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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6595-6604, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573735

RESUMO

Meaningful interpretation of U isotope measurements relies on unraveling the impact of reduction mechanisms on the isotopic fractionation. Here, the isotope fractionation of hexavalent U [U(VI)] was investigated during its reductive mineralization by magnetite to intermediate pentavalent U [U(V)] and ultimately tetravalent U [U(IV)]. As the reaction proceeded, the remaining aqueous phase U [containing U(VI) and U(V)] systematically carried light isotopes, whereas in the bicarbonate-extracted solution [containing U(VI) and U(V)], the δ238U values varied, especially when C/C0 approached 0. This variation was interpreted as reflecting the variable relative contribution of unreduced U(VI) (δ238U < 0‰) and bicarbonate-extractable U(V) (δ238U > 0‰). The solid remaining after bicarbonate extraction included unextractable U(V) and U(IV), for which the δ238U values consistently followed the same trend that started at 0.3-0.5‰ and decreased to ∼0‰. The impact of PIPES buffer on isotopic fractionation was attributed to the variable abundance of U(V) in the aqueous phase. A few extremely heavy bicarbonate-extracted δ238U values were due to mass-dependent fractionation resulting from several hypothesized mechanisms. The results suggest the preferential accumulation of the heavy isotope in the reduced species and the significant influence of U(V) on the overall isotopic fractionation, providing insight into the U isotope fractionation behavior during its abiotic reduction process.


Assuntos
Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Urânio , Bicarbonatos , Isótopos , Fracionamento Químico
2.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 158, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592363

RESUMO

Groundwater, a predominant reservoir of freshwater, plays a critical role in providing a sustainable potable water and water for agricultural and industry uses in the In Salah desert region of Algeria. This research collected 82 underground water samples from Albian aquifers to assess water quality and identify hydrogeochemical processes influencing mineralization. To achieve this objective, various methods were employed to evaluate water quality based on its intended uses. The drinking water quality index utilized revealed the water potability status, while the indicators of irrigation potability were employed to evaluate its quality for agricultural purposes. Additionally, an assessment of groundwater susceptibility to corrosion and scaling in an industrial context was conducted using several indices, e.g., Langelier index, Larson-Skold index, Ryznar index, chloride-sulfate mass ratio, Puckorius index, aggressiveness index, and the Revelle index. The findings of this study revealed that the groundwater quality for consumption fell into four categories: good (2.44%), fair (29.27%), poor (65.85%), and non-potable (2.44%). Concerning agricultural irrigation, the indexical results indicated that 15.85% of the waters exhibited adequate quality, while 84.15% were questionable for irrigation. Calculations based on various corrosion and scaling evaluation indices showed that most wells were prone to corrosion, with a tendency for calcium bicarbonate deposit formation. Furthermore, the hydrochemical study identified three water types: Na-Cl (53.66%), Ca-Mg-Cl (37.80%), and Ca-Cl (8.54%) waters. Analyses of correlation matrices, R-type clustering, factor loadings, Gibbs diagrams, scatterplots, and chloro-alkaline indices highlighted that the chemistry of the Albian groundwater is fundamentally impacted by a number of processes such as silicate weathering, evaporite dissolution, ionic exchange, and anthropogenic inputs, that played impactful role in the aquifer's water chemistry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Água Subterrânea , África do Norte , Agricultura , Bicarbonatos , Cloretos
3.
Pflugers Arch ; 476(4): 457-465, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581526

