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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1260439, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863700

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV), transmitted by infected mosquitoes, is a major public health concern, with approximately half the world's population at risk for infection. Recent decades have increasing incidence of dengue-associated disease alongside growing frequency of outbreaks. Although promising progress has been made in anti-DENV immunizations, post-infection treatment remains limited to non-specific supportive treatments. Development of antiviral therapeutics is thus required to limit DENV dissemination in humans and to help control the severity of outbreaks. Dendritic cells (DCs) are amongst the first cells to encounter DENV upon injection into the human skin mucosa, and thereafter promote systemic viral dissemination to additional human target cells. Autophagy is a vesicle trafficking pathway involving the formation of cytosolic autophagosomes, and recent reports have highlighted the extensive manipulation of autophagy by flaviviruses, including DENV, for viral replication. However, the temporal profiling and function of autophagy activity in DENV infection and transmission by human primary DCs remains poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate that mechanisms of autophagosome formation and extracellular vesicle (EV) release have a pro-viral role in DC-mediated DENV transmission. We show that DENV exploits early-stage canonical autophagy to establish infection in primary human DCs. DENV replication enhanced autophagosome formation in primary human DCs, and intrinsically-heightened autophagosome biogenesis correlated with relatively higher rates of DC susceptibility to DENV. Furthermore, our data suggest that viral replication intermediates co-localize with autophagosomes, while productive DENV infection introduces a block at the late degradative stages of autophagy in infected DCs but not in uninfected bystander cells. Notably, we identify for the first time that approximately one-fourth of DC-derived CD9/CD81/CD63+ EVs co-express canonical autophagy marker LC3, and demonstrate that DC-derived EV populations are an alternative, cell-free mechanism by which DCs promote DENV transmission to additional target sites. Taken together, our study highlights intersections between autophagy and secretory pathways during viral infection, and puts forward autophagosome accumulation and viral RNA-laden EVs as host determinants of DC-mediated DENV infection in humans. Host-directed therapeutics targeting autophagy and exocytosis pathways thus have potential to enhance DC-driven resistance to DENV acquisition and thereby limit viral dissemination by initial human target cells following mosquito-to-human transmission of DENV.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Células Dendríticas , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Via Secretória , Replicação Viral , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Dengue/imunologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/virologia , Células Cultivadas
2.
Elife ; 132024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831693

RESUMO

A change in the electric charge of autophagosome membranes controls the recruitment of SNARE proteins to ensure that membrane fusion occurs at the right time during autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Fusão de Membrana , Proteínas SNARE , Autofagia/fisiologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais
3.
Elife ; 122024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831696

RESUMO

During macroautophagy, cytoplasmic constituents are engulfed by autophagosomes. Lysosomes fuse with closed autophagosomes but not with unclosed intermediate structures. This is achieved in part by the late recruitment of the autophagosomal SNARE syntaxin 17 (STX17) to mature autophagosomes. However, how STX17 recognizes autophagosome maturation is not known. Here, we show that this temporally regulated recruitment of STX17 depends on the positively charged C-terminal region of STX17. Consistent with this finding, mature autophagosomes are more negatively charged compared with unclosed intermediate structures. This electrostatic maturation of autophagosomes is likely driven by the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the autophagosomal membrane. Accordingly, dephosphorylation of autophagosomal PI4P prevents the association of STX17 to autophagosomes. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations support PI4P-dependent membrane insertion of the transmembrane helices of STX17. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which STX17 recruitment to mature autophagosomes is temporally regulated by a PI4P-driven change in the surface charge of autophagosomes.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol , Proteínas Qa-SNARE , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Autofagia/fisiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13258, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858422

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common oncological disease worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer accounting for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases. α-Hederin is a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin isolated from the leaves of Hedera helix L. or Nigella sativa and has been extensively studied for its antitumor activity against a variety of tumor cells. It has been suggested that α-Hederin is a potential regulator of autophagy and has high promise for application. However, the specific mechanism and characteristics of α-Hederin in regulating autophagy are not well understood. In this study, we confirmed the potential of α-Hederin application in lung cancer treatment and comprehensively explored the mechanism and characteristics of α-Hederin in regulating autophagy in lung cancer cells. Our results suggest that α-Hederin is an incomplete autophagy inducer that targets mTOR to activate the classical autophagic pathway, inhibits lysosomal acidification without significantly affecting the processes of autophagosome transport, lysosome biogenesis, autophagosome and lysosome fusion, and finally leads to impaired autophagic flux and triggers autophagic damage in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Lisossomos , Ácido Oleanólico , Saponinas , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1334211, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817444

