equipos (momentum del equipo) y jugadores (mano caliente/momentum del jugador), utilizando diferentes métodos y alcanzando resultados contradictorios. Sin embargo, investigación empírica reciente muestra que este tipo de fenómenos de rachas son reales y no un sesgo de la percepción. En esta investigación se analiza una forma de rachas de juego para el jugador que hasta ahora no había sido considerada: el momentum del jugador entre partidos. Empleando una muestra de 39 jugadores y 3483 partidos de las temporadas 2016/17 y 2017/18 en la NBA, se analiza los puntos anotados por minuto en situaciones de muy alto y también muy bajo rendimiento. Los resultados sugieren que hay una cierta tendencia que refleja el momentum, tanto para buenos como para malos rendimientos, pero ese resultado está influenciado por el porcentaje de uso del jugador, es decir, su capacidad para acaparar juego. La tendencia es ir hacia atrás (en torno a un 60-70%) en ladistribución de anotaciones tras un partido muy bueno, y de ir hacia delante (en torno a un 30-40%) en la distribución de anotaciones tras un partido muy malo. Las implicaciones para la toma de decisiones son discutidas finalmente.(AU)


The existence of streaks in basketball has been studied for teams (team momentum) and players (hot hand/player momentum) using disparate methods and reaching some conflicting results. However, recent empirical research shows these types of streaks are real and not an artifact of perception. In this research, we analyze a form of player streak that has not been considered before player momentum between games. Using a sample of 39 players and 3483 games of the 2016/17 and 2017/18 NBA regular seasons, we studied the distribution of points scored per minute focusing on both tails of this distribution for each player, i.e., extremely high, and extremely low performance within the same season. Results suggest that there is a certain trend reflecting momentum (for both good and bad performances), but this outcome is influenced by the usage percentage. The trend is to jump back to around 60-70% of the distribution of scores after a very good game and to jump forward to around 30-40% of the distribution of scores after a very bad game. Implications for decision-making are discussed at the end.(AU)


A existência de sequências no basquetebol têm sido estudadas em equipas (momentum da equipa) e jogadores (mão quente/momentum do jogador), utilizando diferentes métodos e chegando a resultados contraditórios. No entanto, estudosempíricos recentes evidenciaram queesse tipo de fenômeno é real e não um viés de percepção. Este estudo analisou uma forma de sequência de jogo para o jogador que até então não havia sido considerada: o ímpeto do jogador entre as partidas. Para tal, participaram neste estudo 39 jogadores e 3483 jogos das temporadas 2016/17 e 2017/18 da NBA, e foram analisados os pontos marcados por minuto em situações de alto e baixo desempenho. Os resultados sugerem que existe uma certa tendência que reflete o momentum, tanto para as boas como para as más exibições, mas esse resultado é influenciado pela percentagem de aproveitamento do jogador, ou seja, a sua capacidadede dominaro jogo. As implicações para a tomada de decisão são finalmente discutidas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Basquetebol/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Atletas/psicologia , Atletismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Esporte
7.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 24(1): 242-256, Ene 2, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229630

RESUMO

Elobjetivo del presente estudio observacional fue describir el tiempo efectivo dejuego en el fútbol femenino profesional a partir de cómo se distribuyó la frecuencia y duración de la posesión de balón. Se analizaron ocho partidos de la Champions League femenina de la temporada 2021-22. El sistema de codificación estuvo compuesto por cuatro categorías: posesión de balón (dentro del balón en juego, BJ) y balón parado (BP), tanto del equipo de referencia como del oponente. Se implementaron un análisis descriptivo, una comparación de medias para las variables independientes (parte (primeray segunda) y lugar (casa y fuera) del partido) y un análisis de secuencialidad. Los resultados fueron que: 1) el BJ tuvo una mayor duración que el BP, en ambas partes y lugares; 2) el número de posesiones por cada BJ decreció a medida que aumentó el númerode posesiones consecutivas (desde 1 a 5 o más); 3) no existieron diferencias en la duración promedio de las posesiones, indistintamente a las partes y el lugar; y, 4) existióvariabilidad en las transiciones entre los BJ y BP con diferente duración. Estos hallazgos podrían ayudar a los cuerpos técnicos y, especialmente, a las/os preparadoras/es en el diseño de tareas que repliquen las dinámicas de juego en el fútbol femenino de élite.(AU)


