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1.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 10(1): 37, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565843

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure to antibiotics at low concentration can promote processes associated with bacterial biofilm formation, virulence and antibiotic resistance. This can be of high relevance in microbial communities like the oral microbiome, where commensals and pathogens share a common habitat and where the total abundance of antibiotic resistance genes surpasses the abundance in the gut. Here, we used an ex vivo model of human oral biofilms to investigate the impact of ampicillin on biofilm viability. The ecological impact on the microbiome and resistome was investigated using shotgun metagenomics. The results showed that low concentrations promoted significant shifts in microbial taxonomic profile and could enhance biofilm viability by up to 1 to 2-log. For the resistome, low concentrations had no significant impact on antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) diversity, while ARG abundance decreased by up to 84%. A positive correlation was observed between reduced microbial diversity and reduced ARG abundance. The WHO priority pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in some of the samples, but their abundance was not significantly altered by ampicillin. Most of the antibiotic resistance genes that increased in abundance in the ampicillin group were associated with streptococci, including Streptococcus mitis, a well-known potential donor of ARGs to S. pneumoniae. Overall, the results highlight the potential of using the model to further our understanding of ecological and evolutionary forces driving antimicrobial resistance in oral microbiomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes
2.
J Vet Sci ; 25(2): e30, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biofilms, such as those from Staphylococcus epidermidis, are generally insensitive to traditional antimicrobial agents, making it difficult to inhibit their formation. Although quercetin has excellent antibiofilm effects, its clinical applications are limited by the lack of sustained and targeted release at the site of S. epidermidis infection. OBJECTIVES: Polyethylene glycol-quercetin nanoparticles (PQ-NPs)-loaded gelatin-N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMCS) composite nanogels were prepared and assessed for the on-demand release potential for reducing S. epidermidis biofilm formation. METHODS: The formation mechanism, physicochemical characterization, and antibiofilm activity of PQ-nanogels against S. epidermidis were studied. RESULTS: Physicochemical characterization confirmed that PQ-nanogels had been prepared by the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and N,O-CMCS with sodium tripolyphosphate. The PQ-nanogels exhibited obvious pH and gelatinase-responsive to achieve on-demand release in the micro-environment (pH 5.5 and gelatinase) of S. epidermidis. In addition, PQ-nanogels had excellent antibiofilm activity, and the potential antibiofilm mechanism may enhance its antibiofilm activity by reducing its relative biofilm formation, surface hydrophobicity, exopolysaccharides production, and eDNA production. CONCLUSIONS: This study will guide the development of the dual responsiveness (pH and gelatinase) of nanogels to achieve on-demand release for reducing S. epidermidis biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Animais , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genética , Nanogéis , Gelatina/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Gelatinases/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
3.
J Wound Care ; 33(Sup4a): xcix-cx, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588056

RESUMO

Metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) are promoted as effective compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections and as possible alternatives to antibiotics. These MNPs are known to affect a broad spectrum of microorganisms using a multitude of strategies, including the induction of reactive oxygen species and interaction with the inner structures of the bacterial cells. The aim of this review was to summarise the latest studies about the effect of metal-based nanoparticles on pathogenic bacterial biofilm formed in wounds, using the examples of Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as provide an overview of possible clinical applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Humanos , Biofilmes , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1380747, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585655

RESUMO

Introduction: Bacterial biofilm is a well-known characteristic that plays important roles in diverse physiological functions, whereas the current intrinsic regulatory mechanism of its formation is still largely unknown. Methods: In the present study, a label-free based quantitative proteomics technology was conducted to compare the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between ΔuidR and the wild-type strain in the biofilm state. Results: The results showed that the deletion of gene uidR encoding a TetR transcriptional regulator significantly increased the biofilm formation in Aeromonas hydrophila. And there was a total of 220 DEPs, including 120 up-regulated proteins and 100 down-regulated proteins between ΔuidR and the wild-type strain based on the quantitative proteomics. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that uidR may affect bacterial biofilm formation by regulating some related proteins in glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid pathway. The expressions of selected proteins involved in this pathway were further confirmed by q-PCR assay, and the results was in accordance with the quantitative proteomics data. Moreover, the deletion of four genes (AHA_3063, AHA_3062, AHA_4140 and aceB) related to the glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid pathway lead to a significant decrease in the biofilm formation. Discussion: Thus, the results indicated that uidR involved in the regulatory of bacterial biofilm formation, and it may provide a potential target for the drug development and a new clue for the prevention of pathogenic A. hydrophila in the future.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila , Proteínas de Bactérias , Glioxilatos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Biofilmes
5.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587399

