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2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15363, 2024 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965389

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of insect-derived bioactive molecules as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents has shown promising results. Hymenopteran venoms, notably from Apis mellifera (honeybee) and Vespa orientalis (oriental wasp), were examined for the first time in an in vitro setting for their potential anti-COVID-19 activity. This assessment utilized an immunodiagnostic system to detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen titer reduction. Further analyses, including cytotoxicity assays, plaque reduction assays, and in silico docking-based screening, were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the most potent venom. Results indicated that bee and wasp venoms contain bioactive molecules with potential therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2.Nevertheless, the wasp venom exhibited superior efficacy compared to bee venom, achieving a 90% maximal (EC90) concentration effect of antigen depletion at 0.184 mg/mL, in contrast to 2.23 mg/mL for bee venom. The cytotoxicity of the wasp venom was assessed on Vero E6 cells 48 h post-treatment using the MTT assay. The CC 50 of the cell growth was 0.16617 mg/mL for Vero E6 cells. The plaque reduction assay of wasp venom revealed 50% inhibition (IC50) at a 0.208 mg/mL concentration. The viral count at 50% inhibition was 2.5 × 104 PFU/mL compared to the initial viral count of 5 × 104 PFU/mL. In silico data for the wasp venom revealed a strong attraction to binding sites on the ACE2 protein, indicating ideal interactions. This substantiates the potential of wasp venom as a promising viral inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting its consideration as a prospective natural preventive and curative antiviral drug. In conclusion, hymenopteran venoms, particularly wasp venom, hold promise as a source of potential therapeutic biomolecules against SARS-CoV-2. More research and clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results and investigate their potential for translation into innovative antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Venenos de Vespas , Células Vero , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/virologia , Venenos de Vespas/farmacologia , Venenos de Vespas/química , Venenos de Abelha/farmacologia , Venenos de Abelha/química , Egito , Abelhas , Vespas
3.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306411, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954720

RESUMO

Transperineal laser ablation is a minimally invasive thermo-ablative treatment for prostate cancer that requires the insertion of a needle for accurate optical fiber positioning. Needle insertion in soft tissues may cause tissue motion and deformation, resulting in tissue damage and needle positioning errors. In this study, we present a wasp-inspired self-propelled needle that uses pneumatic actuation to move forward with zero external push force, thus avoiding large tissue motion and deformation. The needle consists of six parallel 0.25-mm diameter Nitinol rods driven by a pneumatic actuation system. The pneumatic actuation system consists of Magnetic Resonance (MR) safe 3D-printed parts and off-the-shelf plastic screws. A self-propelled motion is achieved by advancing the needle segments one by one, followed by retracting them simultaneously. The advancing needle segment has to overcome a cutting and friction force, while the stationary needle segments experience a friction force in the opposite direction. The needle self-propels through the tissue when the friction force of the five stationary needle segments overcomes the sum of the friction and cutting forces of the advancing needle segment. We evaluated the prototype's performance in 10-wt% gelatin phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver tissue inside a preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner in terms of the slip ratio of the needle with respect to the phantom or liver tissue. Our results demonstrated that the needle was able to self-propel through the phantom and liver tissue with slip ratios of 0.912-0.955 and 0.88, respectively. The prototype is a promising step toward the development of self-propelled needles for MRI-guided transperineal laser ablation as a method to treat prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Agulhas , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Vespas/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Suínos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
4.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia, MULTIMEDIA-SMS-SP | ID: multimedia-13190

RESUMO

Folhedo informativo sobre o abelhas e vespas


Assuntos
Abelhas , Vespas , Hipersensibilidade a Veneno/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Folhetos
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 61, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although China has a long history of using insects as food and medicine and has developed numerous associated knowledge and practices, especially in its rural and mountainous areas, systematic surveys concerning this subject are limited. In-depth ethnobiological research is needed to compile a comprehensive database of edible and medicinal insects and record the associated knowledge of these food and medicinal resources. METHODS: Data on edible and medicinal insects and associated knowledge about them were collected by interviewing 216 local villagers in a mountainous territory in southeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. RESULTS: Local villagers used at least 16 edible and 9 medicinal insects, of which 4 wasp species were used in both entomophagy and medicinal practices. Parapolybia varia, Polistes olivaceus, and Anomala chamaeleon were newly recorded edible insects in China. The wasps, Euconocephalus sp., Gryllotalpa orientalis, and Cyrtotrachelus longimanus, were preferred and culturally important edible insects. Populations of Euconocephalus sp. and G. orientalis were reported to have substantially decreased in recent years. Wasps and a bamboo bee were used to treat rheumatism, while cockroaches and antlions were used to treat common cold symptoms in infants. Insect-related knowledge was positively correlated with the interviewees' age. CONCLUSIONS: Villagers have accumulated considerable local and traditional knowledge of entomophagy and entomo-therapeutic practices. However, this knowledge is in danger of being lost, which highlights the urgent need to document this information. Edible insects enrich local diets, and a more sustainable supply (such as through insect farming) could maintain local entomophagy practices. Medicinal insects are a part of local folk medicine, and pharmacological and chemical techniques could be applied to identify various biologically active substances in these insects.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , China , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Insetos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Adolescente , Vespas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e279850, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896727