This observational study aimed to describe the effective playing time based on how the frequency and duration of ball possession were distributed in professional women's football. Eight matches of the Women's Champions League of the 2021-22 season were analyzed. The coding system was made up of four categories: possession of the ball (within the ball in play, BJ) and set piece (BP), both the reference team and the opponent. A descriptive analysis, a comparison of means for the independent variables (half (first and second) and location (home and away) of the match), and a sequential analysis were implemented. The results were that: 1) the BJ had a longer duration than the BP, in both halves and location; 2) the number of possessions per BJ decreased as more consecutive possessions were accumulated (from 1 to 5 or more); 3) there were no differences in the average duration of the possessions, regardless of the havesand the location; and, 4) there was variability in the transitions between the BJ andBP withdifferent duration. These findings could help the coaching staff and, especially, coaches in the design of tasks that replicate the game dynamics in elite women's football.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo observacional foi descrever o tempo efetivo de jogo a partir da distribuição da frequência e duração da posse de bola no futebol feminino profissional. Foram analisadas oito partidas da Liga dos Campeões Feminina da temporada 2021-22. O sistema de codificação foi composto por quatro categorias: posse de bola (dentro da bola em jogo, BJ) e bola parada (BP), tanto da equipa de referência quanto do adversário. Foram implementadas uma análise descritiva, uma comparação de médias para as variáveis independentes (primeira e segunda parte) e localização (casa e fora) da partida) e uma análise sequencial. Os resultados foram que: 1) o BJ teve uma duração maior que o BP, em ambos os trechos e localização; 2) o número de posses por BJ diminuiu à medida que mais posses consecutivas foram acumuladas (de 1 para 5 ou mais); 3) não houve diferenças na duração média das posses, independentemente das partes e do localização; e, 4) houve variabilidade nas transições entre o BJ e oBPcom diferentes durações. Esses achados podem auxiliar as equipes técnicas e, principalmente, os treinadores no desenho de tarefas que reproduzam a dinâmica do jogo no futebol feminino de elite.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/tendências , Atletismo , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Medicina Esportiva , Psicologia do Esporte
8.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 24(1): 257-274, Ene 2, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229631

RESUMO

La observación sistemática es un método que permite obtener numerosas informaciones sobre el comportamiento del entrenador, incluida la comunicación, que es parte integral del proceso de eficacia pedagógica. Tras revisar varios sistemas de observación y comprobar su potencial, pero principalmente sus debilidades, surge el Sistema de Análisis de Información del Entrenador de Fútbol en Competición (SAITFC) desde una perspectiva de evolución y aportación científica. Un sistema flexible que incluye dimensiones, categorías y subcategorías, que hacen referencia a la información en un intento de hacer inclusivos todos los comportamientos relacionados con la información emitida por el entrenador, ayudando a elaborar un perfil de comportamiento en competición. El cálculo de los porcentajes de concordancia, complementando con las estadísticas Kappa de Cohen, mostró altos niveles de fidelidad de las observaciones para ser utilizadas como herramienta científica. Con este estudio piloto, los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación sugieren que los entrenadores emiten cada vez más información, no solo a los atletas, en forma de instrucción y feedback, sino a todos los agentes deportivos involucrados en la competencia, es decir, el arbitraje, el oponente y el equipo técnico en forma de conversaciones. El feedback tiende a ser prescriptive, auditive, dirigido al atleta, táctico y afectivamente neutral. Es importante destacar la expresividad de los feedbacks relacionados con esquemas tácticos y velocidad de reacción. El SAITFC, como herramienta para ayudar a sistematizar el comportamiento del entrenador, demostró ser un método eficaz, contribuyendo así a la formación de los entrenadores, pero también a nivel científico, ayudándolos en el campo.(AU)


