Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 172: 116193, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301419

RESUMO

Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) is an African herb with traditional medical applications. Various pathogenic factors cause hepatic fibrosis and require novel treatment alternatives. Nanoformulation-based natural products can overcome the available drug problems by increasing the efficacy of natural products targeting disease markers. The current study investigated B. aegyptiaca methanolic extract using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and B. aegyptiaca/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared. In vivo, evaluation tests were performed to assess the curative effect of the successfully prepared B. aegyptiaca/chitosan nanoparticles. For 30 days, the rats were divided into six groups, typical and fibrosis groups, where the liver fibrosis groups received B. aegyptiaca extract, silymarin, chitosan nanoparticles, and B. aegyptiaca/chitosan nanoparticles daily. In the current investigation, phenolic molecules are the major compounds detected in B. aegyptiaca extract. UV showed that the prepared B. aegyptiaca /chitosan nanoparticles had a single peak at 280 nm, a particle size of 35.0 ± 6.0 nm, and a negative charge at - 8.3 mV. The animal studies showed that the synthetic B. aegyptiaca/chitosan nanoparticles showed substantial anti-fibrotic protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats when compared with other groups through optimization of biochemical and oxidative markers, improved histological changes, and modulated the expression of Col1a1, Acta2 and Cxcl9 genes, which manage liver fibrosis. In conclusion, the current research indicated that the prepared B. aegyptiaca/chitosan nanoparticles improved histological structure and significantly enhanced the biochemical and genetic markers of liver fibrosis in an animal model.


Assuntos
Balanites , Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Ratos , Animais , Balanites/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130061, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336324

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood sugar level due to a deficiency in insulin production and/or action. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) has been employed as a hypoglycemic medication. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many advantages like minimized drug dose, sustainable drug release, maximized bioavailability and delivery of drugs. The study aimed to synthesize novel chitosan (CS) NPs loaded with BA extract (BA Ex). The prepared NPs were examined in treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. The anti-diabetic efficiency was evaluated through measuring of levels of blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines. GC-MS, HPLC and ICP techniques showed the presence of numerous bioactive components that have an anti-diabetic effectiveness. BA Ex-CS NPs succeeded in treatment of diabetes; where, it increased insulin secretion, lowered both FBG and FTA levels and helped in neogenesis of pancreatic islets beta cells. The regenerative activity of BA Ex-CS NPs is attributed to its high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This antioxidant activity scavenged the generated free radicles that resulted from STZ administration. CS NPs raised the plant extract efficacy, prevented its degradation, and regulated the release of its components. The delivery of BA Ex bioactive components has been revolutionized by CS NPs.


Assuntos
Balanites , Quitosana , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nanopartículas , Ratos , Animais , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Estreptozocina , Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
3.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 33(3): 441-450, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37576166

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus is among the most prevalent and costly chronic diseases in the world. Unfortunately, immediate prospects for a cure are not available. We aimed to determine the in vivo antidiabetic activity, histologic, and biochemical effect of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit extract on alloxan-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were allotted into six groups (n=6). Group I was normal control. Group II was induced with diabetes but not treated.Groups III-V were induced with diabetes and treated with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg extracts while Group VI was treated with Metformin once daily for 14 days. Animals were euthanized, and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The liver, kidney, pancreas, and testis were excised and processed by the paraffin wax method. Result: Oral administration of BA extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced blood glucose, liver enzymes, and creatinine levels in diabetic animals. The extract also improved the body weights of diabetic animals and microscopic anatomy of the pancreas, testis, liver, and kidney parenchyma compared to the control. Conclusion: Balanites aegyptiaca phytochemicals reduced blood glucose level and improved the histology of the liver, kidney, pancreas, and testis. Further study is recommended to identify the phytochemicals and mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Balanites , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Aloxano/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Frutas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 165: 115265, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37541174