RESUMO

Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) differs from transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC) in many aspects. In particular, the activity of sAC is not regulated by G-proteins but by the prevailing bicarbonate concentrations inside cells. Therefore, sAC serves as an exquisite intracellular pH sensor, with the capacity to translate pH changes into the regulation of localization and/or activity of cellular proteins involved in pH homeostasis. In this review, we provide an overview of literature describing the regulation of sAC activity by bicarbonate, pinpointing the importance of compartmentalization of intracellular cAMP signaling cascades. In addition, examples of processes involving proton and bicarbonate transport in different cell types, in which sAC plays an important regulatory role, were described in detail.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases , AMP Cíclico , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2305-2316, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Residual kidney function (RKF) is an important prognostic indicator in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. So far, there are no prediction tools available for RKF, and the association between serum bicarbonate and RKF has received little attention in patients with PD. We aimed to develop a nomogram for the preservation of RKF based on the time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic) levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prediction model was established by conducting a retrospective cohort study of 151 PD patients who had been treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. The nomogram was developed using a multivariate Cox regression model. The discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility of the model were evaluated by the C-index, receiver operating curve (ROC) curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis. RESULTS: In the elderly PD onset, higher baseline values of residual glomerular filtration rate, total Kt/V and higher TA-Bic levels were identified as protective predictors of RKF loss. The nomogram was conducted on the basis of the minimum value of the Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion with a reasonable C-index of 0.766, showing great discrimination, proper calibration, and high potential for clinical practice. Through the total score of the nomogram, the patients were classified into the high-risk group and low-risk group, and a higher cumulative incidence of complete RRF loss was found in the high-risk group compared with the patients in the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: The novel predictive nomogram model can predict the probability of RKF preservation in long-term PD patients with high accuracy. Future studies are needed to externally validate the current nomogram before clinical application.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Diálise Peritoneal , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nomogramas , Teorema de Bayes , Fatores de Risco , Rim
5.
J Vet Sci ; 25(2): e27, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A urethral obstruction (UO) is an emergency commonly observed in male cats, which can result in significant clinical and laboratory alterations, leading to complications and death. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) with the urea, creatinine, potassium, and bicarbonate levels in cats with UO. In addition, the correlation between clinical score and time of obstruction was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty male cats were selected and allocated into a control group (CG, n = 13) and an obstruction group (OG, n = 17). The laboratory analyses were conducted before treatment (M0) and at different times after treatment (12 h [M12], 24 h [M24], and 48 h [M48]). Correlations were established between SDMA and creatinine, urea, bicarbonate, potassium, time of obstruction, and the clinical score. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r > 0.6) was observed between SDMA and creatinine, urea, and potassium in the OG. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement (kappa value) between SDMA and creatinine at M24. A higher clinical score was associated with a longer time of obstruction. In the OG, at M48, the SDMA and creatinine levels were 50% and 41.2% higher, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A correlation was observed between SDMA and creatinine in obstructed cats, and significant agreement between these values was observed 24 h after the unblocking treatment. A correlation among SDMA, urea, and potassium was observed. Approximately 9% more cats continued to have elevated SDMA levels after 48 h of treatment compared to creatinine. This suggests a slightly lower sensitivity of the latter biomarker but does not exclude the possibility of congruent and normalized values after a longer evaluation period.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Gato , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Gatos , Animais , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Creatinina , Ureia , Potássio , Bicarbonatos , Biomarcadores , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171760, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537830

RESUMO

Ecosystems that offer carbon sequestration by leaching bicarbonate to groundwater are valuable natural capital. One region that may offer this service is the west coast of South Africa. Over 20 % is covered by soil mounds ("heuweltjies") up to 40 m diameter, 2 m high, inhabited by the southern harvester termite Microhodotermes viator and enriched in soil organic and inorganic carbon and soluble minerals. We aimed to generate radiogenic and stable isotope data for soils and groundwater in a region where these data are absent, to 1) verify the atmosphere-soil-groundwater link, and 2) resolve the timing and pattern of calcite dissolution and water infiltration in the landscape. Results show that soil and groundwater sulfate have the same marine aerosol source. Episodic calcite dissolution in mound centers, which increased during periods of global cooling, has been set against background input of marine aerosols since before the Last Glacial according to radiocarbon (14C) ages. Our data push back soil organic carbon 14C ages of inhabited termite mounds to 13-19 ka (kiloannum, thousand years before present), nest carbonate 14C ages to 33 ka, and mound soil carbonate 14C ages to 34 ka, making these the oldest active termite features ever dated. These ages are consistent with soil organic carbon and carbonate 14C ages of regional, non-mound, coastal petrocalcic horizons formed by accumulation of carbonate leached from their overlying aeolian dune fields. Harvesting activities of termites inject younger organic material around nests >1 m deep, leading to continuous renewal of important soil carbon reservoirs at depth. Termite bioturbation increases the system's ability to dissolve carbonate. The central, bioturbated part of the mounds have greater infiltration depths and greater calcite dissolution, whereas surrounding soils experienced more surface runoff. Calcareous termite mounds offer a mechanism to sequester CO2 through dissolution and leaching of soil carbonate-bicarbonate to groundwater.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Isópteros , Animais , Solo , Carbono , Bicarbonatos , África do Sul , Carbonatos , Carbonato de Cálcio
7.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123641, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428791