Systematic observation is a method that allows obtaining numerous information about the coach ́s behavior, including communication, whichis an integral part of the process of pedagogical effectiveness. After reviewing several observation systems and verifying their potential, mainly their weaknesses, the Information Analysis System for Football Coaches in Competition (SAITFC) emerges from a perspective of evolution andscientific contribution. A flexible system that includes dimensions, categories, and subcategories, which refer to the information in an attempt to make all behaviors related to the information issued by the coach inclusive, helping to elaborate a behavioral profile in the competition. The calculation of agreement percentages, complemented by Cohen ́s Kappa statistics, showed substantial levels of reliability for the observations to be used as a scientific tool. With this pilotstudy, the results obtainedin this investigation suggest that coaches issue more and more information, not only to athletes, in the form of instruction and feedback but to all sports agents involved in the competition, namely arbitration, opponent, and technical team in the form of conversations. Feedback tends to be prescriptive, auditory, addressed to the athlete, tactical, and effectively neutral. It is essential to emphasize the expressiveness of the feedback related to tactical schemes and reaction speed. The SAITFC, as a tool tohelp systematize the coach ́s behavior, proved to be an effective method, thus contributing tothe training of coaches, but also at a scientific level, helping them in the field.(AU)


A observação sistemática é um método que permite obter inúmeras informações sobre o comportamento do treinador, entre elas a comunicação, a qual é parte integrante do processo de eficácia pedagógica.Após revisão de vários sistemas de observação e constatação das suas potencialidades, mas principalmente das suas fragilidades, surge assim numa perspetiva de evolução e de contributo científico, o Sistema de Análise da Informação do Treinador de Futebol em Competição (SAITFC). Um sistema flexível que inclui dimensões, categorias e subcategorias, as quais remetem para a informação numa tentativa de tornar inclusivo todos os comportamentos relacionadoscom a informação emitida pelo treinador, ajudando a umaelaboração de um perfil comportamental emcompetição. O cálculo de percentagens de acordos, complementada pela estatística de Kappa de Cohen, mostrou níveis fortes de fidelidade para as observações serem utilizadas como ferramenta científica. Com este estudo piloto, os resultados obtidos nesta investigação sugerem que os treinadores emitam cada vez mais informação, não só para os atletas, em forma de instrução e feedback, mas para todos os agentes desportivos envolvidos na competição, nomeadamente equipas de arbitragem, adversária e técnica em forma de conversas. O feedback tende a ser prescritivo, auditivo, dirigido ao atleta, tático e de afetividade neutra. De realçar a expressividade dos feedbacks relacionados com esquemas táticos e de velocidade de reação. O SAITFC enquanto ferramenta de auxílio à sistematização do comportamento do treinador, mostrou ser um método eficaz, contribuindo assim para a formação de treinadores, mas também a nível científico, auxiliando-os no terreno.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atletismo/normas , Futebol , Retroalimentação , Mentores , Comunicação , Observação , Psicologia do Esporte , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes/psicologia , Projetos Piloto
9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 26(2): 631-641, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985360

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of track and field training compared with intensification of insulin treatment only in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adolescents (seven females) with T1D were included (age 15.1 ± 1.1 years, HbA1c 7.3% ± 1.0% [56.3 ± 10.9 mmol/mol]). After a 4-week observational control phase, participants were randomized to either stand-alone intensive glycaemic management (IT; telemedicine or on-site visits, three times/week) or additionally performed track and field exercise (EX; three 60-minute sessions/week) for 4 weeks. Glycaemia was assessed via continuous glucose monitoring during observational control and intervention phases. RESULTS: Time in range (70-180 mg/dL; 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) significantly improved from the observational control phase to the exercise intervention phase in EX (69% ± 13% vs. 72% ± 11%, P = .049), but not in IT (59% ± 22% vs. 62% ± 16%, P = .399). Time below range 1 (54-69 mg/dL; < 3.9 mmol/L) improved in IT (3.1% ± 1.9% vs. 2.0% ± 0.8%, P = .017) and remained stable in EX (2.0% ± 1.7 vs. 1.9% ± 1.1%, P = .999). The EX group's HbA1c ameliorated preintervention to postintervention (mean difference: ΔHbA1c -0.19% ± 0.17%, P = .042), which was not seen within the IT group (ΔHbA1c -0.16% ± 0.37%, P = .40). Glucose standard deviation was reduced significantly in EX (55 ± 11 vs. 51 ± 10 mg/dL [3.1 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L], P = .011), but not in IT (70 ± 24 vs. 63 ± 18 mg/dL [3.9 ± 1.3 vs. 3.5 ± 1.0 mmol/L], P = .186). CONCLUSION: Track and field training combined with intensive glycaemic management improved glycaemia in adolescents with T1D, which was not observed in the non-exercise group.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Atletismo , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia
10.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 70: 102552, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37913912