RESUMO

The gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, poses a significant global threat to Eucalyptus cultivation, by causing substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to differentiate between resistant and susceptible genotypes by morphological characteristics using image analysis based on the damage caused by the gall wasp. In addition, consensus sequences derived from transposable elements (TEs) and the genome of Eucalyptus spp. Were identified by in silico analysis. Furthermore, another objective was to discriminate Eucalyptus genotypes in response to Leptocybe invasa by conducting molecular analyses involving transposable elements and inter simple sequence markers. For image analysis, the GroundEye ® system was used to collect images of 60 leaves from six genotypes, three of which were resistant and three susceptible. Eucalyptus spp. sequences were obtained from the GenBank database by in silico analysis and pairwise alignments with TE sequences were conducted using BLASTN. Multiple sequence alignment was performed with Clustal Omega, followed by the identification of conserved regions in Jalview. A motif signature was generated using Weblogo. For molecular characterization using ISSR markers and TEs, samples of young leaves were obtained from a total of 80 Eucalyptus seedlings, of which 50 were classified as resistant and 30 as susceptible to L. invasa. It was possible to distinguish gall wasp susceptible and resistant genotypes by image analysis. In silico analysis enabled the identification of conserved regions in the Eucalyptus spp. genome, which were associated with proteins involved in secondary metabolite production, e.g., terpenes, which play a role in the response to L. invasa. The discrimination capacity of TEs and ISSR primers was demonstrated and bands were generated that could be used to identify resistant genotypes. However, increasing the number of markers required to discriminate genotypes in both cases is suggested.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Vespas , Eucalyptus/genética , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Animais , Vespas/genética , Vespas/classificação , Resistência à Doença/genética , Simulação por Computador , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética
7.
Elife ; 132024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904661

RESUMO

The success of an organism depends on the molecular and ecological adaptations that promote its beneficial fitness. Parasitoids are valuable biocontrol agents for successfully managing agricultural pests, and they have evolved diversified strategies to adapt to both the physiological condition of hosts and the competition of other parasitoids. Here, we deconstructed the parasitic strategies in a highly successful parasitoid, Trichopria drosophilae, which parasitizes a broad range of Drosophila hosts, including the globally invasive species D. suzukii. We found that T. drosophilae had developed specialized venom proteins that arrest host development to obtain more nutrients via secreting tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), as well as a unique type of cell-teratocytes-that digest host tissues for feeding by releasing trypsin proteins. In addition to the molecular adaptations that optimize nutritional uptake, this pupal parasitoid has evolved ecologically adaptive strategies including the conditional tolerance of intraspecific competition to enhance parasitic success in older hosts and the obligate avoidance of interspecific competition with larval parasitoids. Our study not only demystifies how parasitoids weaponize themselves to colonize formidable hosts but also provided empirical evidence of the intricate coordination between the molecular and ecological adaptations that drive evolutionary success.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Drosophila , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/fisiologia , Drosophila/parasitologia , Pupa/parasitologia , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0306204, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941328

RESUMO

Niche evolution refers to the process by which species undergo changes in ecological interactions, as well as their ability to disperse over time. Our study focuses on the widely distributed neotropical genus of social wasps, Synoeca (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini). We use ecological niche modeling to investigate the niche evolution of this insects, to explore how species have evolved within and across distinct environmental boundaries, as well as to explore the overlap, equivalence, and similarity between their niches. Our analysis of Predicted Niche Occupancy reveals that species occupy heterogeneous niches in relation to temperature, precipitation, and altitude, similar to the patterns observed in the analysis of the evolutionary history of climate tolerances, which shows that species have evolved to occupy distinct niche ranges. In addition, our niche comparisons indicate that the species do not share similar niches with each other. All these results suggest that Phylogenetic Niche Conservatism may be playing a significant role as a process contributing to the allopatric pattern observed in this genus. This study represents the first investigation of niche evolution in Vespidae, providing valuable insights for future research into the evolutionary dynamics of insects.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Clima , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/fisiologia
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(6)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922129

