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1.
Food Chem ; 447: 139002, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513486

RESUMO

Microplastic (MPs) pollution is a current global concern that is affecting all environmental compartments and food sources. In this work, anthropogenic particles occurrence (MPs and natural and synthetic cellulosic particles), have been determined in 73 beverages packed in different containers. Overall, 1521 anthropogenic particles were found, being the lowest occurrence in water samples (7.2 ± 10.1 items·L-1) while beer had the highest (95.5 ± 91.8 items·L-1). Colourless/white particles were the most detected followed by blue and red colours. The highest mean size was 783 ± 715 µm in soft drinks. Cellulosic, both natural and semisynthetic particles, were the composition mostly found but regarding plastic polymers, it was polyester. Phenoxy resin particles from the can coatings were also identified in all metal containers which indicates that leaching from the packaging may be happening. The total estimated daily intake were 0.077 and 0.159 items·kg-1 body weight (b.w.)·day-1 for children and adult population, respectively.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Bebidas Gaseificadas
2.
Water Environ Res ; 96(2): e10997, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385894

RESUMO

Polymeric membranes have garnered great interest in wastewater treatment; however, fouling is known as their main limitation. Therefore, the blending of hydrophilic nanoparticles in polymeric membranes' structure is a promising approach for fouling reduction. Herein, a hydrophilic boehmite-tannic acid-graphene quantum dot (BM-TA-GQD) nanoparticle was synthesized and blended in a polyethersulfone polymeric membrane in different percentages. The fabricated membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, water contact angle, porosity measurement, and antibacterial and antifouling properties. Surface SEM images of the modified membranes showed good dispersion of nanoparticles up to 0.5 wt%, which resulted in hydrophilicity and pure water flux enhancement. Based on AFM images, the mean roughness (Sa) of the fabricated membranes decreased from 2.07 to 0.84 nm for the bare and optimum membranes, respectively. In terms of performance, increasing the nanoparticle percentages up to 0.5 wt% resulted in the flux recovery ratio developing from 44.58% for the bare membrane to 71.35% for the 0.5 wt% BM-TA-GQD/PES membrane (optimum membrane). The antibacterial property of fabricated membranes was studied against biologically treated soft drink industrial wastewater (BTSDIW) as a bacterial source. The results showed that the turbidity of solutions containing permeated wastewater from the modified membranes (0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt% of BM-TA-GQD) was lower than that obtained from the unmodified membrane. These results confirmed the antibacterial properties of fabricated membranes. Finally, the optimal membrane (0.5 wt% BM-TA-GQD) was examined for post-treatment of the BTSDIW. An effluent COD of 13 mg/L and turbidity of 2 NTU showed a successful performance of the filtration process. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Ultrafiltration PES membranes were modified by different loadings of BM-TA-GQD. Hydrophilicity improvement was achieved by adding BM-TA-GQD nanoparticles. Expansion of size and number of macro-voids in modified membranes was confirmed. Membrane roughness was reduced in the BM-TA-GQD blended membranes. The optimum membrane was efficient in COD and turbidity removal.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio , Óxido de Alumínio , Grafite , Polímeros , Polifenóis , Pontos Quânticos , Sulfonas , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Água
3.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e85, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although some studies have examined the association between eating behaviour and elevated blood pressure (EBP) in adolescents, current data on the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and EBP in adolescents in Yunnan Province, China, are lacking. SETTING: Cluster sampling was used to survey freshmen at a college in Kunming, Yunnan Province, from November to December. Data on SSB consumption were collected using an FFQ measuring height, weight and blood pressure. A logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between SSB consumption and EBP, encompassing prehypertension and hypertension with sex-specific analyses. PARTICIPANTS: The analysis included 4781 college students. RESULTS: Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were detected in 35·10 % (1678/4781) and 39·34 % (1881/4781) of patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, tea beverage consumption was associated with elevated SBP (OR = 1·24, 95 % CI: 1·03, 1·49, P = 0·024), and carbonated beverage (OR = 1·23, 95 % CI: 1·04, 1·45, P = 0·019) and milk beverage (OR = 0·81, 95 % CI: 0·69, 0·95, P = 0·010) consumption was associated with elevated DBP in college students. Moreover, fruit beverage (OR = 1·32, 95 % CI: 1·00, 1·75, P = 0·048) and milk beverage consumption (OR = 0·69, 95 % CI: 0·52, 0·93, P = 0·014) was associated with elevated DBP in males. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that fruit and milk beverage consumption was associated with elevated DBP in males, and no association was observed with EBP in females.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Estudantes
4.
Nutr Bull ; 49(1): 82-95, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288678