RESUMO

The relationship between perfectionism - perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns - and athletic performance is contested and inconsistent. The present study explored the possibility that one explanation for this inconsistency is the assumption that the relationship is linear. In two samples, we tested alternative non-linear relationships between perfectionism and real-world competitive athletic performance. Sample one comprised 165 Swedish track and field athletes (57 % competing in female category, 42 % in male category; Mage = 16.93 years) and sample two comprised 157 British track and field athletes (55 % competing in female category, 43 % in male category; Mage = 18.42 years). Testing for linear and non-linear relationships, we found a quadratic effect whereby higher perfectionistic strivings had both positive increasing (i.e., U-shape; sample 1) and positive decreasing (i.e., inverted U-shape; sample 2) relationships with performance. We conclude that there may be circumstances when perfectionistic strivings contribute to better and worse sport performance, and that this relationship can be curvilinear.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Perfeccionismo , Atletismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Atletas
11.
J Membr Biol ; 256(4-6): 299-300, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955796

Assuntos
Atletismo , Biologia
12.
PeerJ ; 11: e16433, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38034865

RESUMO

Background: Elite track and field sprint performances have reached a point of stability as we near the limits of human physiology, and further significant improvements may require technological intervention. Following the widely reported performance benefits of new advanced footwear technology (AFT) in road-running events, similar innovations have since been applied to sprint spikes in hope of providing similar performance enhancing benefits. However, it is not yet clear based on current evidence whether there have been subsequent improvements in sprint performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were to establish if there have been recent year-to-year improvements in the times of the annual top 100 and top 20 athletes in the men's and women's sprint events, and to establish if there is an association between the extensive use of AFT and potential recent improvements in sprint performances. Methods: For the years 2016-19 and 2021-2022, the season best performances of the top 100 athletes in each sprint event were extracted from the World Athletics Top lists. Independent t-tests with Holm corrections were performed using the season's best performance of the top 100 and top 20 athletes in each year to identify significant differences between years for each sprint discipline. Following the classification of shoes worn by the top 20 athletes in each event during their annual best race (AFT or non-AFT), separate linear mixed-model regressions were performed to determine the influence of AFT on performance times. Results: For the top 100 and top 20 athletes, there were no significant differences year-to-year in any sprint event prior to the release of AFT (2016-2019). There were significant differences between AFT years (2021 or 2022) and pre-AFT years (2016-2019) in eight out of 10 events. These differences ranged from a 0.40% improvement (men's 100 m) to a 1.52% improvement (women's 400 m hurdles). In the second analysis, multiple linear mixed model regressions revealed that the use of AFT was associated with improved performance in six out of ten events, including the men's and women's 100 m, women's 200 m, men's 110 m hurdles, women's 100 m hurdles and women's 400 m hurdles (estimate range: -0.037 - 0.521, p = <0.001 - 0.021). Across both analyses, improvements were more pronounced in women's sprint events than men's sprint events. Conclusion: Following a period of stability, there were significant improvements in most sprint events which may be partly explained by advances in footwear technology. These improvements appear to be mediated by event, sex and potentially level of athlete.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Atletismo , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Atletas , Homens
13.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 32(4): 121-132, Oct 15, 2023. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-228857