RESUMO

Polyamines (PAs) are polycationic biogenic amines ubiquitously present in all life forms and are involved in molecular signaling and interaction, determining cell fate (e.g., cell proliferation, dif-ferentiation, and apoptosis). The intricate balance in the PAs' levels in the tissues will determine whether beneficial or detrimental effects will affect homeostasis. It's crucial to note that endoge-nous polyamines, like spermine and spermidine, play a pivotal role in our understanding of neu-rological disorders as they interact with membrane receptors and ion channels, modulating neuro-transmission. In spiders and wasps, monoamines (histamine, dopamine, serotonin, tryptamine) and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, acyl polyamines) comprise, with peptides and other sub-stances, the low molecular weight fraction of the venom. Acylpolyamines are venom components exclusively from spiders and a species of solitary wasp, which cause inhibition chiefly of iono-tropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and KA iGluRs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The first venom acylpolyamines ever discovered (argiopines, Joro and Nephila toxins, and philanthotoxins) have provided templates for the design and synthesis of numerous analogs. Thus far, analogs with high potency exert their effect at nanomolar concentrations, with high se-lectivity toward their ionotropic and ligand receptors. These potent and selective acylpolyamine analogs can serve biomedical purposes and pest control management. The structural modification of acylpolyamine with photolabile and fluorescent groups converted these venom toxins into use-ful molecular probes to discriminate iGluRs and nAchRs in cell populations. In various cases, the linear polyamines, like spermine and spermidine, constituting venom acyl polyamine backbones, have served as cargoes to deliver active molecules via a polyamine uptake system on diseased cells for targeted therapy. In this review, we examined examples of biogenic amines that play an essential role in neural homeostasis and cell signaling, contributing to human health and disease outcomes, which can be present in the venom of arachnids and hymenopterans. With an empha-sis on the spider and wasp venom acylpolyamines, we focused on the origin, structure, derivatiza-tion, and biomedical and biotechnological application of these pharmacologically attractive, chemically modular venom components.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poliaminas , Venenos de Aranha , Vespas , Animais , Poliaminas/química , Venenos de Aranha/química , Venenos de Aranha/toxicidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Aranhas
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(12)2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928098

RESUMO

Aphidius gifuensis is the dominant parasitic natural enemy of aphids. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of host recognition of A. gifuensis would improve its biological control effect. Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play a crucial role in insect olfactory systems and are mainly involved in host localization. In this study, a total of nine CSPs of A. gifuensis with complete open reading frames were identified based on antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AgifCSPs were mainly clustered into three subgroups (AgifCSP1/2/7/8, AgifCSP3/9, and AgifCSP4/5/6). AgifCSP2/5 showed high expression in the antennae of both sexes. Moreover, AgifCSP5 was found to be specifically expressed in the antennae. In addition, fluorescent binding assays revealed that AifCSP5 had greater affinities for 7 of 32 volatile odor molecules from various sources. Molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis results revealed that the residue at which AgifCSP5 binds to these seven plant volatiles is Tyr75. Behavior tests further confirmed that trans-2-nonenal, one of the seven active volatiles in the ligand binding test, significantly attracted female adults at a relatively low concentration of 10 mg/mL. In conclusion, AgifCSP5 may be involved in locating aphid-infested crops from long distances by detecting and binding trans-2-nonenal. These findings provide a theoretical foundation for further understanding the olfactory recognition mechanisms and indirect aphid localization behavior of A. gifuensis from long distances by first identifying the host plant of aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Proteínas de Insetos , Filogenia , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Feminino , Masculino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Receptores Odorantes/química , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Vespas/genética , Vespas/fisiologia
11.
Curr Biol ; 34(11): R547-R549, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834030

RESUMO

The Wolbachia strain that infects the parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa induces female-producing parthenogenesis. A new study shows that a Wolbachia-encoded gene has replaced the use of the ancestral wasp homologue that normally controls sexual reproduction, resulting in parthenogenesis.


