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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233184

RESUMO

Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) bark is a commonly used remedy to treat gastrointestinal disorders, throat and skin infections, hemorrhages, and dysentery. It has also been previously reported that its methanol extracts possess antibacterial activity, which can be related to the richness of Quercus spp. extracts in phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and tannins. However, there is no information on the antifungal (including oomycete) properties of the bark from Q. ilex or its subspecies (ilex and ballota). In this work, we report the characterization of the aqueous ammonia extract of its bark by FTIR and GC-MS and the results of in vitro and ex situ inhibition tests against three phytopathogens. The main phytochemical components identified were inositols (19.5%), trans-squalene (13%), 4-butoxy-1-butanol (11.4%), gulopyranose (9.6%), lyxose (6.5%), 2,4-dimethyl-benzo[H]quinoline (5.1%), catechol (4.5%), and methoxyphenols (4.2%). The efficacy of the extract in controlling forest phytopathogens was tested in vitro against Fusarium circinatum (responsible for pitch canker of Pinus spp.), Cryphonectria parasitica (which causes chestnut blight), and Phytophthora cinnamomi (which causes 'root and crown rot' in a variety of hosts, including Castanea, conifers, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Juglans, Quercus, etc.), obtaining EC90 values of 322, 295, and 75 µg·mL-1, respectively, much lower than those attained for a commercial strobilurin fungicide (azoxystrobin). The extract was further tested ex situ against P. cinnamomi on artificially inoculated, excised stems of 'Garnem' almond rootstock, attaining complete protection at a dose of 782 µg·mL-1. The results suggest that holm oak bark extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds against invasive forest pathogens, including the oomycete that is causing its decline, the so-called 'seca' in Spain.


Assuntos
Ballota , Fungicidas Industriais , Phytophthora , Quercus , Quinolinas , 1-Butanol , Amônia , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Catecóis , Flavonoides , Florestas , Metanol , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Esqualeno , Estrobilurinas , Taninos
2.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235177

RESUMO

Ballota deserti (Noë) Jury (B. deserti) is a medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic medicine. The chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal properties of essential oils from B. deserti (EOBD) against drug-resistant microorganisms were examined in this work. Hydrodistillation was used to extract EOBD, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify its constituents. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were used to assess the antioxidant effect of EOBD. The disc diffusion agar and the microdilution tests were used in the assessment of the antibacterial properties of EOBD against clinically resistant pathogenic microorganisms. An in silico approach was used to evaluate the inhibitory potential of EOBD against NADPH oxidase. The yield of EOBD was 0.41%, and was primarily composed of linalool (37.82%), cineole (12.04%), and borneol (11.07%). EOBD had good antioxidant potency, with calculated values of 19.82 ± 1.14 µg/mL (DPPH), 64.78 ± 5.21 µg/mL (FRAP), 996.84 ± 20.18 µg EAA/ mg (TAC). Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by EOBD with inhibition zones ranging from 17.481.75 mm to 28.471.44 mm. EOBD exhibited MICs ranging from 10.78 g/mL to 22.48 g/mL when tested against bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Similarly, impressive antifungal activity was observed against fungal strains with inhibition zone widths ranging from 16.761.83 to 36.791.35 mm. Results of MICs assay against fungi showed that EOBD had MICs values ranging from 15.32 ± 1.47 to 23.74 ± 1.54 µg/mL. Docking results showed that thujone, o-cymene, and butanoic acid contained in EOBD possessed strong activity against NADPH oxidase, with glide scores of -5.403, -5.344, and -4.973 Kcal/mol, respectively. In light of these findings, the EOBD may be seen as a potential source of chemical compounds with significant biological capabilities that can be advantageous as natural antioxidants and develop an effective weapon against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ballota , Marrubium , Óleos Voláteis , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Cimenos , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Fungos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , NADPH Oxidases , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(4): 643-652, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742746