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate how the availability of food in the household environment is associated with a daily intake of regular and diet soft drinks in European children, considering BMI status. This cross-sectional study utilised baseline data from 12 211 schoolchildren participating in the Feel4Diabetes European lifestyle modification intervention. Sociodemographics, soft drink intake and household food availability data were collected using parent-completed questionnaires. Anthropometry was recorded, and children were classified into BMI categories according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis controlled for children's sex, mother's BMI, and educational level, frequent household availability of fruit juice (sugar added), regular soft drinks and salty snacks compared to less frequent were positively associated with daily regular soft drink intake in children, regardless of BMI group (ORs range 1.59-6.69). Conversely, frequent availability of fruit juice (no added sugar) was inversely related to regular soft drink intake in both BMI groups, as was the availability of fresh fruit in the overweight/obesity group, and the availability of diet soft drinks in the underweight/normal-weight (ORs range 0.31-0.54). In conclusion, habitual household availability of selected energy-dense foods/beverages was positively associated with a daily intake of regular soft drinks in European children, regardless of BMI status. Contrastingly, household availability of fresh fruit, fruit juice (no added sugar) and diet soft drinks were inversely associated with regular soft drink intake. Programmes focusing on reducing children's soft drink intake should consider reducing the availability of sugar-added beverages in the household food environment and encouraging water consumption, as a practical, healthier alternative suggestion.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Dieta , Criança , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade , Açúcares
5.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e51, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) (announced in March 2016; implemented in April 2018) aims to incentivise reformulation of soft drinks to reduce added sugar levels. The SDIL has been applauded as a policy success, and it has survived calls from parliamentarians for it to be repealed. We aimed to explore parliamentary reaction to the SDIL following its announcement until two years post-implementation in order to understand how health policy can become established and resilient to opposition. DESIGN: Searches of Hansard for parliamentary debate transcripts that discussed the SDIL retrieved 186 transcripts, with 160 included after screening. Five stages of Applied Thematic Analysis were conducted: familiarisation and creation of initial codebooks; independent second coding; codebook finalisation through team consensus; final coding of the dataset to the complete codebook; and theme finalisation through team consensus. SETTING: The United Kingdom Parliament. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. RESULTS: Between the announcement (16/03/2016) - royal assent (26/04/2017), two themes were identified 1: SDIL welcomed cross-party 2: SDIL a good start but not enough. Between royal assent - implementation (5/04/2018), one theme was identified 3: The SDIL worked - what next? The final theme identified from implementation until 16/03/2020 was 4: Moving on from the SDIL. CONCLUSIONS: After the announcement, the SDIL had cross-party support and was recognised to have encouraged reformulation prior to implementation. Lessons for governments indicate that the combination of cross-party support and a policy's documented success in achieving its aim can help cement the resilience of it to opposition and threats of repeal.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Impostos , Humanos , Reino Unido , Política de Saúde , Açúcares
6.
Health Econ ; 33(4): 604-635, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104309