RESUMO

Athletics is in the basic position in sports, the improvement of sports quality, sports technology mastery is inseparable from athletics training, athletics training is an important way to improve the level of sports. China's amateur track and field training has played a major channel and role in the basic training of track and field, which has experienced nearly 50 years of development and achieved some excellent results, but it is not ideal. The economic development in the society has a great impact on the basic training of track and field, and only by solving the problems in the basic training of track and field well can we really improve the level of track and field in China. Youth amateur track and field training not only stimulates athletes' interest in sports and mastering track and field skills, but also lays the foundation for athletes' sports through physical training. At present, the physical training of our youth is not ideal. With the help of amateur training in track and field, it will bring continuous optimization to the athletes' physical training effect. To strengthen the attention and analysis of the basic and special strategies of physical fitness training in youth athletics amateur training, guide the development of the most reasonable physical fitness training plan and select the most suitable physical fitness training methods, so as to achieve the stable improvement of athletes' physical fitness and achieve the ideal goal of physical fitness training. Therefore, this paper introduces scientific quantitative and customized indexes into athletic training from the perspective of genetic algorithm, so as to improve the scientific and cutting-edge analysis of training effects.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Aptidão Física , Atletismo , Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento de Força , Psicologia do Esporte , Esportes/psicologia , Exercício Físico , China , Atletas/psicologia
14.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 18(12): 1412-1419, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few data are available on sleep characteristics of elite track-and-field athletes. Our study aimed to assess (1) differences in sleep between sexes and among different track-and-field disciplines, (2) the effect of individualized sleep-hygiene strategies on athletes' sleep parameters, and (3) daytime nap characteristics in track-and-field athletes. METHODS: Sleep characteristics of 16 elite Olympic-level track-and-field athletes (male: n = 8; female: n = 8) were assessed during the preseason period, at baseline (T0), and during the in-season period, after the adoption of individualized sleep-hygiene strategies (T1). Sleep parameters were objectively monitored by actigraphy for a minimum of 10 days, for each athlete, at both T0 and T1. A total of 702 nights were analyzed (T0 = 425; T1 = 277). RESULTS: Female athletes displayed better sleep efficiency (88.69 [87.69-89.68] vs 91.72 [90.99-92.45]; P = .003, effect size [ES]: 0.44), lower sleep latency (18.99 [15.97-22.00] vs 6.99 [5.65-8.32]; P < .001, ES: 0.65), higher total sleep time (07:03 [06:56-07:11] vs 07:18 [07:10-07:26]; P = .030, ES: 0.26), earlier bedtime (00:24 [00:16-00:32] vs 00:13 [00:04-00:22]; P = .027, ES: 0.18), and lower nap frequency (P < .001) than male athletes. Long-distance runners had earlier bedtime (00:10 [00:03-00:38] vs 00:36 [00:26-00:46]; P < .001, ES: 0.41) and wake-up time (07:41 [07:36-07:46] vs 08:18 [08:07-08:30]; P < .001, ES: 0.61), higher nap frequency, but lower sleep efficiency (88.79 [87.80-89.77] vs 91.67 [90.95-92.38]; P = .013, ES: 0.44), and longer sleep latency (18.89 [15.94-21.84] vs 6.69 [5.33-8.06]; P < .001, ES: 0.67) than athletes of short-term disciplines. Furthermore, sleep-hygiene strategies had a positive impact on athletes' total sleep time (429.2 [423.5-434.8] vs 451.4 [444.2-458.6]; P < .001, ES: 0.37) and sleep latency (14.33 [12.34-16.32] vs 10.67 [8.66-12.68]; P = .017, ES: 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality and quantity were suboptimal at baseline in Olympic-level track-and-field athletes. Large differences were observed in sleep characteristics between sexes and among different track-and-field disciplines. Given the positive effect of individualized sleep-hygiene strategies on athlete's sleep, coaches should implement sleep education sessions in the daily routine of top-level athletes.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Atletismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tóquio , Sono , Atletas , Higiene
15.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 68: 102450, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37665900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Athletes often communicate with one another and exchange information, attitudes, and feelings that can influence their sport experiences. In an effort to better understand the sport communication context, the purpose of the current study was to (a) describe communication profiles of athletes (b) examine potential predictors (i.e., team identity, sex) of profile membership, and (c) examine the salience of these profiles by assessing profile group differences on athletes' perceptions of burnout, engagement, satisfaction, and enjoyment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey-based study. METHOD: Collegiate track and field athletes (N = 219) completed measures of demographic information, team communication, team identity, burnout, engagement, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Communication profiles were examined using latent profile analysis. Using the three-step method in Mplus, possible prediction of profile membership and profile differences in perceptions of sport experiences were examined. RESULTS: Three profiles emerged: the Less Effective Communicators, the Supportive Communicators, and the Functional Communicators. Athletes with greater team identity were more likely to be in the Supportive Communicators profile (p < 0.001), male participants were more likely to be in the Functional Communicators profile (p < 0.05) than the other profiles, and female participants were less likely to be in the Less Effective Communicators profile than the Supportive Communicators profile (p < 0.05). The Less Effective Communicators had greater perceptions of burnout (ps < 0.01) and lower perceptions of engagement (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), satisfaction (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001), and enjoyment (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) than the Supportive and Functional Communicators. Supportive Communicators had greater satisfaction (p < 0.001) and enjoyment (p < 0.001) than the Functional Communicators. CONCLUSIONS: Different profiles of communication in track and field athletes may have implications for athletes' sport experiences and warrant continued study.