RESUMO

Phenytoin-induced liver injury (PHT ILII) is a serious condition that may necessitate discontinuation of the drug. This study investigates the mechanisms of PHT ILII and evaluates the protective effects of Balanites Aegyptiaca (BA) fruit extracts on the liver. We focus on the Nrf2/MAPK/NF-κB/Beclin-1 signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress and inflammation from drug-induced liver injury. Phytochemical analyses of BA fruit extracts (Bu-F and EA-F) are conducted. Molecular docking techniques explore the interaction between phenytoin (PHT) and the Nrf2/MAPK/NF-κB/Beclin-1 pathways. Thirty-six male rats are divided into Control, Bu-F, EA-F, PHT, Bu-F/PHT, and EA-F/PHT groups, and they are observed for 45 days. EA-F extract is rich in phenolics/flavonoids, while Bu-F extract mainly contains saponins.PHT ILII causes histological damage in liver tissues and affects Nrf-2, MAPK, TNF-α, IL-1ß, Mcp-1, Beclin-1, iNOS expression, and liver function markers (ALT, AST, ALP). However, EA-F/Bu-F extracts effectively improve the histological structure and significantly reduce biochemical/immunohistochemical parameters, restoring them to near-normal levels. EA-F extract is particularly effective.In conclusion, the Nrf2/MAPK /Beclin-1 pathways play a critical role in the development of PHT ILII. BA fruit extracts show promise as hepato-protective agents, with the EA-F extract demonstrating superior efficacy. These results lay the groundwork for new treatments for PHT ILII and drug-induced liver injuries.


Assuntos
Balanites , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Fenitoína/metabolismo , Fenitoína/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Balanites/química , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Frutas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo , Fígado , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo
5.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(2): 37-44, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224048

RESUMO

The utilization of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes, which include numerous growth factors, cytokines, and microRNAs, is the primary aspect of the novel MSC activity models. The current research aims to: (i) identify the morphology of exosomes; (ii) determine exosomes secreted into MSCs conditioned cell culture medium; and (iii) perform a comprehensive characterization of isolated exosomes and elucidate their protective role in the diabetic nephropathy animal model. Ultracentrifugation was performed by utilizing the culture supernatant of MSCs. Transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, as well as Western blot, were utilized for isolated exosome characterization. The purified exosomes were used for in vivo implantation in a diabetic nephropathy animal model. The present research was carried out on 70 adult male albino rats weighing 180 to 200 grams. Rats were classified into seven groups: Group I: negative control group; Group II: diabetic nephropathy group; Group III: Balanites therapeutic group; Group IV: Balanites + MSCs therapeutic group; Group V: Balanites + exosome therapeutic group; Group VI: MSCs therapeutic group; and Group VII: exosome therapeutic group. By the end of the study period, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the histology of pancreatic tissue were assessed. Isolated exosomes with sizes ranging from 30 to 150 nm demonstrated the typical cup-shaped morphology. Additionally, exosome criteria were demonstrated by the exosome surface proteins CD81 and CD63, which were expressed by exosome marker proteins. Treatment with exosomes along with Balanites induced a significant reduction in pancreatic MDA with a substantial elevation in pancreatic TAC. Furthermore, treatment with exosomes and Balanites demonstrated normal pancreatic parenchyma and pancreatic lobules with normal pancreatic acini and acinar cells. These findings strongly suggest that ultracentrifugation is the most efficient tool for isolating exosomes. Also, these findings demonstrated that Balanites and exosomes had synergistic effects on one another, with more potent renoprotective activities in rats.


Assuntos
Balanites , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Exossomos , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Células Acinares , Antioxidantes
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113510, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076597