RESUMO

This paper studies how negative emotions like stress, anxiety, and boredom can affect unhealthy food consumption. Using the Wuhan lockdown as an external shock, we examine the changes in food consumption in a city that was not in lockdown. We applied the difference-in-differences method to a large scanner dataset from a retail monopoly in China. Our findings reveal that negative emotions induced by the pandemic lockdown significantly elevated consumer spending on unhealthy food items such as crisps, sugary beverages, regular soda, and low-alcohol beverages. Notably, the effect of unhealthy food consumption was more pronounced among younger and wealthier demographics. Triggering factors, like information about confirmed new deaths and infections as well as proximity to local hospitals, were found to strongly influence the consumption of unhealthy foods. Overall, the lockdown's impact extended beyond short-term increases in snack consumption to substantial increases in overall dietary and nutritional intake.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Emoções
7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(1): 79-89, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of psychotropic substances in childhood has been associated with both impulsivity and other manifestations of poor executive function as well as escalation over time to use of progressively stronger substances. However, how this relationship may start in earlier childhood has not been well explored. Here, we investigated the neurobehavioral correlates of daily caffeinated soda consumption in preadolescent children and examined whether caffeinated soda intake is associated with a higher risk of subsequent alcohol initiation. METHODS: Using Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study data (N = 2,092), we first investigated cross-sectional relationships between frequent caffeinated soda intake and well-known risk factors of substance misuse: impaired working memory, high impulsivity, and aberrant reward processing. We then examined whether caffeinated soda intake at baseline predicts more alcohol sipping at 12 months follow-up using a machine learning algorithm. RESULTS: Daily consumption of caffeinated soda was cross-sectionally associated with neurobehavioral risk factors for substance misuse such as higher impulsivity scores and lower working memory performance. Furthermore, caffeinated soda intake predicted a 2.04 times greater likelihood of alcohol sipping after 12 months, even after controlling for rates of baseline alcohol sipping rates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that previous linkages between caffeine and substance use in adolescence also extend to younger initiation, and may stem from core neurocognitive features thought conducive to substance initiation.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cafeína , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e077059, 2023 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in household purchases of drinks 1 year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series. PARTICIPANTS: Households reporting their purchasing to a market research company (average weekly n=22 091), March 2014 to March 2019. INTERVENTION: A two-tiered tax levied on soft drinks manufacturers, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g sugar/100 mL (high tier) are taxed at £0.24/L, drinks with ≥5 to <8 g sugar/100 mL (low tier) are taxed at £0.18/L. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative differences in the volume of, and amount of sugar in, soft drinks categories, all soft drinks combined, alcohol and confectionery purchased per household per week 1 year after implementation. RESULTS: In March 2019, compared with the counterfactual, purchased volume of high tier drinks decreased by 140.8 mL (95% CI 104.3 to 177.3 mL) per household per week, equivalent to 37.8% (28.0% to 47.6%), and sugar purchased in these drinks decreased by 16.2 g (13.5 to 18.8 g), or 42.6% (35.6% to 49.6%). Purchases of low tier drinks decreased by 170.5 mL (154.5 to 186.5 mL) or 85.8% (77.8% to 93.9%), with an 11.5 g (9.1 to 13.9 g) reduction in sugar in these drinks, equivalent to 87.8% (69.2% to 106.4%). When all soft drinks were combined irrespective of levy tier or eligibility, the volume of drinks purchased increased by 188.8 mL (30.7 to 346.9 mL) per household per week, or 2.6% (0.4% to 4.7%), but sugar decreased by 8.0 g (2.4 to 13.6 g), or 2.7% (0.8% to 4.5%). Purchases of confectionery and alcoholic drinks did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with trends before the SDIL was announced, 1 year after implementation, volume of all soft drinks purchased combined increased by 189 mL, or 2.6% per household per week. The amount of sugar in those drinks was 8 g, or 2.7%, lower per household per week. Further studies should determine whether and how apparently small effect sizes translate into health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18042742.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Impostos , Açúcares , Reino Unido , Bebidas