Assuntos
Atletismo , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Atletas , Prazer , Comunicação
16.
Physiol Behav ; 271: 114344, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689381

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that higher testosterone levels may provide an athletic advantage. Therefore, it is of practical interest to examine the association between testosterone levels and power- and strength-related traits in young professional track and field athletes, and to consider the factors that determine testosterone levels. The study involved 68 young professional athletes (45 females, 17.3 ± 2.6 years; 23 males, 18.2 ± 1.9 years). Testosterone levels were assessed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects performed two 20 m and two 30 m sprint trials, and countermovement jump without arm-swing. A bioimpedance analysis of body composition was carried out and biological maturity was examined using the Khamis-Roche method. The average testosterone levels were 26.4 ± 9.6 nmol/l and 1.5 ± 0.7 nmol/l in males and females, respectively. In female athletes, testosterone levels did not correlate with any of traits. Males with the highest testosterone levels were significantly faster in the 20 m (p = 0.033) and 30 m (p = 0.014) sprint trials compared to males with lower testosterone levels. Testosterone levels in males were positively associated with fat mass (p = 0.027), and degree of biological maturation (p = 0.003). In conclusion, we found a positive relationship between testosterone levels and sprint performance in young male athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Atletismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atletas , Testosterona
17.
PeerJ ; 11: e16081, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37744222

RESUMO

Background: Performance in javelin throwing is dependent on the release speed and therefore the energy transferred to the javelin. Little is known about the flow of mechanical energy in javelin throwing and whether there is a connection to joint loading and throwing performance. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate (1) the energy flow within the kinetic chain of the throwing arm, (2) how it is related to performance and joint loads and (3) how joint forces and torques are used to transfer, generate and absorb mechanical energy. Methods: The kinematics of 10 experienced javelin throwers were recorded using a 12-camera infrared system. 16 markers were placed on the athlete's body, five on the javelin to track the movement of each segment. A segmental power analysis was carried out to calculate energy flow between upper body, upper arm, forearm and hand. Stepwise regression analysis was used to calculate the variable that best predicts release speed and joint loads. Results: The results indicate that the higher the peak rate of energy transfer from the thorax to the humerus, the higher the release speed and the joint loads. While there were no differences between the peak rate of energy transfer in the different joints, the energy transferred differed depending on whether joint forces or torques were used. It can be further shown that higher joint torques and thus higher rotational kinetics at the shoulder are linked to higher release speeds. Thus, the movements of the upper body can be of great influence on the result in javelin throwing. Furthermore, the data show that athletes who are able to transfer more energy through the shoulder, rather than generate it, experience a smaller joint loading. An effective technique for improved energy transfer can thus help perform at the same level while lowering joint stress or have higher performance at the same joint loading.


