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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17535, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854797

RESUMO

With the escalating challenges in captive elephant management, the study of elephant reintegration emerges as a pivotal area of research, primarily addressing the enhancement of animal welfare. The term 'reintegration' refers to the process of rehabilitating captive elephants to a natural system, allowing them to roam freely without intensive human intervention. There is a relative paucity of research addressing the behavioural adaptations post-reintegration, despite reintegration of over 20 elephants across various fenced reserves in South Africa. Our study centres on two distinct herds of reintegrated African elephants, monitoring their movement patterns in two South African reserves over a 57-month period post-release. The primary goal of the study was to establish whether the flexibility and adaptability of movement behaviour of reintegrated elephants can be considered as one of the indicators of determining the success of such an operation. The second aim of our study was to investigate if the reintegrated elephants demonstrated an adaptability to their environment through their hourly, daily, and seasonal ranging patterns after a period of free roaming that exceeded 4 years. Our findings indicated that reintegrated elephants, much like their wild counterparts (movement based on literature), displayed notable seasonal and diurnal variations in key movement parameters, such as utilisation distribution areas and reserve utilization. These patterns changed over time, reflecting an adaptive shift in movement patterns after several years of free roaming. Notably, the trajectory of changes in movement parameters varied between herds, indicating unique adaptation responses, likely resulting from differences in the reintegration process (familiarity of reserve, season of release, presence of wild elephants). Although our study is constrained by the limited number of reintegrated herds available for analysis, it underscores the potential of captive elephants to successfully adapt to a free-living environment, emphasising the promising implications of reintegration initiatives.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Elefantes , Animais , Elefantes/fisiologia , África do Sul , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Animais Selvagens , Estações do Ano , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
5.
Can Vet J ; 65(6): 574-580, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827599

RESUMO

Background: As a major animal control service provider in the city of Guelph and Wellington County in Ontario, the Guelph Humane Society transports and presents injured or ill raccoons requiring humane euthanasia to the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre (OVC-HSC). Issues around handling, transportation, and delays before euthanasia have recently raised some concerns for welfare and the need for means of improving this process. Objective: Investigation of a noncontrolled sedation and analgesia protocol for injured or ill raccoons intended to improve animal welfare by allowing humane handling, transport, and euthanasia following administration by an animal protection officer (APO). Animals and procedure: Twenty-seven injured or ill raccoons requiring transport and euthanasia, as determined by the Guelph Humane Society APOs, were included in the study. Each raccoon was administered acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg), alfaxalone (4 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.15 mg/kg), intramuscularly, before being transported to the OVC-HSC for humane euthanasia. Results: The combination of acepromazine, alfaxalone, and medetomidine was suitable for administration by APOs and provided the desired sedation depth to allow transport and humane euthanasia. Transit time was the only predictor of sedation depth upon arrival at the OVC-HSC. Two raccoons showed mild physical response to intracardiac injection for euthanasia. Numerical cutoff points of an in-hospital visual analog score of sedation of ≥ 70/100 and duration of sedation of < 62 min showed zero probability of response to euthanasia. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Administration of acepromazine, alfaxalone, and medetomidine at the stated doses provided acceptable sedation and analgesia to improve animal welfare during transport and eventual euthanasia of raccoons.


