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Magn Reson Chem ; 59(3): 237-246, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603513


An important step in the process of protein research by NMR is the assignment of chemical shifts. In the coat protein of IKe bacteriophage, there are 53 residues making up a long helix resulting in relatively high spectral ambiguity. Assignment thus requires the collection of a set of three-dimensional (3D) experiments and the preparation of sparsely labeled samples. Increasing the dimensionality can facilitate fast and reliable assignment of IKe and of larger proteins. Recent progress in nonuniform sampling techniques made the application of multidimensional NMR solid-state experiments beyond 3D more practical. 4D 1 H-detected experiments have been demonstrated in high-fields and at spinning speeds of 60 kHz and higher but are not practical at spinning speeds of 10-20 kHz for fully protonated proteins. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a nonuniformly sampled 4D 13 C/15 N-only correlation experiment performed at a moderate field of 14.1 T, which can incorporate sufficiently long acquisition periods in all dimensions. We show how a single CANCOCX experiment, supported by several 2D carbon-based correlation experiments, is utilized for the assignment of heteronuclei in the coat protein of the IKe bacteriophage. One sparsely labeled sample was used to validate sidechain assignment of several hydrophobic-residue sidechains. A comparison to solution NMR studies of isolated IKe coat proteins embedded in micelles points to key residues involved in structural rearrangement of the capsid upon assembly of the virus. The benefits of 4D to a quicker assignment are discussed, and the method may prove useful for studying proteins at relatively low fields.

Bacteriófago IKe/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/análise , Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Micelas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5493-5498, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819888


The filamentous bacteriophage IKe infects Escherichia coli cells bearing IncN pili. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the micrometer-long IKe viral particle at a resolution of 3.4 Å. The major coat protein [protein 8 (p8)] consists of 47 residues that fold into a ∼68-Å-long helix. An atomic model of the coat protein was built. Five p8 helices in a horizontal layer form a pentamer, and symmetrically neighboring p8 layers form a right-handed helical cylinder having a rise per pentamer of 16.77 Å and a twist of 38.52°. The inner surface of the capsid cylinder is positively charged and has direct interactions with the encapsulated circular single-stranded DNA genome, which has an electron density consistent with an unusual left-handed helix structure. Similar to capsid structures of other filamentous viruses, strong capsid packing in the IKe particle is maintained by hydrophobic residues. Despite having a different length and large sequence differences from other filamentous phages, π-π interactions were found between Tyr9 of one p8 and Trp29 of a neighboring p8 in IKe that are similar to interactions observed in phage M13, suggesting that, despite sequence divergence, overall structural features are maintained.

Bacteriófago IKe/ultraestrutura , Bacteriófago IKe/genética , Bacteriófago IKe/fisiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Montagem de Vírus
Mol Microbiol ; 84(6): 1124-38, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22591114


Filamentous phage use the two N-terminal domains of their gene-3-proteins to initiate infection of Escherichia coli. One domain interacts with a pilus, and then the other domain binds to TolA at the cell surface. In phage fd, these two domains are tightly associated with each other, which renders the phage robust but non-infectious, because the TolA binding site is inaccessible. Activation for infection requires partial unfolding, domain disassembly and prolyl isomerization. Phage IKe infects E. coli less efficiently than phage fd. Unlike in phage fd, the pilus- and TolA-binding domains of phage IKe are independent of each other in stability and folding. The site for TolA binding is thus always accessible, but the affinity is very low. The structures of the two domains, analysed by X-ray crystallography and by NMR spectroscopy, revealed a unique fold for the N-pilus-binding domain and a conserved fold for the TolA-binding domain. The absence of an activation mechanism as in phage fd and the low affinity for TolA probably explain the low infectivity of phage IKe. They also explain why, in a previous co-evolution experiment with a mixture of phage fd and phage IKe, all hybrid phage adopted the superior infection mechanism of phage fd.

Bacteriófago IKe/química , Bacteriófago IKe/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
Mol Microbiol ; 42(3): 821-34, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11722745


In pairs of adjacent genes co-transcribed on bacterial polycistronic mRNAs, translation of the first coding region frequently functions as a positive factor to couple translation to the distal coding region. Coupling efficiencies vary over a wide range, but synthesis of both gene products at similar levels is common. We report the results of characterizing an unusual gene pair, in which only about 1% of the translational activity from the upstream gene is transmitted to the distal gene. The inefficient coupling was unexpected because the upstream gene is highly translated, the distal initiation site has weak but intrinsic ability to bind ribosomes, and the AUG is only two nucleotides beyond the stop codon for the upstream gene. The genes are those in the filamentous phage IKe genome, which encode the abundant single-stranded DNA binding protein (gene V) and the minor coat protein that caps one tip of the phage (gene VII). Here, we have used chimeras between the related phage IKe and f1 sequences to localize the region responsible for inefficient coupling. It mapped upstream from the intercistronic region containing the gene V stop codon and the gene VII initiation site, indicating that low coupling efficiency is associated with gene V. The basis for inefficient coupling emerged when coupling efficiency was found to increase as gene V translation was decreased below the high wild-type level. This was achieved by lowering the rate of elongation and by decreasing the efficiency of suppression at an amber codon within the gene. Increasing the strength of the Shine-Dalgarno interaction with 16S rRNA at the gene VII start also increased coupling efficiency substantially. In this gene pair, upstream translation thus functions in an unprecedented way as a negative factor to limit downstream expression. We interpret the results as evidence that translation in excess of an optimal level in an upstream gene interferes with coupling in the intercistronic junction.

Bacteriófago IKe/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Genes Virais , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Bacteriófago IKe/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Capsídeo/genética , Capsídeo/metabolismo , DNA Intergênico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Virais/genética