RESUMO

The excessive accumulation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the environment poses a risk to environment and human health. In the present study, a potassium bicarbonate-modified pyrite/porous biochar composite (PKBC) was prepared in a one-step process and applied for the efficient removal of Cr(VI) in wastewater. The results showed that PKBC can significantly remove Cr(VI) within 4 h over a wide range of pH (2-11). Meanwhile, the PKBC demonstrated remarkable resistance towards interference from complex ions. The addition of potassium bicarbonate increased the pore structure of the material and promoted the release of Fe2+. The reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution was primarily attributed to the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox cycle. The sulphur species achieved Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycle through electron transfer with iron, thus ensuring the continuous reduction capacity of PKBC. Besides, the removal rate was also maintained at more than 85% in the actual water samples treatment process. This work provides a new way to remove hexavalent chromium from wastewater and demonstrates the potential critical role of potassium bicarbonate and sulphur.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Compostos de Potássio , Sulfetos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Compostos Férricos , Potássio , Porosidade , Ferro/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cromo/química , Compostos Ferrosos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(4): 1594-1604, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is known that providing recanalization alone in large vessel occlusions is not sufficient to provide a good 90-day clinical outcome. It is advocated that neuroprotection should be increased before endovascular treatment and that the penumbra should be protected from reperfusion damage after recanalization. However, the effects of blood gas parameters before and after mechanical thrombectomy on clinical outcomes are not clear. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of serial blood gas measures in accurately predicting futile recanalization at an early stage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a multicenter inquiry that collected data in a prospective manner and analyzed it retrospectively. Patients with a 2b-3 thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score after mechanical thrombectomy for recanalization were consecutively analyzed from July 2022 to March 2023. Arterial blood gas parameters, including pH, oxygen saturation (SaO2), partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), partial oxygen pressure (PaO2), lactate, and bicarbonate (HCO3), were measured at four time points: before mechanical thrombectomy treatment (preoperative), immediately after recanalization (postoperative 1st), during the 3rd hour (postoperative 3rd), and at the 5th hour (postoperative 5th). The patients were categorized into groups based on their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. RESULTS: The study included 136 patients with an average age of 69.71±11.22. The postoperative 1st-hour SaO2 values were lower in the mRS 3-6 group (p=0.038). The postoperative pH and lactate mean were greater in the mRS 3-6 group than in the 0-2 group (p=0.038 and 0.018, respectively). In logistic regression, a unit rise in lactate increased poor functional outcomes 1,632 times (p=0.024). Early neurological recovery was associated with decreased postoperative 3rd-hour lactate (p=0.014). The mean postoperative PaO2 (average of 1, 2, 3 PaO2) was higher in those with symptomatic cerebral bleeding (p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring lactate and pH levels in AIS patients who have had mechanical recanalization can be utilized to predict mortality and morbidity, especially in the first five hours after the procedure. Graphical Abstract: https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Graphical-abstract-8.jpg.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Láctico , Bicarbonatos , Gasometria , Oxigênio , Trombectomia
9.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474872

RESUMO

Sodium bicarbonate is used as an ergogenic supplement to enhance people's performances in various exercises. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intestinal delivery of sodium bicarbonate on bicarbonate absorption and associated side effects in an experimental human trial. After preparing and assessing enteric-coated and uncoated sodium bicarbonate tablet formulations, pharmacokinetic analysis and gastrointestinal symptom tests were performed after oral administration in the human body. The dose required to increase blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L-1 for the purpose of improving performance during high-intensity exercise was also determined. Enteric-coated tablet formulation protects sodium bicarbonate under acidic conditions and releases bicarbonate in the intestine. Enteric-coated tablet formulation also reduced the oral dose required to achieve a blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L-1 from 300 mg∙kg-1 of uncoated tablet formulation to 225 mg∙kg-1. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly decreased for the group given 225 mg∙kg-1 enteric-coated tablets compared to that given 300 mg∙kg-1 uncoated tablets. These results suggest that enteric-coated tablet formulation could reduce the oral dose required in order to achieve a blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L-1 by 25%, from 300 mg∙kg-1 to 225 mg∙kg-1, along with its ability to reduce gastrointestinal discomfort associated with the dosage.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Humanos , Administração Oral , Disponibilidade Biológica , Comprimidos com Revestimento Entérico
10.
Pflugers Arch ; 476(4): 479-503, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536494