RESUMO

Within the Open Science project entitled 'Botanic Garden, factory of molecules', a multidisciplinary study approach was applied to Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., at the Ghirardi Botanic Garden (Toscolano Maderno, BS, Italy). Micromorphological and histochemical investigations were performed on the secreting structures of the vegetative and reproductive organs under light, fuorescence and electronic microscopy. Concurrently the characterization of the volatiles spontaneously emitted from leaves and flowers were examined. Four trichome morphotypes were identified: peltate and short-stalked, medium-stalked and long-stalked capitate trichomes, each with a specific distribution pattern. The histochemical analysis was confirmed using ultrastructural observations, with the peltates and long-stalked capitates as the main sites responsible for terpene production. The head-space characterization revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated both in leaves and flowers, with γ-muurolene, ß-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol as the most abundant compounds. Moreover, a comparison with literature data concerning the ecological roles of the main compounds suggested their dominant roles in defence, both at the leaf and flower level. Hence, we correlated the trichome morphotypes with the production of secondary metabolites in an attempt to link these data to their potential ecological roles. Finally, we made the obtained scientific knowledge available to visitors of the Botanic Garden through the realization of new labelling dedicated to B. acetabulosa that highlights the 'invisible', microscopic features of the plant.


Assuntos
Ballota , Flores , Itália , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Folhas de Planta , Tricomas
4.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(21): 127498, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818604

RESUMO

Hispanolone is a furolabdane diterpene isolated from Ballota hispanica, whose natural product chemistry has been summarized and updated here, including several aspects associated with the isolation, structure determination, hemisynthesis, total synthesis, and pharmacology, and related hispanolone diterpenoids that have attracted the interest of different laboratories from diverse perspective and expertise in the last forty-two years.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Conformação Molecular
5.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 869-910, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216581

RESUMO

The 2 genera Ballota and Otostegia, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, are closely related taxonomically and found mainly in the Mediterranean area, Middle East, and North Africa. Since ancient times, they have been largely employed in traditional medicine for their biological properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, insecticidal, anti-malaria, etc. Phytochemical investigations of Ballota and Otostegia species have revealed that diterpenoids are the main constituents of the genera. A large number of flavonoids and other metabolites were also identified. This review, covering literature from 1911 up to 2018, includes traditional uses, chemical profiles (both of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites), and biological properties of all the taxa of these 2 genera studied to date.


Assuntos
Ballota , Lamiaceae , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ballota/química , Ballota/metabolismo , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(6): 2203-2209, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175790

RESUMO

The study was done to check the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. These activities were then compared with the heavy metals toxicity of different parts, which plants accumulate in different concentrations in different parts. In in-vitro antileishmanial results ethanolic extract, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions in roots of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth showed antileishmanial activity. The ethanol, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction in stem revealed inhibition of amastigote form of leishmania. The ethanolic extract, chloroform, and n-butanol fraction in leaves showed inhibition of leishmanial parasite. In heavy metals study, Chromium was above permissible value in all parts except in leaves. Nickel was above WHO limit in roots. Cadmium and lead were beyond permissible limits in entire plant parts. Results revealed that different parts of the plant have different inhibition properties. So each part of plant should be checked for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal assay separately. It is concluded that various metals accumulates with miscellaneous concentrations in different plant parts.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ballota/toxicidade , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 31(4): 436-444, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189840

RESUMO

Three Ballota species, Ballota undulata, Ballota saxatilis and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida, were investigated for their cytotoxicity against two human cancer cells, hepatoma HepG2 cell line and breast cancer MCF-7 cell line, and for their antioxidant activity. The chemical composition of essential oils was studied by GC and GC-MS. Sesquiterpenes were the main constituents. The most antiproliferative essential oil against HepG2 cells was B. undulata with a percentage of inhibition of 81.36 ± 3.54 at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, while against MCF-7 cells essential oil from B. saxatilis was the most active with a percentage of inhibition of 24.18 ± 1.13 at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH test for all the oils. B. undulata showed the highest antiradical effect, with IC50 value of 529.7 ± 37.4 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 13(6): 782-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144646

RESUMO

The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Ballota/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise por Conglomerados , Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 72(4): 769-75, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647634

RESUMO

Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ballota , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
10.
Nat Prod Commun ; 9(7): 1015-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25230517

RESUMO

The present study reports the results of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Ballota nigra L. ssp foetida (Lamiaceae) collected at flowering and fruiting times, as well as their in vitro antifungal activity against nine plant pathogenic fungi. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their antifungal activity using the agar dilution method, and also MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) and MFCs (minimum fungicidal concentrations) were determined. The major compounds identified in the flowering and fruiting aerial parts oils respectively were beta-caryophyllene (22.6% and 21.8%), caryophyllene oxide (18.0% and 20.5%) and germacrene-D (16.5 and 13.1%). The oils showed in vitro antifungal activity against some species of Fusarium, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria solani. Our study indicates that the oil of B. nigra ssp foetida could be used as a control agent for plant pathogenic fungi in natural formulations.