Évaluation d'un protocole médicamenteux sans groupe témoin de sédation intramusculaire, pré-euthanasie, comprenant de l'alfaxalone 4 %, de la médétomidine et de l'acépromazine pour les ratons laveurs blessés ou malades. Contexte: En tant que fournisseur majeur de services de contrôle des animaux dans la ville de Guelph et dans le comté de Wellington en Ontario, la Guelph Humane Society transporte et présente les ratons laveurs blessés ou malades nécessitant une euthanasie sans cruauté au Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre (OVC-HSC). Les problèmes liés à la manutention, au transport et aux délais avant l'euthanasie ont récemment soulevé des inquiétudes quant au bien-être et à la nécessité de trouver des moyens d'améliorer ce processus. Objectif: Enquête sur un protocole de sédation et d'analgésie sans groupe témoin pour les ratons laveurs blessés ou malades destiné à améliorer le bien-être des animaux en permettant une manipulation, un transport et une euthanasie sans cruauté après administration par un agent de protection des animaux (APO). Animaux et procédure: Vingt-sept ratons laveurs blessés ou malades nécessitant un transport et une euthanasie, tel que déterminé par les APO de la Guelph Humane Society, ont été inclus dans l'étude. Chaque raton laveur a reçu de l'acépromazine (0,05 mg/kg), de l'alfaxalone (4 mg/kg) et de la médétomidine (0,15 mg/kg), par voie intramusculaire, avant d'être transporté à l'OVC-HSC pour une euthanasie sans cruauté. Résultats: La combinaison d'acépromazine, d'alfaxalone et de médétomidine convenait à l'administration par un APO et fournissait la profondeur de sédation souhaitée pour permettre le transport et l'euthanasie sans cruauté. Le temps de transit était le seul prédicteur de la profondeur de la sédation à l'arrivée à l'OVC-HSC. Deux ratons laveurs ont montré une légère réponse physique à une injection intracardiaque pour l'euthanasie. Les seuils numériques d'un score analogique visuel de sédation à l'hôpital ≥ 70/100 et d'une durée de sédation < 62 min ont montré une probabilité nulle de réponse à l'euthanasie. Conclusion et pertinence clinique: L'administration d'acépromazine, d'alfaxalone et de médétomidine aux doses indiquées a fourni une sédation et une analgésie acceptables pour améliorer le bien-être des animaux pendant le transport et l'euthanasie éventuelle des ratons laveurs.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Acepromazina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Medetomidina , Pregnanodionas , Guaxinins , Animais , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Eutanásia Animal , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13294, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858560

RESUMO

This study estimates the association between the level of biosecurity, animal welfare, milk quality, and economic performance on 2291 mountain dairy farms which largely differs in management and structure from large dairy operations in the lowlands mainly due to climatic and topographic constraints in mountain areas. The dairy industry's increasing emphasis on biosecurity is crucial for ensuring animal health, productivity, and disease mitigation. Therefore, in the present study the biosecurity and animal welfare status of mountain dairy farms were assessed considering the official welfare protocol for dairy cows of the Italian ClassyFarm system. Our findings reveal a suboptimal adoption of biosecurity measures, attributed to structural limitations in mountain farms and farmers' awareness gaps. Despite these challenges, the economic significance of biosecurity adoption is evident, emphasizing potential benefits for farm viability and animal health. Conversely, the study indicates a moderate to good welfare status in assessed farms, reflecting farmers' awareness of the importance of high welfare standards for dairy cows. Improved welfare positively correlates with milk sales and productivity, highlighting the economic advantages of prioritizing animal well-being. Challenges persist, particularly regarding animal housing deficiencies and related consumer concerns about animal welfare in dairy production. Therefore, targeted interventions and educational initiatives are crucial to empower farmers and promote best practices in biosecurity and animal welfare management. However, addressing resultant production cost increases necessitates society's willingness to pay more for animal-based food, emphasizing the importance of aligning economic incentives with sustainable farming practices.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Bovinos , Leite , Biosseguridade , Fazendas , Feminino , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Itália , Fazendeiros
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865297

RESUMO

Dogs are often housed alone in shelter settings to reduce injury and disease spread. However, social isolation can be a stressor for dogs. Prior studies have suggested that cohousing can produce behavioral and physiological benefits. These studies have typically focused on laboratory dogs or shelter dogs that have been kenneled for several months. Thus, those results might not necessarily generalize to shelter dogs, many of which have shorter lengths of stay than those dogs studied to date, and might be cohoused soon after intake. In fact, being pair-housed could, in the short term, be more stressful as dogs have to navigate novel social situations in small spaces. We investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of single- or pair-housing shelter dogs, most of which had recently entered the shelter. We collected behavioral data on 61 dogs (30 single-housed; 31 pair-housed) daily across seven days; we also collected urine for cortisol:creatinine analysis on a subset (22 single-housed; 18 pair-housed) for eight days (each day of the seven-day study plus a baseline sample on Day 0, prior to dogs' enrollment). We found pair-housed dogs engaged in three stress-related behaviors (lip licking, whining, and ears back) significantly less frequently than single-housed dogs. When we analyzed the change in urinary cortisol:creatinine (Days 1-7 values minus Day 0 value), we found that pair-housed dogs generally showed a greater decrease in cortisol:creatinine levels than single-housed dogs. Pair-housed dogs also had significantly shorter lengths of stay, but we did not detect any effect on dog-dog skills. Overall, we found well-matched pair-housing can have both proximate and ultimate welfare benefits for shelter dogs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Feminino , Creatinina/urina
8.
Vet Rec ; 194(12): 482, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874154
9.
Vet Rec ; 194(12): 483-484, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874160
10.
Vet Rec ; 194(12): 459, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874162
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889125