RESUMO

Parasites possess remarkable abilities to evade and manipulate the immune response of their hosts. Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic tapeworm that causes cystic echinococcosis in animals and humans. The hydatid fluid released by the parasite is known to contain various immunomodulatory components that manipulate host´s defense mechanism. In this study, we focused on understanding the effect of hydatid fluid on dendritic cells and its impact on autophagy induction and subsequent T cell responses. Initially, we observed a marked downregulation of two C-type lectin receptors in the cell membrane, CLEC9A and CD205 and an increase in lysosomal activity, suggesting an active cellular response to hydatid fluid. Subsequently, we visualized ultrastructural changes in stimulated dendritic cells, revealing the presence of macroautophagy, characterized by the formation of autophagosomes, phagophores, and phagolysosomes in the cell cytoplasm. To further elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in hydatid fluid-induced autophagy, we analyzed the expression of autophagy-related genes in stimulated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated a significant upregulation of beclin-1, atg16l1 and atg12, indicating the induction of autophagy machinery in response to hydatid fluid exposure. Additionally, using confocal microscopy, we observed an accumulation of LC3 in dendritic cell autophagosomes, confirming the activation of this catabolic pathway associated with antigen presentation. Finally, to evaluate the functional consequences of hydatid fluid-induced autophagy in DCs, we evaluated cytokine transcription in the splenocytes. Remarkably, a robust polyfunctional T cell response, with inhibition of Th2 profile, is characterized by an increase in the expression of il-6, il-10, il-12, tnf-α, ifn-γ and tgf-ß genes. These findings suggest that hydatid fluid-induced autophagy in dendritic cells plays a crucial role in shaping the subsequent T cell responses, which is important for a better understanding of host-parasite interactions in cystic echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Células Dendríticas , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Equinococose/imunologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Camundongos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Autofagossomos/imunologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo
6.
Nature ; 629(8012): 660-668, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693258

RESUMO

Ischaemic diseases such as critical limb ischaemia and myocardial infarction affect millions of people worldwide1. Transplanting endothelial cells (ECs) is a promising therapy in vascular medicine, but engrafting ECs typically necessitates co-transplanting perivascular supporting cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which makes clinical implementation complicated2,3. The mechanisms that enable MSCs to facilitate EC engraftment remain elusive. Here we show that, under cellular stress, MSCs transfer mitochondria to ECs through tunnelling nanotubes, and that blocking this transfer impairs EC engraftment. We devised a strategy to artificially transplant mitochondria, transiently enhancing EC bioenergetics and enabling them to form functional vessels in ischaemic tissues without the support of MSCs. Notably, exogenous mitochondria did not integrate into the endogenous EC mitochondrial pool, but triggered mitophagy after internalization. Transplanted mitochondria co-localized with autophagosomes, and ablation of the PINK1-Parkin pathway negated the enhanced engraftment ability of ECs. Our findings reveal a mechanism that underlies the effects of mitochondrial transfer between mesenchymal and endothelial cells, and offer potential for a new approach for vascular cell therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Endoteliais , Isquemia , Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/transplante , Metabolismo Energético , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Isquemia/metabolismo , Isquemia/terapia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/transplante , Proteínas Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10146, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698024

RESUMO

The closely related endolysosomal tethering complexes HOPS and CORVET play pivotal roles in the homo- and heterotypic fusion of early and late endosomes, respectively, and HOPS also mediates the fusion of lysosomes with incoming vesicles including late endosomes and autophagosomes. These heterohexameric complexes share their four core subunits that assemble with additional two, complex-specific subunits. These features and the similar structure of the complexes could allow the formation of hybrid complexes, and the complex specific subunits may compete for binding to the core. Indeed, our biochemical analyses revealed the overlap of binding sites for HOPS-specific VPS41 and CORVET-specific VPS8 on the shared core subunit VPS18. We found that the overexpression of CORVET-specific VPS8 or Tgfbrap1 decreased the amount of core proteins VPS11 and VPS18 that are assembled with HOPS-specific subunits VPS41 or VPS39, indicating reduced amount of assembled HOPS. In line with this, we observed the elevation of both lipidated, autophagosome-associated LC3 protein and the autophagic cargo p62 in these cells, suggesting impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In contrast, overexpression of HOPS-specific VPS39 or VPS41 did not affect the level of assembled CORVET or autophagy. VPS8 or Tgfbrap1 overexpression also induced Cathepsin D accumulation, suggesting that HOPS-dependent biosynthetic delivery of lysosomal hydrolases is perturbed, too. These indicate that CORVET-specific subunit levels fine-tune HOPS assembly and activity in vivo.