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2209, 2023 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its numerous health benefits, consumers' daily water consumption is below recommend levels while soft drink consumption remains high. Previous research has shown that the degree to which drinks are cognitively represented in terms of consumption and enjoyment (i.e., through simulations of consumption and reward) predicts desire and intake. Here, we examined whether simulation-enhancing advertisements that frame water in terms of consumption and reward change cognitive representations and increase motivation for a fictitious bottled water. METHODS: In three pre-registered online experiments (Nexp1 = 984; Nexp2 = 786; Nexp3 = 907), UK participants viewed three advertisements that either highlighted the rewarding consumption experience of water (e.g., "Refresh all your senses with this smooth, cool water"; simulation-enhancing ads), the health consequences of drinking water (e.g., "This water takes care of your health"; health-focused ads), or control ads. We assessed cognitive representations of the bottled water with a semantic feature production task, and we coded the words used as consumption and reward features or positive long-term health consequences features. We assessed motivation through ratings of the attractiveness of the water (Exp. 1 only), desire to drink it, and willingness to pay for it (WTP). RESULTS: In line with our hypotheses, participants represented the bottled water more in terms of consumption and reward after viewing simulation-enhancing advertisements, and more in terms of positive long-term health consequences after viewing health-focused advertisements. There was no direct effect of advertisement condition on motivation ratings. However, significant indirect effects showed that simulation-enhancing advertisements increased desire and WTP through the proportion of consumption and reward features, whereas health-focused advertisements increased motivation through an increase in the proportion of positive long-term health consequences features. The effects through consumption and reward were stronger. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with research suggesting that the experience of immediate reward from drinking water underlies intake. Public health interventions should emphasize the enjoyment of drinking water, rather than the long-term health benefits.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Motivação , Humanos , Publicidade , Saúde Pública , Bebidas Gaseificadas
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2286, 2023 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle change plays a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). In recent years, diet soft drinks that emphasize "zero sugar and zero calories" have become all the rage, but whether diet soft drink consumption is associated with MASLD is not clear. METHODS: This study included data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) in 2003-2006. The assessment of MASLD status primarily relied on the Fatty Liver Index (FLI). Weighted multiple Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between diet soft drink consumption and MASLD. Additionally, mediation analysis was performed to examine the mediating effect of body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: A total of 2,378 participants were included in the study, among which 1,089 individuals had MASLD, and the weighted prevalence rate was 43.64%. After adjusting for variables related to demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic syndrome, excessive diet soft drink consumption (the "always" frequency) remained significantly associated with the occurrence of MASLD (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 1.36-2.89, P = 0.003). It was estimated that 84.7% of the total association between diet soft drink consumption and MASLD was mediated by BMI (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive diet soft drink consumption was associated with the occurrence of MASLD. BMI may play a mediating role in the association between diet soft drink consumption and MASLD.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Hepatopatias , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Dieta , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 36(5): 1407-1414, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37869916