RESUMO

Balanites aeqyptiaca (BA) seeds were toasted at 70 °C, milled and the oil expelled to resolve to meal which were defatted to resolve to defatted balanites aeqyptiaca (BA) protein meal and (BA) protein concentrate respectively. These were subjected to analysis using standard methods. There exist marked trend between defatted balanites aeqyptiaca protein meal, protein concentrate and incidences of diabetes. This work investigated the anti- diabetic effects of balanites aeqyptiaca defatted protein meal and concentrate supplemented diets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were fattened for two weeks with high fat diet (HFD) to introduce Hyperglycemia and then made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) and fed diets containing 5 % defatted balanites aeqyptiaca protein meal (DAPM) and 5 % balanites aeqyptiaca protein concentrate (APC) for 14 days. The effect of the diet on blood glucose, serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione transferase (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase activities were investigated. There was marked increase in the blood glucose, TBARS, pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glycosidase with corresponding decrease in serum GPx and GSH contents in diabetic rats control groups. These trends were however, reversed in diabetic rats fed diet supplemented with the balanites aeqyptiaca protein meals for 14 days. The meals from defatted and protein concentrate inhibit α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity in vivo. Thus, the anti-diabetes properties of the defatted meal and protein concentrate may be attributed to the influence of its constituent phytochemicals on starch digestion as well as endogenous enzymes activities. The study revealed that defatted aduwa meal and proteins concnentrate demonstrated potentials used as functional ingredients in food materials and could also increase income access of low resource populace.


Assuntos
Balanites , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Animais , Balanites/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 626, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, commonly known as desert date, is a thorny evergreen tree belonging to the family Zygophyllaceae and subfamily Tribuloideae that is widespread in arid and semiarid regions. This plant is an important source of food and medicines and plays an important role in conservation strategies for restoring degraded desert ecosystems. RESULTS: In the present study, we sequenced the complete plastome of B. aegyptiaca. The chloroplast genome was 155,800 bp, with a typical four-region structure: a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,562 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,102 bp, and inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 25,568 bp each. The GC content was 35.5%. The chloroplast genome of B. aegyptiaca contains 107 genes, 75 of which coding proteins, 28 coding tRNA, and 4 coding rRNA. We did not observe a large loss in plastid genes or a reduction in the genome size in B. aegyptiaca, as found previously in some species belonging to the family Zygophyllaceae. However, we noticed a divergence in the location of certain genes at the IR-LSC and IR-SSC boundaries and loss of ndh genes relative to other species. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree constructed from the complete chloroplast genome data broadly supported the taxonomic classification of B. aegyptiaca as belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family. The plastome of B. aegyptiaca was found to be rich in single sequence repeats (SSRs), with a total of 240 SSRs. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic data available from this study could be useful for developing molecular markers to evaluate population structure, investigate genetic variation, and improve production programs for B. aegyptiaca. Furthermore, the current data will support future investigation of the evolution of the family Zygophyllaceae.


Assuntos
Balanites , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Zygophyllaceae , Ecossistema , Filogenia
8.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(3): 270-281, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234018

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The use of Doxorubicin<sup>®</sup> (Doxo) in the treatment of different tumours is restricted due to its cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the protective effect of<i> Balanites aegyptiaca</i> extract against cardiotoxicity induced by Doxorubicin<sup>®</sup> in male rats. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Adult male rats (140-160) were parted into 6 groups (10 animals each) as follows: Group (1) Normal rats the control, group (2) Rats were administered BAE (200 mg kg<sup>1</sup>) orally for 4 weeks, group (3) Rats were treated IP with the anticancer drug (Doxorubicin<sup>®</sup>) at the dose of (0.5 mg kg<sup>1</sup>) for 4 weeks, group (4) Administrated orally with BAE in combination with Doxo injection for 4 weeks, group (5) Rats orally with BAE before intoxication with Doxo for 4 weeks and finally group (6) Animals post-administration of BAE for 4 weeks after intoxication with Doxo. After 4 weeks of injections. <b>Results:</b> Revealed that BAE succeeded to decline the Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, this was evidenced by the significant reduction of serum LDH, CK-MB, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 as well as cardiac MDA and nitric oxide levels coupled with marked improvement in serum LDL, PON1 as well as cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT. Moreover, the BAE induced prominent regeneration of the cardiac muscle. <b>Conclusion:</b> <i>Balanites aegyptiaca</i> extract may be a promising cardio-protector against Doxorubicin<sup>®</sup> toxicity mediated through their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Balanites , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
9.
Planta Med ; 88(3-04): 292-299, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144288