RESUMO

Catheter-related infection (CRI) is a common nosocomial infection caused by candida albicans during catheter implantation. Typically, biofilms are formed on the outer surface of the catheter and lead to disseminated infections, which are fatal to patients. There are no effective prevention and treatment management in clinics. Therefore, it is urgent to establish an animal model of CRI for the preclinical screening of new strategies for its prevention and treatment. In this study, a polyethylene catheter, a widely used medical catheter, was inserted into the back of the BALB/c mice after hair removal. Candida albicans ATCC MYA-2876 (SC5314) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein was subsequently inoculated on the skin's surface along the catheter. Intense fluorescence was observed on the surface of the catheter under a fluorescent microscope 3 days later. Mature and thick biofilms were found on the surface of the catheter via scanning electron microscopy. These results indicated the adhesion, colonization, and biofilm formation of candida albicans on the surface of the catheter. The hyperplasia of the epidermis and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin specimens indicated the histopathological changes of the CRI-associated skin. To sum up, a mouse CRI model was successfully established. This model is expected to be helpful in the research and development of therapeutic management for candida albicans associated CRI.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Cateteres , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Biofilmes , Antifúngicos
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567642

RESUMO

Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of acute medical implant infections, representing a significant modern medical concern. The success of S. aureus as a pathogen in these cases resides in its arsenal of virulence factors, resistance to multiple antimicrobials, mechanisms of immune modulation, and ability to rapidly form biofilms associated with implant surfaces. S. aureus device-associated, biofilm-mediated infections are often persistent and notoriously difficult to treat, skewing innate immune responses to promote chronic reoccurring infections. While relatively little is known of the role neutrophils play in response to acute S. aureus biofilm infections, these effector cells must be efficiently recruited to sites of infection via directed chemotaxis. Here we investigate the effects of modulating CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) activity, predominantly expressed on neutrophils, during S. aureus implant-associated infection.Hypothesis. We hypothesize that modulation of CXCR2 expression and/or signalling activities during S. aureus infection, and thus neutrophil recruitment, extravasation and antimicrobial activity, will affect infection control and bacterial burdens in a mouse model of implant-associated infection.Aim. This investigation aims to elucidate the impact of altered CXCR2 activity during S. aureus biofilm-mediated infection that may help develop a framework for an effective novel strategy to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with implant infections.Methodology. To examine the role of CXCR2 during S. aureus implant infection, we employed a mouse model of indwelling subcutaneous catheter infection using a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. To assess the role of CXCR2 induction or inhibition during infection, treatment groups received daily intraperitoneal doses of either Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) or AZD5069, respectively. At the end of the study, catheters and surrounding soft tissues were analysed for bacterial burdens and dissemination, and Cxcr2 transcription within the implant-associated tissues was quantified.Results. Mice treated with Lcn2 developed higher bacterial burdens within the soft tissue surrounding the implant site, which was associated with increased Cxcr2 expression. AZD5069 treatment also resulted in increased implant- and tissues-associated bacterial titres, as well as enhanced Cxcr2 expression.Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that CXCR2 plays an essential role in regulating the severity of S. aureus implant-associated infections. Interestingly, however, perturbation of CXCR2 expression or signalling both resulted in enhanced Cxcr2 transcription and elevated implant-associated bacterial burdens. Thus, CXCR2 appears finely tuned to efficiently recruit effector cells and mediate control of S. aureus biofilm-mediated infection.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pirimidinas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Sulfonamidas , Camundongos , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Biofilmes
7.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 49-53, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of new bioactive glass(BG) on common bacteria in apical periodontitis of deciduous teeth. METHODS: The diameter (mm) of the inhibitory rings formed after treatment of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Clostridium nucleatum with the new bioactive glass was detected and observed by paper diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of E. faecalis, P. gingivalis and C. pseudomallei were determined. The mixed plaques of the three bacteria were treated with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/mL of the new bioactive glass for 24 h. The results were analyzed by laser confocal microscopy. The antibacterial effect of the new bioactive glass on the mixed plaque was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism 10.0 software. RESULTS: The new bioactive glass showed strong antibacterial potential against the common bacteria of apical periodontitis; the MBEC of the new bioactive glass on the plaque was significantly greater than MIC and MBC of Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Clostridium nucleatum, and as the concentration of the new bioactive glass increased, the number of dead bacteria in the mixed plaque increased, and there was significant difference from that of the blank control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The novel bioactive glass shows significant antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Clostridium nucleatum, which are the common bacteria in apical periodontitis of deciduous teeth.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Periodontite Periapical , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Dente Decíduo , Biofilmes
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 286, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578301