Assuntos
Endossomos , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Autofagia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Ligação Proteica
8.
Bioessays ; 46(6): e2400038, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724256

RESUMO

Autophagy, an essential cellular process for maintaining cellular homeostasis and eliminating harmful cytoplasmic objects, involves the de novo formation of double-membraned autophagosomes that engulf and degrade cellular debris, protein aggregates, damaged organelles, and pathogens. Central to this process is the phagophore, which forms from donor membranes rich in lipids synthesized at various cellular sites, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which has emerged as a primary source. The ER-associated omegasomes, characterized by their distinctive omega-shaped structure and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), play a pivotal role in autophagosome formation. Omegasomes are thought to serve as platforms for phagophore assembly by recruiting essential proteins such as DFCP1/ZFYVE1 and facilitating lipid transfer to expand the phagophore. Despite the critical importance of phagophore biogenesis, many aspects remain poorly understood, particularly the complete range of proteins involved in omegasome dynamics, and the detailed mechanisms of lipid transfer and membrane contact site formation.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Retículo Endoplasmático , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo
9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 35(7): br13, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696256

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process where double membrane-bound structures form around macromolecules or organelles targeted for degradation. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes to facilitate degradation and macromolecule recycling for homeostasis or growth in a cell autonomous manner. In cancer cells, autophagy is often up-regulated and helps cancer cells survive nutrient deprivation and stressful growth conditions. Here, we propose that the increased intracellular pH (pHi) common to cancer cells is sufficient to induce autophagic cell death. We previously developed tools to increase pHi in the Drosophila eye via overexpression of DNhe2, resulting in aberrant patterning and reduced tissue size. We examined fly eyes at earlier stages of development and found fewer interommatidial cells. We next tested whether this decrease in cell number was due to increased cell death. We found that the DNhe2-induced cell death was caspase independent, which is inconsistent with apoptosis. However, this cell death required autophagy genes, which supports autophagy as the mode of cell death. We also found that expression of molecular markers supports increased autophagy. Together, our findings suggest new roles for ion transport proteins in regulating conserved, critical developmental processes and provide evidence for new paradigms in growth control.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , Autofagia , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Olho/metabolismo , Apoptose , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo
10.
Chin J Nat Med ; 22(5): 387-401, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796213

RESUMO

Hernandezine (Her), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Thalictrum flavum, is recognized for its range of biological activities inherent to this herbal medicine. Despite its notable properties, the anti-cancer effects of Her have remained largely unexplored. In this study, we elucidated that Her significantly induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells through the activation of apoptosis and necroptosis mechanisms. Furthermore, Her triggered autophagosome formation by activating the AMPK and ATG5 conjugation systems, leading to LC3 lipidation. Our findings revealed that Her caused damage to the mitochondrial membrane, with the damaged mitochondria undergoing mitophagy, as evidenced by the elevated expression of mitophagy markers. Conversely, Her disrupted autophagic flux, demonstrated by the upregulation of p62 and accumulation of autolysosomes, as observed in the RFP-GFP-LC3 reporter assay. Initially, we determined that Her did not prevent the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. However, it inhibited the maturation of cathepsin D and increased lysosomal pH, indicating an impairment of lysosomal function. The use of the early-stage autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not suppress LC3II, suggesting that Her also induces noncanonical autophagy in autophagosome formation. The application of Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of noncanonical autophagy, diminished the recruitment of ATG16L1 and the accumulation of LC3II by Her, thereby augmenting Her-induced cell death. These observations imply that while autophagy initially plays a protective role, the disruption of the autophagic process by Her promotes programmed cell death. This study provides the first evidence of Her's dual role in inducing apoptosis and necroptosis while also initiating and subsequently impairing autophagy to promote apoptotic cell death. These insights contribute to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying programmed cell death, offering potential avenues for enhancing cancer prevention and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Catepsina D , Lisossomos , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Catepsina D/genética , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 220: 111-124, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697493