RESUMO

Balanites aegyptiaca is a wild plant species largely used in folk medicine and a priority fruit tree in West Africa. In Benin, its overexploitation for ethnoveterinary uses could lead to its rarity or extinction in the long term. In this study, we evaluate the possibilities of its substitution by other Zygophyllaceae species. This study was based on optimal defense theory, which distinguished 2 categories of plants: K-strategist species and r-strategist species. Phytochemical screening was carried out based on aqueous extracts of the leafy stems of B. aegyptiaca and Guaiacum officinale (K-strategist species) and Tribulus terrestris and Kallstroemia pubescens (r-strategist species) for the identification of chemical compounds. The phenolic compounds were quantified by quercetin and vanillin methods. The extracts were tested against 5 bacterial strains responsible for severe diarrhea in bovines. Our results indicated the presence of many phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponosides, and tannins. The diversity in secondary metabolites is higher for r-strategist than K-strategist species. The contents of total polyphenols ranged from 4.82 ± 0.05 to 41.84 mg GAE/g of extract. The flavonoid contents varied from 30.64 ± 0.35 to 57.11 ± 0.13 mg QE/g of extract and those of the tannins from 0.04 ± 0.00 to 0.06 ± 0.01 mg PE/mL. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains showed a significant dependence on the extracts. Of the species, K. pubescens showed a bactericidal activity on the majority of strains tested and thus could be a potential substitute for B. aegyptiaca in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.


Assuntos
Balanites , Zygophyllaceae , Animais , Antioxidantes , Balanites/química , Benin , Bovinos , Diarreia , Flavonoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Biol Futur ; 72(4): 409-420, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554493

RESUMO

In the present scenario, alternative energy sources are required to achieve the future economic prosperity where shortage of fossil fuels will be a limiting factor and hamper the global economic growth. Therefore, interest in biofuel is increasing continuously. The best way of sustainable development is fossil fuel supplementation with biodiesel to reduce the fossil fuel demand. Biodiesel is a clean burning, ester-based, oxygenated fuel derived from natural and renewable sources. Till now, majority of the people have worked on the biodiesel derived from edible oil. Instead of using edible oil, non-edible oil needs to be explored as feedstock for biofuel because half of the world's population is unable to afford the food oil as feedstock for fuel production. Looking at the significance of biodiesel and the resources of biofuel, in this paper, a comparative exhaustive study has been reported with for three important plants, namely Jatropha curcas, Pongemia pinnata and Balanites aegyptiaca. These plants were selected based on their biodiesel potential, availability, cultivation practices and general information available. The present study involves scientometric publications, comparison of fatty acid composition and biodiesel parameters. We have also compared climatic conditions for the growth of the plants, economic feasibility of biodiesel production and other ecological services. The study paves a way for sustainable solution to policy makers and foresters looking for selection of plant species as bioenergy resource.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/normas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Óleos de Plantas/análise , Balanites/química , Balanites/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biocombustíveis/provisão & distribuição , Jatropha/química , Jatropha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Millettia/química , Millettia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/biossíntese
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4186, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603004

RESUMO

Extraction of biosurfactants from plants is advantageous than from microbes. The properties and robustness of biosurfactant derived from the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca have been reported. However, the dark brown property of biosurfactant and lack of knowledge of its biocompatibility limits its scope. In the present work, the decolorization protocol for this biosurfactant was optimized using hydrogen peroxide. The hemolytic potential and biocompatibility based on cell toxicity and proliferation were also investigated. This study is the first report on the decolorization and toxicity assay of this biosurfactant. For decolorization of biosurfactant, 34 full factorial design was used, and the data were subjected to ANOVA. Results indicate that 1.5% of hydrogen peroxide can decolorize the biosurfactant most efficiently at 40 °C in 70 min at pH 7. Mitochondrial reductase (MTT) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays on M5S mouse skin fibroblast cells revealed that decolorized biosurfactant up to 50 µg/mL for 6 h had no significant toxic effect. Hemolysis assay showed ~ 2.5% hemolysis of human RBCs, indicating the nontoxic effect of this biosurfactant. The present work established a decolorization protocol making the biosurfactant chromatically acceptable. Biocompatibility assays confirm its safer use as observed by experiments on M5S skin fibroblast cells under in vitro conditions.