RESUMO

Cellular and organism survival depends upon the regulation of pH, which is regulated by highly specialized cell membrane transporters, the solute carriers (SLC) (For a comprehensive list of the solute carrier family members, see: https://www.bioparadigms.org/slc/ ). The SLC4 family of bicarbonate (HCO3-) transporters consists of ten members, sorted by their coupling to either sodium (NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, NDCBE), chloride (AE1, AE2, AE3), or borate (BTR1). The ionic coupling of SLC4A9 (AE4) remains controversial. These SLC4 bicarbonate transporters may be controlled by cellular ionic gradients, cellular membrane voltage, and signaling molecules to maintain critical cellular and systemic pH (acid-base) balance. There are profound consequences when blood pH deviates even a small amount outside the normal range (7.35-7.45). Chiefly, Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBT) control intracellular pH in nearly every living cell, maintaining the biological pH required for life. Additionally, NCBTs have important roles to regulate cell volume and maintain salt balance as well as absorption and secretion of acid-base equivalents. Due to their varied tissue expression, NCBTs have roles in pathophysiology, which become apparent in physiologic responses when their expression is reduced or genetically deleted. Variations in physiological pH are seen in a wide variety of conditions, from canonically acid-base related conditions to pathologies not necessarily associated with acid-base dysfunction such as cancer, glaucoma, or various neurological diseases. The membranous location of the SLC4 transporters as well as recent advances in discovering their structural biology makes them accessible and attractive as a druggable target in a disease context. The role of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters in such a large array of conditions illustrates the potential of treating a wide range of disease states by modifying function of these transporters, whether that be through inhibition or enhancement.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/genética , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
11.
Water Res ; 254: 121440, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479170

RESUMO

The ultraviolet/monochloramine (UV/NH2Cl) process is an emerging advanced oxidation process with promising prospects in water treatment. Previous studies developed kinetic models of UV/NH2Cl for simulating radical concentrations and pollutant degradation. However, the reaction rate constants of Cl2•- with bicarbonate and carbonate (kCl2•-, HCO3- and kCl2•-, CO32-) were overestimated in literature. Consequently, when dosing 1 mM chloride and 1 mM bicarbonate, the current models of UV/NH2Cl severely under-predicted the experimental concentrations of three important radicals (i.e., hydroxyl radical (HO•), chlorine radical (Cl•), and dichloride radical (Cl2•-)) with great deviations (> 90 %). To investigate this issue, the transformation reactions among these three radicals in UV/NH2Cl were systematically studied. For the first time, it was found that in addition to Cl•, Cl2•- was also an important parent radical of HO• in the presence of chloride, and chloride could effectively compensate the inhibitory effect of bicarbonate on HO• generation in the system. Moreover, reactions and rate constants in current models were scrutinized from corresponding literature, and the reaction rate constants of Cl2•- with bicarbonate and carbonate (kCl2•-, HCO3- and kCl2•-, CO32-) were reevaluated to be 1.47 × 105 and 3.78 × 106 M-1s-1, respectively, by laser flash photolysis. With the newly obtained rate constants, the refined model could accurately simulate concentrations of all three radicals under different chloride and bicarbonate dosages with satisfactory deviations (< 30 %). Meanwhile, the refined model performed much better in predicting pollutant degradation and radical contribution compared with the unrefined model (with the previously estimated kCl2•-, HCO3- and kCl2•-, CO32-). The results of this study enhanced the accuracy and applicability of the kinetic model of UV/NH2Cl, and deepened the understanding of radical transformation in the process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Bicarbonatos , Cloretos , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cloro , Carbonatos , Cinética , Oxirredução
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 399: 130592, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518878