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global public health problem with increased morbidity and mortality. Agrimol B, a natural polyphenol, has been proved to be a potential anticancer drug. Our recent report showed a favorable anticancer effect of agrimol B in HCC, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found agrimol B inhibits the growth and proliferation of HCC cells in vitro as well as in an HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. Notably, agrimol B drives autophagy initiation and blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion, resulting in autophagosome accumulation and autophagy arrest in HCC cells. Mechanistically, agrimol B downregulates the protein level of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S1 (NDUFS1) through caspase 3-mediated degradation, leading to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) accumulation and autophagy arrest. NDUFS1 overexpression partially restores mROS overproduction, autophagosome accumulation, and growth inhibition induced by agrimol B, suggesting a cytotoxic role of agrimol B-induced autophagy arrest in HCC cells. Notably, agrimol B significantly enhances the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our study uncovers the anticancer mechanism of agrimol B in HCC involving the regulation of oxidative stress and autophagy, and suggests agrimol B as a potential therapeutic drug for HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mitocôndrias , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Indóis , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 218, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758395

RESUMO

The endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex binds dynactin as part of its noncanonical function, which is necessary for dynein-driven autophagosome transport along microtubules in neuronal axons. The absence of this AP-2-dependent transport causes neuronal morphology simplification and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms that lead to formation of the AP-2-dynactin complex have not been studied to date. However, the inhibition of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) enhances the transport of newly formed autophagosomes by influencing the biogenesis and protein interactions of Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), another dynein cargo adaptor. We tested effects of mTORC1 inhibition on interactions between the AP-2 and dynactin complexes, with a focus on their two essential subunits, AP-2ß and p150Glued. We found that the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin enhanced p150Glued-AP-2ß complex formation in both neurons and non-neuronal cells. Additional analysis revealed that the p150Glued-AP-2ß interaction was indirect and required integrity of the dynactin complex. In non-neuronal cells rapamycin-driven enhancement of the p150Glued-AP-2ß interaction also required the presence of cytoplasmic linker protein 170 (CLIP-170), the activation of autophagy, and an undisturbed endolysosomal system. The rapamycin-dependent p150Glued-AP-2ß interaction occurred on lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp-1)-positive organelles but without the need for autolysosome formation. Rapamycin treatment also increased the acidification and number of acidic organelles and increased speed of the long-distance retrograde movement of Lamp-1-positive organelles. Altogether, our results indicate that autophagy regulates the p150Glued-AP-2ß interaction, possibly to coordinate sufficient motor-adaptor complex availability for effective lysosome transport.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Complexo Dinactina , Lisossomos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Complexo 2 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Complexo Dinactina/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sirolimo/farmacologia
13.
J Cell Biol ; 223(8)2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775785

RESUMO

Autophagy is an important metabolic pathway that can non-selectively recycle cellular material or lead to targeted degradation of protein aggregates or damaged organelles. Autophagosome formation starts with autophagy factors accumulating on lipid vesicles containing ATG9. These phagophores attach to donor membranes, expand via ATG2-mediated lipid transfer, capture cargo, and mature into autophagosomes, ultimately fusing with lysosomes for their degradation. Autophagy can be activated by nutrient stress, for example, by a reduction in the cellular levels of amino acids. In contrast, how autophagy is regulated by low cellular ATP levels via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important therapeutic target, is less clear. Using live-cell imaging and an automated image analysis pipeline, we systematically dissect how nutrient starvation regulates autophagosome biogenesis. We demonstrate that glucose starvation downregulates autophagosome maturation by AMPK-mediated inhibition of phagophore tethering to donor membrane. Our results clarify AMPKs regulatory role in autophagy and highlight its potential as a therapeutic target to reduce autophagy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular
14.
Mol Cell ; 84(10): 1980-1994.e8, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759629