RESUMO

Broiler chicks are typically hatched in a hatchery, exposing them to handling and transportation before being placed on the farm where (dry) feed and water is offered. This study compared different early life systems, including: (1) typical practice (control), (2) typical practice with wet feed offered upon placement, (3) access to water at the hatchery, (4) access to feed and water at the hatchery, (5) hatching on the farm. Birds were placed in groups of approximately 500 (day 0), with six replicates per treatment. Measures were taken between placement and slaughter (day 39) and included chick quality (navel and red hock scores), body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, gait and litter conditions scores, and behavioral and post-mortem assessments. There were no apparent treatment effects on gait score, play behaviour or novel object test measures, and no consistent effects on litter quality. Chick quality was only evaluated in Treatments 1 and 5 and was numerically worse in Treatment 5. Body weight at slaughter was lowest in Treatment 2, and did not differ between other treatments. Overall FCR was lowest (best) in Treatment 1, and did not differ between other treatments. There was higher overall mortality in Treatments 3 and 4 than in other treatments apart from Treatment 5. Treatment 4 appeared to promote feeding behaviour upon placement, and Treatment 5 birds rested the most, significantly more than in Treatment 2. Treatment 5 birds had the greatest bursa weights, and tibial dyschondroplasia appeared worse in Treatment 4. There were no consistent effects of early access to feed and water on gastrointestinal tract weight measures at slaughter. Compared to the control, there were few benefits in providing feed and/or water in the hatchery, or wet feed. Some benefits of in-house hatching were found, but negative effects were also apparent.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Peso Corporal
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14164, 2024 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898056

RESUMO

The increasing demand on adapting modern livestock farming to higher animal welfare standards requires a thorough understanding of a species' cognitive abilities to determine their adaptability. With the chicken being the world's most numerous birds in animal production, it is mandatory to identify its cognitive abilities and limitations in order to meet its needs. We investigated if chickens are able to use and understand the reflective properties of a mirror that is the correlation of reflections of food rewards and their real location. In total, 18 female chickens of two different breeds were tested in a mirror-mediated spatial location task. Eleven out of eighteen hens solved the task successfully and thus, possibly exploited the correlation between the reflection in the mirror and the real food reward. We found differences on a breed and on the individual level, with different amounts of time needed learning the association of reward and mirror image. The results imply sophisticated cognitive abilities in chickens, assuming they may be able to understand how mirror images represent objects in the real environment, and to make use of it during foraging. The chicken's cognitive ability might lead to a new understanding and provision of animal welfare-compliant production environments.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Cognição , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Bem-Estar do Animal , Recompensa , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
13.
PeerJ ; 12: e17300, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38903880

RESUMO

One primary goal of laboratory animal welfare science is to provide a comprehensive severity assessment of the experimental and husbandry procedures or conditions these animals experience. The severity, or degree of suffering, of these conditions experienced by animals are typically scored based on anthropocentric assumptions. We propose to (a) assess an animal's subjective experience of condition severity, and (b) not only rank but scale different conditions in relation to one another using choice-based preference testing. The Choice-based Severity Scale (CSS) utilizes animals' relative preferences for different conditions, which are compared by how much reward is needed to outweigh the perceived severity of a given condition. Thus, this animal-centric approach provides a common scale for condition severity based on the animal's perspective. To assess and test the CSS concept, we offered three opportunistically selected male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) choices between two conditions: performing a cognitive task in a typical neuroscience laboratory setup (laboratory condition) versus the monkey's home environment (cage condition). Our data show a shift in one individual's preference for the cage condition to the laboratory condition when we changed the type of reward provided in the task. Two additional monkeys strongly preferred the cage condition over the laboratory condition, irrespective of reward amount and type. We tested the CSS concept further by showing that monkeys' choices between tasks varying in trial duration can be influenced by the amount of reward provided. Altogether, the CSS concept is built upon laboratory animals' subjective experiences and has the potential to de-anthropomorphize severity assessments, refine experimental protocols, and provide a common framework to assess animal welfare across different domains.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais de Laboratório , Comportamento de Escolha , Macaca mulatta , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Recompensa , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
14.
Animal ; 18(6): 101192, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843668