RESUMO

Date-rape drugs given to victims through drinks without their knowledge in drug-facilitated sexual assaults and thefts (money, property and body organs), are important threats for the public. Detection in beverage residues gains importance, since some of them can be quickly eliminated from the body, till the victim understands what he/she has experienced, goes to the hospital and gives a urine sample for analysis. Here, date-rape drugs; ketamine, thiopental, phenobarbital, zolpidem, phenytoin and zopiclone were analyzed simultaneously in 1.00mL caffeine-based carbonated beverage residue, through direct injection, using a modified, economical emergency first-step screening method with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (elution time: 11 minutes). Screening power of the method was qualitatively observed in sour cherry juice, sweet soda and beer with some additional experiments. Caffeine in caffeine-based carbonated beverage could also be detected simultaneously. LODs and LOQs were between 0.02-1.79 and 0.08-5.60µgmL-1. Repeatability and reproducibility values were <9.91%. HorRat values were between 0.184-0.500. As the first screening and quantitative study on the simultaneous analysis of these drugs in a beverage, it's important for solving the crimes committed using drugs in caffeine-based carbonated beverage residues found at the crime scene, when the use of these drugs is suspected after anamnesis and inspection.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Tiopental , Feminino , Humanos , Zolpidem , Fenitoína , Cafeína , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fenobarbital , Bebidas Gaseificadas
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 26(12): 3112-3121, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37781771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a school-based education intervention on the consumption of fruit, vegetables and carbonated soft drinks among adolescents. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Eight secondary schools from Dhaka, Bangladesh, participated in this trial and were randomly allocated to intervention (n 160) and control groups (n 160). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 students from 8th to 9th grades participated and completed the self-reported questionnaires at baseline, and at 8 and 12 weeks. The intervention included weekly classroom-based nutrition education sessions for students and healthy eating materials for students and parents. Repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effects of the intervention. RESULTS: Daily fresh fruit intake was more frequent in the intervention (26 %) compared to the control group (3 %) at 12 weeks (p = 0·006). Participants from the intervention group also reported a significantly (P < 0·001) higher (49 %) proportion of fresh vegetable intake compared to the control group (2 %) at 12 weeks. Frequency of daily carbonated soft drinks intake decreased (25 %) in the intervention group at 12 weeks compared to baseline, while it remained unchanged in the control group; the interaction effect was observed significant (P = 0·002). CONCLUSION: Our school-based education intervention increased the daily frequency of fresh vegetables and fruit intake and decreased carbonated soft drink consumption among adolescents in the intervention group. There is a need for scaling up the intervention to engage students and empower them to develop healthy dietary habits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Humanos , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Alimentar
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 8)2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sugar taxes threaten the business models and profits of the food and beverage industry (F&BI), which has sought to avert, delay or influence the content of health taxes globally. Mexico introduced a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in 2014 and other regulatory measures to improve population diets. This paper examines how policy networks emerged within and affected the development and implementation of the Mexican SSB tax. METHODS: This qualitative study analyses 31 interviews conducted with key stakeholders involved in the soda tax policy process and 145 documents, including grey literature and peer-reviewed literature. The policy network approach was used to map contacts, interconnections, relationships and links between the state, civil society and commercial actors involved in the SSB tax. These findings were used to examine the responsiveness, participation and accountability of the soda tax policy formulation. RESULTS: Complex interconnections were identified between state and non-state actors. These included advisory relationships, financial collaborations and personal connections between those in high-level positions. Relationships between the government and the F&BI were not always disclosed. International organisations and academics were identified as key financial or technical supporters of the tax. Key governance principles of participation, responsiveness and accountability were undermined by some of these relationships, including the participation of non-state actors in policy development and the powerful role of the F&BI in evaluation and monitoring. CONCLUSION: This case study exemplifies the importance of links and networks between actors in health policymaking. The F&BI influence endangers the primary aim of the SSB tax to protect health. The identified links highlight the normalisation of connections among actors with competing aims and interests toward health, thereby jeopardising attempts to tackle obesity rates.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos , Humanos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , México/epidemiologia , Políticas
14.
Food Res Int ; 173(Pt 1): 113365, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803662

RESUMO

Photolytic transformation of aspartame - a widely used artificial sweetener - under the simulated sunlight was studied for the first time. The experiments were conducted in pH range of 2.5 - 7.0 and in eight soft drinks available in the market. The highest degradation rate in the tested buffered solutions was observed under the neutral pH conditions. Irradiation of the soft drinks resulted in significantly (up to tenfold) faster degradation of aspartame, regardless of its initial concentration in the beverage. Such considerable acceleration of decomposition, not reported for aspartame so far, was ascribed to influence of the co-occurring ingredients, which can act as the photosensitizers. These findings indicate that some formulations may be particularly unfavorable in the context of aspartame photostability. Qualitative analysis of the studied processes revealed formation of six phototransformation products including three previously not described. In silico estimation of toxicity showed that some of the identified photoproducts, including the novel phenolic derivatives, may be more harmful than the parent compound. Taking into account relatively extensive formation of those products in the soft drinks, such finding may be particularly important from the food safety point of view.


Assuntos
Aspartame , Edulcorantes , Aspartame/análise , Edulcorantes/toxicidade , Edulcorantes/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Bebidas/análise
15.
Food Res Int ; 173(Pt 2): 113441, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803767