Assuntos
Balanites/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Tensoativos/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tensoativos/farmacologia
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 90: 104755, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549764

RESUMO

Microsporum gypseum is a keratinophilic fungi grouped under dermatophytes infecting skin, hair and nail portions in human and animals causing tinea corporis, tinea facei and tinea capitis. As both human and fungi are eukaryotes, the available drugs for treating dermatophytes produce some side effects due to drug interaction with human also. Apart from this, the gut microbiota has a very big role in the health of human which should not be affected by the drugs. Hence this study focused on finding a target which is unique and essential to M. gypseum and non-homologous to human and gut microbiota, non-homologous to human domain architecture, highly interacting with other proteins, sub-cellular localization of proteins and non-druggability analysis of the targets using subtractive proteomics approach which resulted with 3 novel drug targets from M. gypseum which were modeled using I-TASSER, refined by ModRefiner and validated by PROCHECK. Further these targets were docked with compounds identified through LC-MS of fractioned methanol extract of B. aegyptiaca fruit pulp using Glide module and the stability of the docked complex was analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation using Desmond module of Schrodinger. Cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside had better interaction with all the targets and Taurocholic acid had better result with ECCP which suggests the multi-targeting potency of these two compounds against M. gypseum which has to be confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Balanites/química , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteômica , Humanos , Proteoma
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14948, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917918

RESUMO

Drought and desertification are the major environmental constraints facing the Sahelian agro-ecosystems for decades. Assessing genetic diversity of native tree species is critical to assist ecosystems restoration efforts. Here we describe genetic diversity and structure of seven Balanites aegyptiaca L. natural populations distributed across the Sahelian-Saharan zone of Mauritania using 16 polymorphic ISSR primers. These generated 505 polymorphic bands. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from (0.13-0.29) with an average 0.23, marker index (MI) averaged 7.3 (range 3.3-10.3) and resolving power (RP) ranged from (4.53-14.6) with an average 9.9. The number of observed alleles (Na) ranged from (0.62-1.39), Effective number of alleles (Ne) varied from (1.26-1.37), Shannon's information index (I) ranged from (0.25-0.36). AMOVA analysis showed that 80% of the genetic variation was fined within populations, which is supported by a low level of genetic differentiation between population (GST = 0.21) and an overall estimate of gene flow among populations (Nm = 1.9). The dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the structure analysis divided the seven populations into two main clusters in which two populations from the Saharan zone were grouped. Our results provide baseline data for genetic conservation programs of this Sahelian neglected crop and with an important econ-ecological role.


Assuntos
Balanites/genética , Ecossistema , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , África do Norte , Mauritânia
14.
J Food Biochem ; 44(6): e13229, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250478

RESUMO

Balanites aegyptiaca L. is a multipurpose tree distributed in Africa and Middle East. Several parts of B. aegyptiaca have been suggested to have medicinal uses. So far the effect of ecological origin on the nutritional values and biological activities of B. aegyptiaca genotypes is rarely investigated. Further, metabolic profiling and assessment of the functional food value of B. aegyptiaca leaves are far from complete. In this study, biological activities and profiling of primary and secondary metabolites were investigated in the leaves of five B. aegyptiaca provenances collected from Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Interestingly, all provenances showed notable antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiprotozoal, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significant variability in the concentrations of individual sugars, organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, phenolics, and minerals among the provenances and these variations were provenance dependent. Medina provenance showed the heights diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and antifungal activities and was the most powerful against embryonic kidney adenocarcinoma and urinary bladder carcinoma cells. The highest inhibition against Escherichia coli and colon carcinoma cells was observed by Sudan and Cairo provenances. El-Kharga and Yemen provenances showed the greatest activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and hepatocellular and urinary bladder carcinoma. Therefore, leaves of B. aegyptiaca possess good nutritive and biological capacities and might have potential applications in the food and medical industries. However, the strength of such activities is significantly affected by the provenance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: According to the national Research Council (NRC) of United States, Balanites aegyptiaca L. is recognized among the 24 priority lost crops of Africa. B. aegyptiaca leaves contain considerable amounts of primary metabolites (e.g., sugars, EAAs, USFAs) and secondary (e.g., phenolic acids and flavonoids) metabolites, vitamins, and macro and microelements. The obvious existence of these nutritionally and medicinally related compounds supports the functional food value of B. aegyptiaca leaves. Moreover, the present results revealed that B. aegyptiaca is not only a foliage dietary plant, but also could be considered as a valuable source for neutraceuticals, which support its pharmacological value. So far, this is the first report to explore, in detail, the functional food value of B. aegyptiaca leaves by presenting a clear image about its metabolic profiling and biological activities, and how the provenance factor could affect these values.