RESUMO

Aggregation of proteins containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats is the cytopathologic hallmark of a group of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). Huntingtin (Htt), the disease protein of HD, forms amyloid-like fibrils by liquid-to-solid phase transition. Macroautophagy has been proposed to clear polyQ aggregates, but the efficiency of aggrephagy is limited. Here, we used cryo-electron tomography to visualize the interactions of autophagosomes with polyQ aggregates in cultured cells in situ. We found that an amorphous aggregate phase exists next to the radially organized polyQ fibrils. Autophagosomes preferentially engulfed this amorphous material, mediated by interactions between the autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 and the non-fibrillar aggregate surface. In contrast, amyloid fibrils excluded p62 and evaded clearance, resulting in trapping of autophagic structures. These results suggest that the limited efficiency of autophagy in clearing polyQ aggregates is due to the inability of autophagosomes to interact productively with the non-deformable, fibrillar disease aggregates.


Assuntos
Amiloide , Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Proteína Huntingtina , Doença de Huntington , Peptídeos , Agregados Proteicos , Proteína Sequestossoma-1 , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/química , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloide/química , Amiloide/genética , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Animais , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 716: 150024, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701555

RESUMO

Macro-autophagy (autophagy hereafter) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process that has long been recognized as an intracellular mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis. It involves the formation of a membraned structure called the autophagosome, which carries cargo that includes toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. Autophagy is primarily considered and studied as a cell-autonomous mechanism. However, recent studies have illuminated an underappreciated facet of autophagy, i.e., non-autonomously regulated autophagy. Non-autonomously regulated autophagy involves the degradation of autophagic components, including organelles, cargo, and signaling molecules, and is induced in neighboring cells by signals from primary adjacent or distant cells/tissues/organs. This review provides insight into the complex molecular mechanisms governing non-autonomously regulated autophagy, highlighting the dynamic interplay between cells within tissue/organ or distinct cell types in different tissues/organs. Emphasis is placed on modes of intercellular communication that include secreted molecules, including microRNAs, and their regulatory roles in orchestrating this phenomenon. Furthermore, we explore the multidimensional roles of non-autonomously regulated autophagy in various physiological contexts, spanning tissue development and aging, as well as its importance in diverse pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegeneration. By studying the complexities of non-autonomously regulated autophagy, we hope to gain insights into the sophisticated intercellular dynamics within multicellular organisms, including mammals. These studies will uncover novel avenues for therapeutic intervention to modulate intercellular autophagic pathways in altered human physiology.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Humanos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo
16.
Mol Biol Cell ; 35(6): ar80, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598293

RESUMO

The actin cytoskeleton is essential for many functions of eukaryotic cells, but the factors that nucleate actin assembly are not well understood at the organismal level or in the context of disease. To explore the function of the actin nucleation factor WHAMM in mice, we examined how Whamm inactivation impacts kidney physiology and cellular proteostasis. We show that male WHAMM knockout mice excrete elevated levels of albumin, glucose, phosphate, and amino acids, and display structural abnormalities of the kidney proximal tubule, suggesting that WHAMM activity is important for nutrient reabsorption. In kidney tissue, the loss of WHAMM results in the accumulation of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane protein LC3, indicating an alteration in autophagy. In mouse fibroblasts and human proximal tubule cells, WHAMM and its binding partner the Arp2/3 complex control autophagic membrane closure and cargo receptor recruitment. These results reveal a role for WHAMM-mediated actin assembly in maintaining kidney function and promoting proper autophagosome membrane remodeling.


Assuntos
Actinas , Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Rim , Camundongos Knockout , Animais , Camundongos , Actinas/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Humanos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Polimerização , Fibroblastos/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Biol ; 223(7)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573225