RESUMO

Preserving the sensory characteristics of reformulated products is crucial for a successful market launch. This underscores the need for precise measurement of consumer perceptions regarding sensory differences and preferences. One approach to assess these aspects is through the utilization of the reminder-preference test, an affective difference-preference test employing the A-Not A with the reminder (A-Not AR) test design. This test measures sensory differences and preferences by employing a consolidated d' index rooted in signal detection theory and Thurstonian modeling. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the reminder-preference test in measuring the degree of sensory differences and interpreting their relevance concerning consumer preference. To achieve this, the test was compared with both the A-Not AR difference test and the 2-alternative choice (2-AC) preference test. A lemon-lime-flavored carbonated drink and two types of reformulated samples were tested. Young female adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each took one of the following three tests: the reminder-preference test, the reminder test of A-Not AR, or the 2-AC preference test. The reference framing in the reminder-preference and reminder tests was preceded by subjects watching the product's advertisement to assist them in framing evaluative criteria. This would also facilitate memorizing the perception of the reference product. Test sensitivity in reminder-preference matched reminder and 2-AC tests for sensory differences and preferences. Affective framing enhanced sensitivity to sensory differences resulting in a higher d' value of the sensory difference than the preference. From the results, it was possible to interpret that the measured sensory differences did not affect consumer preference. The test also illuminated brand marketing effects on preferences through branded reference comparison. Thus, the reminder-preference test shows potential as an efficient sensory method to measure sensory differences and the preference of consumers, while concurrently measuring the effects of marketing on the consumers. Therefore, it can assist in making efficient business decisions regarding product reformulations.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Paladar , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comércio
16.
Nutrients ; 15(19)2023 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37836455

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption remains a major target for interventions to treat severe obesity in children. Understanding how total energy consumption is divided among different types of beverages remains unclear. This study retrospectively examined how the consumption of beverage calories (kcal) from 100% fruit juice and SSBs, and body mass index, assessed as a percent of the 95th sex- and age-specific percentile (%of 95BMI), changed during the treatment of children with obesity aged 2-18 years. Treatment was provided by an integrative multi-disciplinary team, comprising a physician, a dietician/ nutritionist and a behavioralist employing motivational interviewing and a small change approach to promote improved sustainable health habits and induce a net negative energy balance. The sample included 155 patients, with 341 visits. The median age was 11 years, 60% were girls, and there was a median follow-up of 3.1 months. At baseline, the median %of 95BMI was 135 and the median kcal/day intake was 436 from juice and 263 from SSB. For each additional 100 kcal consumed/day from SSB and juice, the %of 95BMI increased by 1.4 percentage points. In the follow-up, each additional month was associated with 7 fewer kcal/day from SSB and juice combined, with a 0.5 percentage point increase in %of 95BMI. Children in this treatment program consumed fewer calories from SSB over time, although the %of 95BMI did not decrease. SSBs other than soda accounted for the majority of beverage kcal intake, therefore potentially providing a targeted direction for interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Ingestão de Energia , Sacarose na Dieta
17.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1126569, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37808982

RESUMO

Background: As a primary source of added sugars in the US diet, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is presumed to contribute to obesity prevalence and poor oral health. We systematically synthesized and quantified evidence from US-based natural experiments concerning the impact of SSB taxes on beverage prices, sales, purchases, and consumption. Methods: A keyword and reference search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EconLit from the inception of an electronic bibliographic database to Oct 31, 2022. Meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled effect of soda taxes on SSB consumption, prices, passthrough rate, and purchases. Results: Twenty-six natural experiments, all adopting a difference-in-differences approach, were included. Studies assessed soda taxes in Berkeley, Oakland, and San Francisco in California, Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, Boulder in Colorado, Seattle in Washington, and Cook County in Illinois. Tax rates ranged from 1 to 2 ¢/oz. The imposition of the soda tax was associated with a 1.06 ¢/oz. (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90, 1.22) increase in SSB prices and a 27.3% (95% CI = 19.3, 35.4%) decrease in SSB purchases. The soda tax passthrough rate was 79.7% (95% CI = 65.8, 93.6%). A 1 ¢/oz. increase in soda tax rate was associated with increased prices of SSBs by 0.84 ¢/oz (95% CI = 0.33, 1.35). Conclusion: Soda taxes could be effective policy leverage to nudge people toward purchasing and consuming fewer SSBs. Future research should examine evidence-based classifications of SSBs, targeted use of revenues generated by taxes to reduce health and income disparities, and the feasibility of redesigning the soda tax to improve efficiency.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Impostos , Humanos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bebidas , Dieta
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 33(6): 1095-1101, 2023 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries have sought to incentivise soft drinks manufacturers to reduce sugar in their products as part of efforts to address a growing prevalence of obesity. Are their policies effective? METHODS: Using a difference-in-differences design, we compared trends in the sugar content of 10 695 new sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) launched between 2010 and 2019 in six European markets, including the UK and France (taxes designed to incentivise reformulation), the Netherlands (policy based on voluntary agreements to reduce sugar), Germany, Italy and Spain (no national policies). RESULTS: The announcement in 2016 and adoption in 2018 of the UK tax led to yearly reductions in average sugar content of 17% (95% CI: 15-19%) to 31% (13-48%) between 2016 and 2019, compared to 2015, while the 2018 French tax produced a 6% (95% CI: 5-7%) sugar reduction only in 2018, compared to 2017, shortly after it was redesigned to provide a stronger incentive for reformulation. Voluntary agreements implemented in the Netherlands in 2014 led to an 8% (95% CI: 4-13%) sugar reduction only in 2015, compared to 2013. CONCLUSION: The analysis supports the conclusions that sugar reductions in new SSBs have been greater in countries that have adopted specific policies to encourage them; a sugar-based tax design encourages more sugar reductions than a volume-based tax design; the tax rate and the amount of the tax reduction from switching to the next lower tier in a sugar-based tax design may be critical to incentivize reformulation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Açúcares , Humanos , Impostos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Gaseificadas
19.
Nutrients ; 15(18)2023 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764728