RESUMO

Distillation is among the best techniques for management of ammoniacal nitrogen in anaerobic digestate; however, the suitability of the conventional system is neglected in favor of using more advanced setups. This investigation proves the reliability of the classical batch distillation apparatus for high throughput separation of solid crystals of ammonium bicarbonate from food waste digestate (FWD) liquor. Three replicates were carried out: 80 g of FWD liquor with a content of 50 g/L NH4HCO3 was processed for 7.5 h under minimum heating power (<60 °C) and 200 rpm to avoid excessive foam formation. After performing the reactive distillation, 81 % of NH4HCO3 was recovered as white solid crystals at the top of the distillation still. Although the distillation provided a solid material with the same structure and composition as those of the reagent-grade NH4HCO3, the stability of the isolated inorganic fertilizer was poorer, and it could lead to pollution swapping.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , 60659 , Eliminação de Resíduos , Alimentos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Nitrogênio/análise , Anaerobiose
13.
Analyst ; 149(8): 2281-2290, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497240

RESUMO

Variable temperature electrospray mass spectrometry is useful for multiplexed measurements of the thermal stabilities of biomolecules, but the ionization process can be disrupted by aggregation-prone proteins/complexes that have irreversible unfolding transitions. Resistively heating solutions containing a mixture of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII), a CO2 fixing enzyme involved in many biochemical pathways, and cytochrome c leads to complete loss of carbonic anhydrase signal and a significant reduction in cytochrome c signal above ∼72 °C due to aggregation. In contrast, when the tips of borosilicate glass nanoelectrospray emitters are heated with a laser, complete thermal denaturation curves for both proteins are obtained in <1 minute. The simultaneous measurements of the melting temperature of BCAII and BCAII bound to bicarbonate reveal that the bicarbonate stabilizes the folded form of this protein by ∼6.4 °C. Moreover, the temperature dependences of different bicarbonate loss pathways are obtained. Although protein analytes are directly heated by the laser for only 140 ms, heat conduction further up the emitter leads to a total analyte heating time of ∼41 s. Pulsed laser heating experiments could reduce this time to ∼0.5 s for protein aggregation that occurs on a faster time scale. Laser heating provides a powerful method for studying the detailed mechanisms of cofactor/ligand loss with increasing temperature and promises a new tool for studying the effect of ligands, drugs, growth conditions, buffer additives, or other treatments on the stabilities of aggregation-prone biomolecules.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Anidrase Carbônica II , Animais , Bovinos , Anidrase Carbônica II/química , Temperatura Alta , Citocromos c , Proteínas/química , Espectrometria de Massas
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(10): e37475, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis (MA) is frequently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Our aim was to compare the effect of oral sodium citrate (SC) with that of oral sodium bicarbonate (SB) on renal function and serum bicarbonate correction, as well as to evaluate their safety profile in patients with MA of CKD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single-center, randomized 1:1, parallel, controlled, unblinded clinical trial of 124 patients with MA and CKD stages 3b and 4. The primary outcome was the mean change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The secondary outcomes were mean change in serum bicarbonate level, eGFR decrease by 30%, eGFR decrease by 50%, dialysis, death or prolonged hospitalization, and a combined endpoint. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of mean eGFR change [adjusted mean difference = -0.99 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: -2.51 to 0.93, P = .20)]. We observed a mean serum bicarbonate change of 6.15 mmol/L [(95% CI: 5.55-6.74), P < .001] in the SC group and of 6.19 mmol/L [(95% CI: 5.54-6.83), P < .001] in the SB group, but no significant difference between the 2 groups [adjusted mean difference = 0.31 mmol/L (-0.22 to 0.85), P = .25]. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed similar risks regarding eGFR decrease by 30% (P = .77), eGFR decrease by 50% (P = .50), dialysis (P = .85), death or prolonged hospitalization (P = .29), and combined endpoint (P = .57). Study drug discontinuation due to adverse events was significantly more common in the SB group (17.7% vs 4.8%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: SC and SB have a similar effect on kidney function decline, both improve serum bicarbonate level, but SB is associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation due to adverse events.