Assuntos
Ballota/química , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Óleos de Plantas/química , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 321803, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054139

RESUMO

The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Ballota/química , Metais Pesados/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Nat Prod Commun ; 7(2): 149-50, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22474939

RESUMO

Two new ballonigrin type lactone diterpenoids, named ballonigrin lactone A and B, have been isolated from the roots of Ballota limbata. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based on spectroscopic {IR, 1H- and 3C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY} and EI-MS data.


Assuntos
Ballota/química , Diterpenos/química , Lactonas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Pharm Biol ; 49(6): 627-32, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21554006

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ballota limbata Benth. (Lamiaceae) (syn, Otostegia limbata Hook.f.) is a species grown in the North West Frontier Province and the lower hills of West Punjab, Pakistan. Ballota species are renowned for their antispasmodic, antiulcer, diuretic, vermifuge, and especially sedative effects. However, little is known about the biological activity of B. limbata. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of antitussive activity and safety profile of dried B. limbata extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole air-dried plants were partitioned with various solvents and the butanol fraction was subjected to antitussive evaluation using a sulfur dioxide (SO(2))-induced cough model in mice. Codeine and dextromethorphan were used as positive control. Safety profile of the testing material was established using standard toxicity tests. RESULTS: B. limbata extract inhibited cough provoked by SO(2) gas in mice in a dose-dependent manner. The extract exhibited maximum protection against SO(2)-induced cough after 60 min of administration. B. limbata offered maximum cough suppressive effects, that is, number of coughs during 60 min was 11.66 ± 1.2 (mean ± SEM), after s.c. administration of 800 mg/kg, as compared with codeine 10 mg/kg, s.c., dextromethorphan 10 mg/kg, s.c., and saline showing a frequency of cough of 11.75 ± 1.18, 12.25 ± 0.83, and 46.25 ± 1.52, respectively. LD(50) value of B. limbata was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses and the extract has been well-tolerated at higher doses. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the extract of B. limbata has shown strong cough suppressive effect in mice without yielding any notable toxicity.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos/toxicidade , Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ballota/química , Codeína/uso terapêutico , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Dextrometorfano/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Paquistão
14.
J Med Food ; 13(6): 1537-43, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21091260

RESUMO

The ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of 16 Ballota species (Family Lamiaceae)-Ballota acetabulosa, Ballota antalyanse, Ballota cristata, Ballota glandulosissima, Ballota inaequidens, Ballota larendana, Ballota latibracteolata, Ballota macrodonta, Ballota nigra ssp. anatolica, B. nigra ssp. foetida, B. nigra ssp. nigra, B. nigra ssp. uncinata, Ballota pseudodictamnus ssp. lycia, Ballota rotundifolia, Ballota saxatilis ssp. brachyodonta, and B. saxatilis subsp. saxatilis-were screened for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical quenching, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion-chelating capacity at 1mg/mL. Hispanolone, a major diterpene found in the Ballota genus, was also tested in the same manner. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and AlCl(3) reagents, respectively. The extracts showed insignificant quenching activity against DPPH radical, but they had moderate antioxidant activity (0.597 ± 0.03 to 1.342 ± 0.01) in the ferric-reducing test compared to chlorogenic acid (the reference compound) (3.618 ± 0.01). All of the extracts (ranging from 65.1 ± 0.64% to 96.3 ± 0.09%) and hispanolone (97.31 ± 0.30%) exerted a remarkable ferrous ion-chelating effect. The highest total phenol (gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid (quercetin equivalent) contents were found in the ethyl acetate extract of B. glandulosissima (393.7 ± 3.03 and 140.6 ± 1.97 mg/g of extract, respectively). Therefore, Ballota species could be a good source of natural preservatives in foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Flavonoides/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Antioxidantes/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Concentração Osmolar , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes , Turquia
15.
Nat Prod Commun ; 4(4): 585-8, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19476011

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Ballota nigra L. ssp foetida obtained from the flowering aerial parts was analyzed by GC/MS. From the 37 identified constituents of the oil, beta-caryophyllene (20.0%), germacrene D (18.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (15.0%) were the major components. The oil was active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as against three Candida species.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Med Food ; 12(2): 435-41, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19459749