RESUMO

The feeding behaviour of individual growing-finishing pigs can be continuously monitored using sensors such as electronic feeding stations (EFSs), and this could be further used to monitor pig welfare. To make accurate conclusions about individual pig welfare, however, it is important to know whether deviations in feeding behaviour in response to welfare issues are shown only on average or by each individual pig. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to quantify the individual variation in feeding behaviour changes in response to a range of welfare issues, and (2) to explain this individual variation by quantifying the responses to welfare issues for specific subgroups of pigs. We monitored four rounds of 110 growing-finishing pigs each (3-4 months per round). We collected feeding behaviour data using IVOG® EFSs and identified health issues and heat stress using climate sensors and twice-weekly health observations. For each pig, a generalised additive model was fitted, which modelled feeding behaviour through time and estimated the effect of each welfare issue that the pig had suffered from. The range of these effect estimates was compared between pigs to study the individual variation in responses. Subsequently, pigs were repeatedly grouped using physical and feeding characteristics, and, with meta-subset analysis, it was determined for each group whether a deviation in response to the welfare issue (i.e. their combined effect estimates) was present. We found that the range in effect estimates was very large, approaching normal distributions for most combinations of welfare issues and feeding variables. This indicates that most pigs did not show feeding behaviour deviations during the welfare issue, while those that did could show both increases and reductions. One exception was heat stress, for which almost all pigs showed reductions in their feed intake, feeding duration and feeding frequency. When looking at subgroups of pigs, it was seen that especially for lameness and tail damage pigs with certain physical characteristics or feeding strategies did consistently deviate on some feeding components during welfare issues (e.g. only relatively heavier pigs reduced their feeding frequency during lameness). In conclusion, while detection of individual pigs suffering from heat stress using feeding variables should be feasible, detection of (mild) health issues would be difficult due to pigs responding differently, if at all, to a given health issue. For some pigs with specific physical or behavioural characteristics, nevertheless, detection of some health issues, such as lameness or tail damage, may be possible.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Suínos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
15.
Animal ; 18(6): 101183, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848617

RESUMO

Farrowing crates are widely used as the main housing system for farrowing and lactating sows on commercial farms although they have a negative impact on sow welfare and behaviour. One of the main reasons for using farrowing crates is to reduce piglet mortality during farrowing and lactation. We compared the effects of temporary crating (TC) versus free farrowing (FF) with different nest-building materials on production and welfare measures. Sows were investigated using a 2 × 3 factorial design. Sows were allocated to two farrowing treatments: FF sows were not crated around farrowing, and TC sows were crated from 2 days before expected farrowing until 3 days after farrowing, when the crate was opened. In both farrowing treatments, the nest-building material was given from 7 days prior to farrowing as follows: (1) 1 L of straw twice per day, (2) 1 sheet of newspaper twice per day or (3) fastened jute fabric to the farrowing crate. The study consisted of two parts; part 1 included a total of 87 sows for data on piglet mortality and growth, and part 2 included data on nest-building and farrowing behaviour from a subset of these sows (n = 34). Farrowing treatment affected piglet mortality; FF sows had a lower number of stillborn piglets than TC sows (P = 0.04), but the number of crushed piglets was higher (P < 0.01). Nest-building material tended to have an impact on total number of crushed piglets (P = 0.08) and piglets that died during 3 days of lactation (P = 0.09). Litter growth was better in the FF group than in the TC group from piglet age of 1 day to 3 weeks (P = 0.04). Overall, little nest-building-related behaviour occurred, probably due to the small amount of nest-building material. The usability of the nest-building material varied with farrowing treatment; FF sows used newspaper most for nest-building, while TC sows used straw and jute fabric (P = 0.01). There were no differences in the piglet birth intervals or the farrowing duration. In conclusion, free farrowing can have positive effects on piglet growth but negative effects on piglet survival in early lactation. Different nest-building materials have different effects depending on the type of farrowing system.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Suínos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Lactação/fisiologia , Parto , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Animal ; 18(6): 101188, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850577