RESUMO

Food insecurity is a stressor associated with adverse health outcomes, including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Our study tests the hypothesis that other socioeconomic vulnerabilities may magnify this effect using cross-sectional data from the 2017 New York City (NYC) Kids Survey. Households providing an affirmative response to one or both food security screener questions developed by the US Department of Agriculture were coded as households with low food security. The number of sodas plus other SSBs consumed was standardized per day and categorized as 1 = none, 2 = less than one, and 3 = one or more. We tested the joint effect of low food security with chronic hardship, receipt of federal aid, and immigrant head of household on a sample of n = 2362 kids attending kindergarten and beyond using ordinal logistic regression and accounting for the complex survey design. Only having a US-born parent substantially magnified the effect of low household food security on SSB consumption (OR = 4.2, 95%CI: 2.9-6.3, p < 0.001) compared to the reference group of high household food security with an immigrant parent. The effect of low food security on SSB consumption among NYC children warrants intersectional approaches, especially to elucidate US-based SSB norms in low-food-security settings.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Humanos , Criança , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Segurança Alimentar , Bebidas/análise
20.
Nutrients ; 15(18)2023 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764854

RESUMO

At present, energy surplus and micronutrient deficiency coexist in preschool children in China. The low intake of dairy products accompanied by an increased consumption of soft drinks in this age group reveals some of the reasons for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of key micronutrients in preschool children by quantifying the dietary nutritional gap before and after simulating the use of dairy products instead of equal amounts of soft drinks. In the cross-sectional dietary intake survey of infants and young children in China (2018-2019), 676 preschool children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected. Four days of dietary data were collected through an online diary for simulation. The individual intake of soft drinks was substituted at a corresponding volume by soymilk, cow's milk, or formulated milk powder for preschool children (FMP-PSC). In these three models, the simulated nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacy or surplus were compared with the actual baseline data of the survey. The results of this study indicated that all three models made the nutrient intakes of this group more in line with the recommendations. For the whole population, the replacement of soymilk improved the intake of zinc (from 4.80 to 4.85 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 836.82 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 213.92 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), and vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 122.79 µg dietary folate equivalent/d); the simulation of cow's milk improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 330.85 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.87 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 833.62 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 215.12 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.67 µg/d); and the substitution of FMP-PSC improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 332.32 mg/d), iron (from 9.91 to 9.36 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.96 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 828.71 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 217.93 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 118.80 µg RA dietary folate equivalent/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.70 µg/d). Therefore, correct nutritional information should be provided to parents and preschool children. In addition to changing the consumption behavior of soft drinks, it is also necessary to have a diversified and balanced diet. When necessary, the use of food ingredients or nutritional fortifiers can be encouraged.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Laticínios , Micronutrientes , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Colecalciferol , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático , Ácido Fólico , Vitamina A , Vitaminas , Criança , Leite , Dieta
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