Assuntos
Partenogênese , Vespas , Wolbachia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Vespas/microbiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Feminino , Reprodução
12.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 81, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829379

RESUMO

Koinobiont endoparasitoids regulate the physiology of their hosts through altering host immuno-metabolic responses, processes which function in tandem to shape the composition of the microbiota of these hosts. Here, we employed 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing to investigate whether parasitization by the parasitoid wasps, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmaed) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Psyttalia cosyrae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), induces gut dysbiosis and differentially alter the gut microbial (bacteria and fungi) communities of an important horticultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). We further investigated the composition of bacterial communities of adult D. longicaudata and P. cosyrae to ascertain whether the adult parasitoids and parasitized host larvae share microbial taxa through transmission. We demonstrated that parasitism by D. longicaudata induced significant gut perturbations, resulting in the colonization and increased relative abundance of pathogenic gut bacteria. Some pathogenic bacteria like Stenotrophomonas and Morganella were detected in both the guts of D. longicaudata-parasitized B. dorsalis larvae and adult D. longicaudata wasps, suggesting a horizontal transfer of microbes from the parasitoid to the host. The bacterial community of P. cosyrae adult wasps was dominated by Arsenophonus nasoniae, whereas that of D. longicaudata adults was dominated by Paucibater spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Parasitization by either parasitoid wasp was associated with an overall reduction in fungal diversity and evenness. These findings indicate that unlike P. cosyrae which is avirulent to B. dorsalis, parasitization by D. longicaudata induces shifts in the gut bacteriome of B. dorsalis larvae to a pathobiont-dominated community. This mechanism possibly enhances its virulence against the pest, further supporting its candidacy as an effective biocontrol agent of this frugivorous tephritid fruit fly pest.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tephritidae , Vespas , Animais , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/microbiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microbiota , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/parasitologia
13.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838190

RESUMO

Hymenoptera has some of the highest diversity and number of individuals among insects. Many of these species potentially play key roles as food sources, pest controllers and pollinators. However, little is known about the diversity and biology and ~80% of the species have not yet been described. Classical taxonomy based on morphology is a rather slow process but DNA barcoding has already brought considerable progress in identification. Innovative methods such as image-based identification and automation can further speed up the process. We present a proof of concept for image data recognition of a parasitic wasp family, the Diapriidae (Hymenoptera), obtained as part of the GBOL III project. These tiny (1.2-4.5mm) wasps were photographed and identified using DNA barcoding to provide a solid ground truth for training a neural network. Taxonomic identification was used down to the genus level. Subsequently, three different neural network architectures were trained, evaluated and optimised. As a result, 11 different genera of diaprids and one mixed group of 'other Hymenoptera' can be classified with an average accuracy of 96%. Additionally, the sex of the specimen can be classified automatically with an accuracy of >97%.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/genética , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Feminino , Classificação/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie , Masculino
14.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(4): 44, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839661

RESUMO

Species of Diolcogaster parasitize Lepidoptera pests of commercial plants. The diversity of this genus is high, but few species of Diolcogaster have been described. The description of a new Diolcogaster species provides information for the biological control using this insect. This study presents the description and key notes on the biology of a new Diolcogaster parasitoid wasp. This species was reared from a caterpillar of Hypercompe brasiliensis collected after feeding on a Gloxinia perennis plant important to floriculture. Two complementary identification analyzes were performed on Diolcogaster adult bodies. The first was the analyses of its external morphology and the second its molecular analysis (mitochondrial DNA). The morphological analysis defined the insect as a new species of Diolcogaster, named Diolcogaster joanesi sp. nov. A maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis partially confirmed the morphological analysis, placing D. joanesi within a cluster including a previously identified species (Diolcogaster choi) and seven other morphospecies. The proximity of D. joanesi to D. choi is discussed and an updated key for all New World species of the xanthaspis group is provided. Twenty-eight adult wasps were obtained (22 females and six males) out of 50 cocoons which larvae emerged from the caterpillar host. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of Diolcogaster in the Neotropics and its potential for the biological control of lepidopteran defoliators.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Especificidade da Espécie , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Vespas/classificação , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Filogenia , Larva , Feminino
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10803, 2024 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734771

RESUMO

The northern giant hornet Vespa mandarinia (NGH) is a voracious predator of other insect species, including honey bees. NGH's native range spans subtropical and temperate regions across much of east and southeast Asia and, in 2019, exotic populations of the species were discovered in North America. Despite this broad range and invasive potential, investigation of the population genomic structure of NGH across its native and introduced ranges has thus far been limited to a small number of mitochondrial samples. Here, we present analyses of genomic data from NGH individuals collected across the species' native range and from exotic individuals collected in North America. We provide the first survey of whole-genome population variation for any hornet species, covering this species' native and invasive ranges, and in doing so confirm likely origins in Japan and South Korea for the two introductions. We additionally show that, while this introduced population exhibited strongly elevated levels of inbreeding, these signatures of inbreeding are also present in some long-standing native populations, which may indicate that inbreeding depression alone is insufficient to prevent the persistence of NGH populations. As well as highlighting the importance of ongoing monitoring and eradication efforts to limit the spread of this species outside of its natural range, our data will serve as a foundational database for future genomic studies into introduced hornet populations.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Vespas , Animais , América do Norte , Vespas/genética , Genética Populacional , Genômica/métodos , Variação Genética , Endogamia , Genoma de Inseto
17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 14(7)2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734969