Assuntos
Acidose , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Bicarbonatos , Citrato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/etiologia
15.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14234, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439180

RESUMO

A variety of inorganic carbon acquisition modes have been proposed in Characean algae, however, a broadly applicable inorganic carbon uptake mechanism is unknown for the genus Chara. In the present study, we analyzed if C. braunii can efficiently use HCO3 - as a carbon source for photosynthesis. For this purpose, C. braunii was exposed to different concentrations of NaHCO3 - at different time scales. The photosynthetic electron transport through photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII), the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax ), the efficiency of the electron transport rate (α, the initial slope of the ETR), and the light saturation point of photosynthesis (Ek ) were evaluated. Additionally, pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) were determined. Bicarbonate addition positively affected ETRmax , after direct HCO3 - application, of both PSII and PSI, but this effect seems to decrease after 1 h and 24 h. Similar trends were seen for Ek , but no significant effect was observed for α. Pigment contents showed no significant changes in relation to different HCO3 - concentrations. To evaluate if cyclic electron flow around PSI was involved in active HCO3 - uptake, the ratio of PSI ETRmax /PSII ETRmax was calculated but did not show a distinctive trend. These results suggest that C. braunii can utilize NaHCO3 - in short-term periods as a carbon source but could rely on other carbon acquisition mechanisms over prolonged time periods. These observations suggest that the minor role of HCO3 - as a carbon source for photosynthesis in this alga might differentiate C. braunii from other examined Chara spp.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Chara , Clorofila A , Fotossíntese , Carbono
16.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141670, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462184

RESUMO

UV/H2O2 has been used as an advanced oxidation process to remove organic micropollutants from drinking water. It is essential to quench residual H2O2 to prevent increased chlorine demand during chlorination/chloramination and within distribution systems. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter can quench the residual oxidant and eliminate some of the dissolved organic matter. However, knowledge on the kinetics and governing factors of GAC quenching of residual H2O2 from UV/H2O2 and the mechanism underlying the enhancement of the process by HCO3- is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the kinetics and influential factors, particularly the significant impact of bicarbonate (HCO3-). H2O2 decomposition by GAC followed first-order kinetics, and the rate constants normalised by the GAC dosage (kn) were steady (1.6 × 10-3 L g-1 min-1) with variations in the GAC dosage and initial H2O2 concentration. Alkaline conditions favour H2O2 quenching. The content of basic groups exhibited a stronger correlation with the efficiency of GAC in quenching H2O2 than did the acidic groups, with their specific kn values being 8.9 and 2.4 min-1 M-1, respectively. The presence of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter inhibited H2O2 quenching, while HCO3- promoted it. The interfacial hydroxyl radical (HO•) zones were visualised on the GAC surface, and HCO3- addition increased the HO• concentration. HCO3- increased the concentration of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on the GAC surface, which mainly contributed to HO• generation. A significant enhancement of HCO3- on H2O2 quenching by GAC was also verified in real water. This study revealed the synergistic mechanism of HCO3- and GAC on H2O2 quenching and presents the potential applications of residual H2O2 in the H2O2-based oxidation processes.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Bicarbonatos , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oxirredução , Água Potável/análise , Cinética , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 72(3): 298-302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479857