RESUMO

Biosecurity plays a crucial role in preventing the introduction of infectious diseases to a herd as well as the spread of diseases within or between animals and herds. In particular, biosecurity measures are crucial for maintaining animal health and reducing the need for the application of antibiotic substances for fighting the rising antibiotic resistance. The object of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of biosecurity measures and their association with milk quality parameters, with a special focus on somatic cell count (SCC) - an indicator for udder health -, in small-scale mountain dairy farms. Therefore, for the very first time, the CLASSYFARM system was considered, which is a computer platform integrated into the Italian national veterinary portal, that processes a significant amount of data from various sources collected in the field or from other information systems (e.g. animal welfare, health status, biosecurity, antimicrobial use, slaughterhouse information). A total of 169 dairy farms were included in the study. Biosecurity measures, based on 15 questions required in the CLASSYFARM welfare assessment protocol, as well as information about husbandry systems, milking systems and pasture practices were gathered and combined with milk yield data, provided by the South Tyrolean dairy association. Farms only scored 44.00 points on average in a scoring system from 0.00 to 100.00 points that was be able to summarize 15 different biosecurity measures in one index. Our results show a clear negative correlation (-0.713) between the biosecurity index and somatic cell score (SCS) indicating that a higher level of biosecurity, which reflects the presence of biosecurity measures within a farm, is associated with lower SCC levels. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between SCS and milk production (-0.629), confirming that udder health is linked to higher milk production. Fat, protein, and the fat-to-protein ratio showed a positive correlation with SCS (0.281, 0.146, 0.106), likely to be caused by a concentration shift effect (dilution effect). Husbandry system, breed, milking system, and pasture practices seem to have an impact as well, but the main factor was the biosecurity score. This study highlights the importance of implementing biosecurity measures for ensuring animal health and thus productivity and quality in milk production, even in small-scale farms, which are characterized by limited structure availability and smaller herds compared to big dairy enterprises in the lowlands.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Leite/citologia , Itália , Feminino , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Fazendas , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle
19.
J Med Primatol ; 53(3): e12704, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812105

RESUMO

A critical turning point was reached in research with the recent success in cloning rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), a major advancement in primatology. This breakthrough marks the beginning of a new age in biomedical research, ushered by improved somatic cell nuclear transfer techniques and creative trophoblast replacement strategies. The successful cloning of rhesus monkeys presents the possibility of producing genetically homogeneous models that are highly advantageous for studying complex biological processes, testing drugs, and researching diseases. However, this achievement raises important ethical questions, particularly regarding animal welfare and the broader ramifications of primate cloning. Approaching the future of primate research with balance is critical, as the scientific world stands on the brink of these revolutionary breakthroughs. This paper aims to summarise the consequences, ethical challenges and possible paths forward in primatology arising from rhesus monkey cloning.


Assuntos
Clonagem de Organismos , Macaca mulatta , Animais , Clonagem de Organismos/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/ética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303458, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771820

RESUMO

Wild boar trapping has been used as a management tool to control wild boar populations. However, it is increasingly criticized due to animal welfare concerns. While cortisol levels have been used to assess trap-related stress in wild boar, data on trap-related injuries and behavioral data are scarce. We aimed to evaluate three different corral-style traps for wild boar according to available mammal trapping standards to investigate and refine animal welfare in wild boar trapping. We examined 138 wild boars captured and killed by head shot in 27 capture events. Traps were closed by remote control only if the complete group were trapped. The behavior of the animals in the trap and during culling was recorded on video. All wild boars were examined and a pathological and radiological examination of the heads for trap- and shot-related injuries followed. Trap-related injuries occurred in 33% of the animals with superficial mild skin defects to skull fractures. One out of three traps met all the set requirements. A wire-meshed trapping system failed all. After installing an incomplete barrier in the center of the trap to slow down trapped animals, the fracture rate in one trap type was significantly reduced by 29% (p < 0.05). Our data showed that the type of trap (p = 0.007) and the number of animals trapped at once (p = 0.002) had a significant influence on the number of escape attempts. Trapping larger groups reduced the escape attempts. We emphasize the importance of an accurate pathological examination to evaluate animal welfare in traps and call for adjusting the injury categories listed in the standards and make a proposal for wild boar live trapping.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Sus scrofa , Animais , Masculino , Feminino
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