RESUMO

While clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technology has demonstrated remarkable promise as a gene-editing tool, its application in certain insects, such as the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, has been hindered by a lack of a tractable method for reagent delivery. Direct Parental (DIPA-) CRISPR recently emerged as a facile way to induce gene lesions because it involves adult injection with commercially available Cas9-sgRNA with no helper reagent. However, DIPA-CRISPR has so far been tested in only a few insects. Here, we have assessed the amenability of DIPA-CRISPR in N. vitripennis by targeting two eye pigmentation genes, cinnabar and vermilion, which function in the ommochrome pathway. Successful generation of lesions in both genes demonstrated the functionality of DIPA-CRISPR in N. vitripennis and its potential application to other genes, thereby expanding the range of insects suitable for this method. We varied two parameters, Cas9-sgRNA concentration and injection volume, to determine optimal injection conditions. We found that the larger injection volume coupled with either higher or lower reagent concentration was needed for consistent mutation production. However, DIPA-CRISPR yields an overall low mutation rate in N. vitripennis when compared to other tested insects, a characteristic that may be attributed to a proportionally low vitellogenic import efficiency in the jewel wasp. We discuss different factors that may be considered in determining when DIPA-CRISPR may be preferable over other reagent delivery methods.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas
18.
J Insect Physiol ; 155: 104646, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705455

RESUMO

Cotesia typhae is an eastern African endoparasitoid braconid wasp that targets the larval stage of the lepidopteran stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, a maize crop pest in Europe. The French host population is partially resistant to the Makindu strain of the wasp, allowing its development in only 40% of the cases. Resistant larvae can encapsulate the parasitoid and survive the infection. This interaction provides a very interesting frame for investigating the impact of parasitism on host cellular resistance. We characterized the parasitoid ovolarval development in a permissive host and studied the encapsulation process in a resistant host by dissection and histological sectioning compared to that of inert chromatography beads. We measured the total hemocyte count in parasitized and bead-injected larvae over time to monitor the magnitude of the immune reaction. Our results show that parasitism of resistant hosts delayed encapsulation but did not affect immune abilities towards inert beads. Moreover, while bead injection increased total hemocyte count, it remained constant in resistant and permissive larvae. We conclude that while Cotesia spp virulence factors are known to impair the host immune system, our results suggest that passive evasion could also occur.


Assuntos
Hemócitos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva , Mariposas , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/imunologia , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Mariposas/imunologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Insect Physiol ; 155: 104654, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796055

RESUMO

Thermal effects on photoperiodic time measurement and accumulation of inductive photoperiods have been studied in many insect species whereas the influence of temperature on the last step of the photoperiodic response, the induction of diapause, received less attention from researchers. We investigated thermal modification of the maternal photoperiodic response in Trichogramma telengai (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Even a single long-night photoperiod experienced by females of this minute egg parasitoid immediately before oviposition causes a substantial increase in larval diapause incidence in the progeny. This feature allows separation of the thermal effects on different steps of the diapause-inducing photoperiodic response. Laboratory experiments showed that the temperature of the last scotophase (when the final decisive photoperiodic time measurement occurs) caused an inverted U-shaped diapause-inducing response similar to that observed in some other long-day insects. The temperature of the last photophase (when progeny diapause is induced) had a positive linear effect that has not been reported for the induction of winter diapause in any long-day insect. Most probably, such a thermal response is not a specific seasonal adaptation but a direct consequence of the influence of temperature on the rate of metabolism.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Fotoperíodo , Temperatura , Animais , Feminino , Vespas/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802315

RESUMO

Wasp sting refers to a series of clinical syndromes caused by the venom in the tail poison sac of the poisonous bee when attacking the attacked body, mainly manifested as local skin damage, systemic allergic reaction and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) . Wasp venom can also act on the nervous system, and cause rare complications such as cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, epilepsy, encephalitis, and Parkinson's disease, which can seriously affect the prognosis. This review will elaborate the above complications for clinical reference.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Vespas , Animais , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Venenos de Vespas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia
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