RESUMO

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the roots, stems, and leaves of Ballota nigra, growing in Serbia, was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Kovats indices, mass spectra, and standard compounds were used to identify a total of 115 individual compounds. The plant produces two types of essential oils. Oils derived from stems and leaves were sesquiterpene rich (78.17% and 88.40%, respectively), containing principally beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and alpha-humulene, present in appreciable amounts. In contrast, oil derived from the root was dominated by p-vinylguiacol (9.24%), borneol (7.51%), myrtenol (7.13%), trans-pinocarveol (5.22%), pinocarvone (4.37%), 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal (4.32%), and p-cymen-8-ol (4.30%). Essential oil obtained from the roots was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial species and one fungi.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Óleos de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas , Caules de Planta , Sérvia , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 64(2): 135-40, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19455424

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the amount of total phenolics of the methanol extracts of Ballota rotundifolia L. and Teucrium chamaedrys C. Koch. In the case of antimicrobial activity tests, polar sub-fractions of the methanol extracts of plant species exhibited weakest antimicrobial activity when compared with the non-polar ones. While, non-polar sub-fraction of B. rotundifolia showed moderate activity against A. lwoffii, C. perfringens and the yeasts, T. chamaedrys performed excellent activity pattern against all of the tested microorganisms. The sub-fractions were also screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary tests, namely DPPH free radical-scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Non-polar extracts of the plant species remained inactive in both test systems. On the other hand polar extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities. In DPPH system, free radical scavenging effect of T. chamaedrys was measured as 18.00 +/- 1.42 microg.mg(-1). It is extremely important to point out that, polar sub-fraction of T. chamaedrys is found as effective as the positive control BHT. Non-polar sub-fraction of T. chamaedrys found to have the highest total phenolic amount (97.12 +/- 1.28 microg/mg). Results obtained from this experiment confirm the relationship between the amount of phenolics and biological activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ballota/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Teucrium/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antifúngicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Turquia
18.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 11(4): 638-42, 2008 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18817140

RESUMO

The objectives of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of Ballota undulata (300 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) on the reproductive system after administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats for two time periods 4 and 12 weeks. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two treatment and two control groups of 10 rats each. The two treated groups received 15 mg kg(-1) b.wt. of Ballota undulata for two periods of 4 and 12 weeks. Female rats were allowed mating with males after treatment. Several pregnancy parameters were investigated including: total number of pregnant rats, body weight and reproductive organ weight, number of implantation sites, number of resorption sites and number of viable fetuses. The significance of these results was calculated using student's t and Chi-square tests. Exposure to Ballota undulata for 4 weeks did not have significant effects on most parameters investigated. However, a slight decrease in the relative ovarian and embryo weights was observed. Administration of Ballota undulata for 12 weeks significantly reduced the percentage of pregnancies and the number of implantation sites when compared with controls. In addition, a decrease in ovarian weights and in viable fetuses' number was also observed. Histological sections of ovaries of female treated with Ballota undulata were found to have congested blood vessels in cortical and medullary regions. We also noted the arrestment of developing follicles at primary and secondary stages in addition to presence of degenerative areas and hypercellullarity in medulla. Long term treatment with Ballota undulata might lead to diversified negative effects on fertility and pregnancy in female rats.


Assuntos
Ballota/toxicidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Prenhez/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 11(8): 1169-72, 2008 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18819560

RESUMO

The aim of to study the effect of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract on lipid profile on Rabbits. The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement 400 mg/kg/body weight/day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil) at dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) body weight/day. During the overall period of the experiment blood was collected and serum was analyzed for lipid profile. Animals were sacrificed; the heart and the liver were collected and kept at -20 degrees C until assayed. Biochemical analysis of blood serum and tissue (liver and heart muscle) level were made for cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. In addition blood serum was analyzed further for HDL-Cholesterol. All the results were statistically analyzed using students t-test. Hypolipidaemic nature of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract was studied in hyperlipidaemic Rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal by administration of Ballota undulata. Serum cholesterol levels dropped from 940.7 to 230.41 (75.55%) and further to 119.2 (87.32%) by the end of the experiment. Similarly, phospholipids and triglycerides levels were observed to be also reduced. The tissues lipids profiles of liver and heart muscle showed similar changes in those noticed in serum lipids. Ballota undulata possesses active hypolipidaemic constituents.


Assuntos
Ballota/metabolismo , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/farmacologia , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
20.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 28(4): 473-6, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17627272

RESUMO

Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats.


Assuntos
Ballota , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Albinismo/genética , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Mutantes , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Troponina I/sangue
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