Assuntos
Atletismo , Masculino , Humanos , Homens , Braço , Movimento , Extremidade Superior
18.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 32(3): 1-19, Sept 3, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227439

RESUMO

The concept of resilience has a crucial role in various aspects of individuals' lives, including physical exercise, self-efficacy, self-esteem, body image, and overall welfare. The importance of this factor in assisting athletes in effectively navigating the demands of sports performance should not be underestimated. The present study aims to investigate the effects of consistent physical exercise and participation in competitive activities on an individual's psychological resilience. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 329 participants, consisting of 229 individuals who engaged in regular exercise and 100 individuals who did not exercise. The participants were selected from athletics club members and college students. The Resilience Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Questionnaire were administered to the participants using a survey conducted through Google Forms. Prior informed consent was obtained from all participants. The findings suggest that those in the regular exercise group had enhanced emotional impulse control, heightened positive emotions, improved communication skills, more empathy, and greater self-improvement in comparison to those in the non-exercise group. In a similar vein, individuals who took part in competitive activities had a significant improvement in their ability to regulate their emotional impulses, showed a greater understanding and management of positive emotions, exhibited improved communication abilities, displayed heightened empathetic capacities, and experienced enhanced personal growth compared to those who did not participate. The aforementioned results highlight the beneficial impact of consistent physical activity in strengthening one's psychological resilience, which is consistent with previous research that has demonstrated exercise's ability to reduce stress and enhance resilience. This study highlights the positive associations between consistent physical activity, engagement in competitive sports, and increased psychological resilience among athletes. Examining these connections offers practical knowledge for athletes and sports professionals aiming to enhance their psychological well-being and performance in demanding environments.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoeficácia , Exercício Físico , Imagem Corporal , Autoimagem , Desempenho Atlético , Atletas , Psicologia , Psicologia do Esporte , Estudos Transversais , Atletismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 32(3): 61-70, Sept 3, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227444

RESUMO

Volunteers in sports, full-time workers in sports, trainers, coaches, and administrative support people all have varying levels of devotion to their employment and organizations. Athletes are encouraged to participate in sports by their coaches, parents, and trainers. This helps athletes maintain physical fitness and promote a healthy lifestyle in order to encourage better international and local collaboration. A sports company is made up of championships, players, a management board, local cooperation, leagues, sports clubs, and men's and women's teams that supervise and conduct the organization's activities. Protecting the rights of sport's athletes is the responsibility of sports organizations, whether temporary or permanent. The purposive sample approach and snowball sampling were used in the research design to acquire data. Purposive sampling has helped researchers to find responders who are familiar with the field of expertise, based on the appropriate degree of knowledge necessary. A questionnaire was used to obtain the information. A total of fifty people took part in this study. Out of the 50 people who responded, 35 were men and 15 were women. SEM PLS 3.3.7v was used to evaluate the collected data. The findings revealed a substantial positive relationship between the factors.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tênis , Tutoria/métodos , Atletismo , Academias de Ginástica/organização & administração , Aptidão , Esportes , Psicologia do Esporte , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14031, 2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37640789

RESUMO

Collecting large datasets for investigations into human locomotion is an expensive and labor-intensive process. Methods for 3D human pose estimation in the wild are becoming increasingly accurate and could soon be sufficient to assist with the collection of datasets for analysis into running kinematics from TV broadcast data. In the domain of biomechanical research, small differences in 3D angles play an important role. More precisely, the error margins of the data collection process need to be smaller than the expected variation between athletes. In this work, we propose a method to infer the global geometry of track and field stadium recordings using lane demarcations. By projecting estimated 3D skeletons back into the image using this global geometry, we show that current state-of-the-art 3D human pose estimation methods are not (yet) accurate enough to be used in kinematics research.


Assuntos
Corrida , Atletismo , Humanos , Atletas , Coleta de Dados , Conhecimento
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