Assuntos
Balanites , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais , Sudão
15.
Planta ; 251(1): 19, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781905

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Arabinogalactan protein content in both root extracellular trap and root exudates varies in three Sahelian woody plant species that are differentially tolerant to drought. At the root tip, mature root cap cells, mainly border cells (BCs)/border-like cells (BLCs) and their associated mucilage, form a web-like structure known as the "Root Extracellular Trap" (RET). Although the RET along with the entire suite of root exudates are known to influence rhizosphere function, their features in woody species is poorly documented. Here, RET and root exudates were analyzed from three Sahelian woody species with contrasted sensitivity to drought stress (Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia raddiana and Tamarindus indica) and that have been selected for reforestation along the African Great Green Wall in northern Senegal. Optical and transmission electron microscopy show that Balanites aegyptiaca, the most drought-tolerant species, produces only BC, whereas Acacia raddiana and Tamarindus indica release both BCs and BLCs. Biochemical analyses reveal that RET and root exudates of Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia raddiana contain significantly more abundant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) compared to Tamarindus indica, the most drought-sensitive species. Root exudates of the three woody species also differentially impact the plant soil beneficial bacteria Azospirillum brasilense growth. These results highlight the importance of root secretions for woody species survival under dry conditions.


Assuntos
Acacia/metabolismo , Balanites/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tamarindus/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo , Acacia/citologia , Acacia/ultraestrutura , Azospirillum/metabolismo , Balanites/citologia , Balanites/ultraestrutura , Forma Celular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Plântula/citologia , Tamarindus/citologia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 239: 111931, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055003

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile (Zygophyllaceae) is a perennial tree that is mostly found in Africa, south Asia and most desert environments. Decoctions of its stem barks are used in northern Nigeria for the treatment of ulcers and stomach issues. Other folkloric uses include treatment of wounds, malaria, dysentery, asthma, and fever. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the antiulcer activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiulcer activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Parameters such as mean ulcer indices and percentage ulcer inhibition were assessed in ethanol, indomethacin and acetic acid-induced ulcer models while gastric volume, pH, and titratable acidity were evaluated in the pylorus ligation ulcer model. RESULTS: The extract at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.01), dose dependent reduction in mean ulcer indices in the ethanol and indomethacin ulcer models. A significant dose dependent reduction in mean ulcer indices were also observed after three (p < 0.01) and seven (p < 0.001) days of treatment with the extract in acetic acid-induced ulcer model. In pylorus ligation model, the gastric secretion parameters (gastric volume, pH, and titratable acidity) showed no alteration in the different doses of the extract when compared to the control. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the aqueous stem bark extract of Balanites aegyptiaca possesses gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties and therefore not only provides scientific evidence for its folkloric use in the treatment of ulcers but also showed evidence that it may be used in the development of a new phytotherapeutic formulation for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Balanites , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético , Animais , Etanol , Indometacina , Ligadura , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta , Caules de Planta , Piloro/cirurgia , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 102: 1084-1091, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710525