RESUMO

The current study aimed to explore the impact of buffer species on the dissolution behavior of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) containing a basic polymer and its influence on bioequivalence (BE) prediction. Fexofenadine hydrochloride ODT formulations were used as the model formulations, Allegra® as the reference formulation, and generic formulations A and B as the test formulations. Allegra®, generic A, and generic B are ODT formulations that contain aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymers E (Eudragit® E, EUD-E), a basic polymer commonly used to mask the bitter taste of drugs. Both generic A and generic B have been known to be bioequivalent to Allegra®. The dissolution tests were conducted using a compendial paddle, with either bicarbonate (10 mM, pH 6.8) or phosphate buffer (25 mM, pH 6.8) as the dissolution media. A floating lid was employed to cover the surface of the bicarbonate buffer to prevent volatilization. Results indicated that in phosphate buffer, the dissolution profiles of Allegra and generic B significantly varied from that of generic A, whereas in the bicarbonate buffer, the dissolution profiles of Allegra, generic A, and generic B were comparable. These findings suggest that the use of bicarbonate buffer may offer a more precise prediction of human bioequivalence compared to phosphate buffer.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos , Paladar , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Polímeros , Solubilidade , Comprimidos , Fosfatos , Administração Oral , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos
18.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 42: e2023186, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a rapid method for analysing polyphenols, which are potentially active antioxidants against neonatal oxidative stress, from small human milk (HM) volumes. METHODS: Acid and alkaline extractions were compared using two dyes: Folin-Ciocalteu and Fast Blue BB. Linearity, sensitivity, recovery percentage, polyphenol content, precision, and stability were assessed in 14 HM samples and compared using the Kruskal-Wallis H test (p<0.05). The best technique was applied to 284 HM samples to determine their polyphenolic content and its association with maternal diet by multifactorial linear regression. RESULTS: Acidic extraction successfully recovered the gallic acid reference standard, whereas alkaline extraction overestimated it. Calibration curves for all methods were linear (R2>0.96) up to 500 mg/L. All bicarbonate-based Folin-Ciocalteu methods assayed were stable and repeatable, whereas Fast Blue BB-based variants were not. HM polyphenols (mean=94.68 mg/L) positively correlated to the dietary intake of hydroxycinnamic acids, the most consumed polyphenolic family in this population. CONCLUSIONS: A bicarbonate-based Folin-Ciocalteu micromethod allowed the accurate determination of polyphenols in HM, which might be useful for translational research settings and HM banks.


Assuntos
Compostos de Diazônio , Leite Humano , Polifenóis , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Polifenóis/análise , Leite Humano/química , Bicarbonatos , Análise Custo-Benefício
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311945

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the early predictors of respiratory depression in patients with glufosinate poisoning, and provide reference for clinicians to make decisions. Methods: In March 2022, the clinical data of patients with glufosinate poisoning admitted to the intensive care unit of the Affiliated Xiangshan Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from March 2018 to January 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into respiratory depression group and non-respiratory depression group according to the occurrence of respiratory depression during hospitalization. The clinical data such as age, gender, past history, intake, initial treatment and laboratory examination were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the predictors of respiratory depression in patients with glufosinate poisoning, and its predictive value was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: A total of 34 patients with glufosinate poisoning were enrolled, including 13 patients in non-respiratory depression group and 21 patients in respiratory depression group. There were significant differences in intake, blood amylase and bicarbonate radical in arterial blood gas between the two groups (P<0.05). Respiratory depression occurred at 6.5-48.0 h after ingestion, with a median of 15.0 (9.5, 24.0) h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the intake of glufosinate (OR=1.440, 95%CI: 1.033-2.009, P=0.032) and bicarbonate radical in arterial blood gas (OR=0.199, 95%CI: 0.040-0.994, P=0.049) were predictors of respiratory depression in patients with glufosinate poisoning, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curves were 0.936 and 0.842. The optimal cut-off values were 15.0 g (sensitivity=95.2%, specificity=76.9%) and 17.6 mmol/L (sensitivity=71.4%, specificity=84.6%), respectively. Conclusion: The intake of glufosinate and bicarbonate radical in arterial blood gas have good prediction effects on the occurrence of respiratory depression in patients with glufosinate poisoning.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos , Bicarbonatos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1591, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383540

RESUMO

CO2 fixation plays a key role to make biobased production cost competitive. Here, we use 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) to showcase how CO2 fixation enables approaching theoretical-yield production. Using genome-scale metabolic models to calculate the production envelope, we demonstrate that the provision of bicarbonate, formed from CO2, restricts previous attempts for high yield production of 3-HP. We thus develop multiple strategies for bicarbonate uptake, including the identification of Sul1 as a potential bicarbonate transporter, domain swapping of malonyl-CoA reductase, identification of Esbp6 as a potential 3-HP exporter, and deletion of Uga1 to prevent 3-HP degradation. The combined rational engineering increases 3-HP production from 0.14 g/L to 11.25 g/L in shake flask using 20 g/L glucose, approaching the maximum theoretical yield with concurrent biomass formation. The engineered yeast forms the basis for commercialization of bio-acrylic acid, while our CO2 fixation strategies pave the way for CO2 being used as the sole carbon source.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ácido Láctico/análogos & derivados , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
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