RESUMO

Autophagy serves as a stress response pathway by mediating the degradation of cellular material within lysosomes. In autophagy, this material is encapsulated in double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes, which form from precursors referred to as phagophores. Phagophores grow by lipid influx from the endoplasmic reticulum into Atg9-positive compartments and local lipid synthesis provides lipids for their expansion. How phagophore nucleation and expansion are coordinated with lipid synthesis is unclear. Here, we show that Faa1, an enzyme activating fatty acids, is recruited to Atg9 vesicles by directly binding to negatively charged membranes with a preference for phosphoinositides such as PI3P and PI4P. We define the membrane-binding surface of Faa1 and show that its direct interaction with the membrane is required for its recruitment to phagophores. Furthermore, the physiological localization of Faa1 is key for its efficient catalysis and promotes phagophore expansion. Our results suggest a positive feedback loop coupling phagophore nucleation and expansion to lipid synthesis.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Ácidos Graxos , Macroautofagia , Autofagia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Retroalimentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 234, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: p66Shc, as a redox enzyme, regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and autophagy. However, the mechanisms by which p66Shc affects autophagosome formation are not fully understood. METHODS: p66Shc expression and its location in the trophoblast cells were detected in vivo and in vitro. Small hairpin RNAs or CRISPR/Cas9, RNA sequencing, and confocal laser scanning microscope were used to clarify p66Shc's role in regulating autophagic flux and STING activation. In addition, p66Shc affects mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) formation were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial function was evaluated by detected cytoplastic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). RESULTS: High glucose induces the expression and mitochondrial translocation of p66Shc, which promotes MAMs formation and stimulates PINK1-PRKN-mediated mitophagy. Moreover, mitochondrial localized p66Shc reduces MMP and triggers cytosolic mtDNA release, thus activates cGAS/STING signaling and ultimately leads to enhanced autophagy and cellular senescence. Specially, we found p66Shc is required for the interaction between STING and LC3II, as well as between STING and ATG5, thereby regulates cGAS/STING-mediated autophagy. We also identified hundreds of genes associated several biological processes including aging are co-regulated by p66Shc and ATG5, deletion either of which results in diminished cellular senescence. CONCLUSION: p66Shc is not only implicated in the initiation of autophagy by promoting MAMs formation, but also helps stabilizing active autophagic flux by activating cGAS/STING pathway in trophoblast.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos , Trofoblastos Extravilosos , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
19.
Microb Pathog ; 190: 106638, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574829

RESUMO

Autophagy plays an important role in the lifecycle of viruses. However, there is currently a lack of systematic research on the relationship between Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and autophagy. This study aims to investigate the impact of IBV on autophagy and the role of autophagy in viral replication. We observed that IBV infection increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, a marker of autophagy, decreased the expression of sequestosome 1, and led to elevated intracellular LC3 puncta levels. These findings suggest that IBV infection activates the autophagic process in cells. To investigate the impact of autophagy on the replication of IBV, we utilized rapamycin as an autophagy activator and 3-methyladenine as an autophagy inhibitor. Our results indicate that IBV promotes viral replication by inducing autophagy. Further investigation revealed that IBV induces autophagosome formation by inhibiting the mTOR-ULK1 pathway and activating the activity of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34), autophagy-related gene 14, and the Beclin-1 complex. VPS34 plays a crucial role in this process, as inhibiting VPS34 protein activity enhances cell proliferation after IBV infection. Additionally, inhibiting VPS34 significantly improves the survival rate of IBV-infected chicks, suppresses IBV replication in the kidney, and alleviates tracheal, lung, and kidney damage caused by IBV infection. In summary, IBV infection can induce autophagy by modulating the mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway and activating the VPS34 complex, while autophagy serves to promote virus replication.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Galinhas , Classe III de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Replicação Viral , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Animais , Classe III de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 270: 116345, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564826

RESUMO

Several generations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in clinic. However, emerging drug resistance mediated by new EGFR mutations or activations by pass, leads to malignant progression of NSCLC. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) have been utilized to overcome the drug resistance acquired by mutant EGFR, newly potent and selective degraders are still need to be developed for clinical applications. Herein, we developed autophagosome-tethering compounds (ATTECs) in which EGFR can be anchored to microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B) on the autophagosome with the assistance of the LC3 ligand GW5074. A series of EGFR-ATTECs have been designed and synthesized. Biological evaluations showed that these compounds could degrade EGFR and exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on certain NSCLC cell lines. The ATTEC 12c potently induced the degradation of EGFR with a DC50 value of 0.98 µM and a Dmax value of 81% in HCC827 cells. Mechanistic exploration revealed that the lysosomal pathway was mainly involved in this degradation. Compound 12c also exhibited promising inhibitory activity, as well as degradation efficiency in vivo. Our study highlights that EGFR-ATTECs could be developed as a new expandable EGFR degradation tool and also reveals a novel potential therapeutic strategy to prevent drug resistance acquired EGFR mutations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB , Mutação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos
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