RESUMO

SAPK-JNK pathway performs a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) is used as an anti-diabetic agent in folk medicine however its hypoglycemic mechanism is not fully elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of crude extract, butanol, and dichloromethane fractions from BA on the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK-JNK) pathway in experimental diabetic rats. Six groups of male Wistar rats were included: normal control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with crude, butanol or dichloromethane fraction from BA (50 mg/kg BW) and diabetic rats treated with gliclazide as a reference drug for one month. Our results suggested a protective role of treatment of diabetic rats with BA against oxidative stress-induced SAPK-JNK pathway. Moreover, BA treatment produced a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c, lactic acid, lipid profile, malondialdehyde levels and produced an increase in insulin, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, it decreased apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, protein 53 and increased insulin receptor substrate 1 in rat pancreas while it increased glucose transporter 4 in rat muscle. Analysis of BA extracts by LC-HRMS revealed the presence of different saponins with reported hypoglycemic effect. In conclusion, BA exerted hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insulinotropic and antioxidant effects. Additionally, it reduced apoptosis in pancreatic ß-cells and increased glucose uptake in muscle. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of BA is due to the inhibition of the SAPK-JNK pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Balanites/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Pâncreas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Secreção de Insulina , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(4): 727-732, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235047

RESUMO

Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, and Celtis toka browses were used to evaluate their anthelmintic effect on different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. To achieve this objective, various serial concentrations of each CT extract of the foliages were used to test adult motility, inhibition of egg hatchability, and larval development. The fodders were selected based on their multipurpose advantage and accessibility to use as fodder for livestock in the low lands of the Gambella region. The fastest and slowest adult motility rate was observed in 2-ml (4 min) and 0.125-ml dose of C. toka, respectively, which is better than that in ivermectin. Egg hatchability inhibition was observed with dose difference within species, but there is no difference between B. aegyptiaca and T. indica. The foliage extracts of the studied browses were observed to inhibit the larvae by 100% at 2 ml, which is similar to ivermectin. There is no significant difference observed in larvae development inhibition between the species and ivermectin (p > 0.05). CT extracts of studied plants have found to own significant anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. They could serve as anthelmintic economically and eco-friendly after further and series of in vivo experiments.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Haemonchus , Extratos Vegetais , Taninos , Árvores/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Balanites/química , Feminino , Larva , Óvulo , Tamarindus/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Ulmaceae/química
19.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184457, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880962

RESUMO

Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the central part where the current threat level is high due to overexploitation. In the same way, population-specific recommendations can be derived from the individual and combined threat maps of the other 15 food tree species. The approach can be easily transferred to other countries and can be used to analyze general and species specific threats at finer and more local as well as at broader (continental) scales in order to plan more selective and efficient conservation actions in time. The concept can be applied anywhere as long as appropriate spatial data are available as well as knowledgeable experts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Alimentos , Acacia , Adansonia , Anacardiaceae , Annona , Balanites , Bombax , Burkina Faso , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Olacaceae , Tamarindus
20.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1954-1961, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724331

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are traditionally known for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies proposed some mechanisms of action. However, clinical trials in human beings were never reported to date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the 70% ethanol extract of the pericarps of B. aegyptiaca (BE) within a nutritional intervention in elderly people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was used for metabolic profiling of BE which was incorporated in hard gelatine capsules (400 mg/day) and tested on 30 type 2 diabetes (T2D) Egyptian patients for 8 weeks. According to sex, age and body mass index participants were divided into two equivalent groups, placebo and treatment. RESULTS: Thirteen compounds were identified in BE using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis among which five steroidal saponins, seven phenolic compounds and a sterol glucoside. At the end of the 8-week treatment, the treated group showed 26.88% decrease in 2 h postprandial plasma glucose relative to 2.6% increase in the placebo group, while fasting plasma glucose was reduced to 10.3%. Treatment with BE capsules for 8 weeks produced significant reduction in the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9.0, 12.76 and 21.35%, respectively, with 29.8% increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were reduced by 42.6 and 43.3%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Administration of the BE capsules to T2D resulted in significant improvements in the glycaemic markers and the lipid profile, without adverse effects or hypoglycaemia.


Assuntos
Balanites , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Balanites/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...