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-C light-emitting diodes (UV-C LEDs) are an emerging technology for decontamination applications in different sectors. In this study, the inactivation of bacterial biofilms was investigated by applying an UV-C LED emitting at 280 nm and by measuring both the influence of the initial cell density (load) and presence of an extracellular matrix (biofilm). Two bacterial strains exposing diverging matrix structures and biochemical compositions were used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Leuconostoc citreum. UV-C LED irradiation was applied at three UV doses (171 to 684 mJ/cm2) on both surface-spread cells and on 24-h biofilms and under controlled cell loads, and bacterial survival was determined. All surface-spread bacteria, between 105 and 109 CFU/cm2, and biofilms at 108 CFU/cm2 showed that bacterial response to irradiation was dose-dependent. The treatment efficacy decreased significantly for L. citreum surface-spread cells when the initial cell load was high, while no load effect was observed for P. aeruginosa. Inactivation was also reduced when bacteria were grown under a biofilm form, especially for P. aeruginosa: a protective effect could be attributed to abundant extracellular DNA and proteins in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms, as revealed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy observations. This study showed that initial cell load and exopolymeric substances are major factors influencing UV-C LED antibiofilm treatment efficacy. KEY POINTS: • Bacterial cell load (CFU/cm2) could impact UV-C LED irradiation efficiency • Characteristics of the biofilm matrix have a paramount importance on inactivation • The dose to be applied can be predicted based on biofilm properties.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Desinfecção , Matriz Extracelular , Bactérias , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1334616, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571946

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a highly successful pathogen infecting various body parts and forming biofilms on natural and artificial surfaces resulting in difficult-to-treat and chronic infections. We investigated the secreted cytokines and proteomes of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers exposed to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms or planktonic bacteria. Additionally, the cytokine profiles in sera from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by S. aureus were investigated. The aim was to gain insights into the immune response involved and differentiate between the planktonic and sessile MRSA forms. We identified 321 and 298 targets that were significantly differently expressed in PBMCs when exposed to planktonic or biofilm-embedded bacteria, respectively. PBMCs exposed to planktonic MRSA cells secreted increased levels of TNF-α, while IL-18 was elevated when exposed to the biofilm. The machine-learning analyses of the cytokine profiles obtained for the in vitro PBMCs and CAP sera distinguished between the two types of bacteria forms based on cytokines IL-18, IL12, and IL-17, and with a lower importance IL-6. Particularly, IL-18 which has not been correlated with S. aureus biofilms so far might represent a suitable marker for monitoring chronification during MRSA infection to individualize the therapy, but this hypothesis must be proved in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Citocinas , Staphylococcus aureus , Interleucina-18 , Proteoma , Plâncton , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Biofilmes
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1454-1465, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557711

RESUMO

We used bench-scale tests and mathematical modeling to explore chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for winery wastewater treatment, using either urea or nitrate as a nitrogen source. With urea addition, the COD removal fluxes ranged from 34 to 45 gCOD/m2-d. However, when nitrate was added, fluxes increased up to 65 gCOD/m2-d, twice the amount reported for aerobic biofilms for winery wastewater treatment. A one-dimensional biofilm model, calibrated with data from respirometric tests, accurately captured the experimental results. Both experimental and modelling results suggest that nitrate significantly increased MBBR capacity by stimulating COD oxidation in the deeper, oxygen-limited regions of the biofilm. Our research suggests that the addition of nitrate, or other energetic and broadly used electron acceptors, may provide a cost-effective means of covering peak COD loads in biofilm processes for winery or another industrial wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Nitratos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Nitrogênio , Ureia , Desnitrificação
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(6): 1583-1594, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557720

RESUMO

Low-energy nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater is crucial in preserving the water environment. A one-stage nitritation/anammox process with two inflows treating ammonium-containing wastewater, supplied from inside and outside the wound filter, is expected to stably remove nitrogen. Laboratory-scale reactors were operated using different start-up strategies; the first involved adding nitritation inoculum after anammox biomass formation in the filter, which presented a relatively low nitrogen removal rate (0.171 kg N/m3 · d), at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg N/m3 · d. Conversely, the second involved the gradual cultivation of anammox and nitritation microorganisms, which increased the nitrogen removal rate (0.276 kg N/m3 · d). Furthermore, anammox (Candidatus Brocadia) and nitritation bacteria (Nitrosomonadaceae) coexisted in the biofilm formed on the filter surface. The abundance of nitritation bacteria (10.5%) in the reactor biofilm using the second start-up strategy was higher than that using the first (3.7%). Thus, the two-inflow nitritation/anammox process effectively induced habitat segregation using a suitable start-up strategy.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Oxidação Anaeróbia da Amônia , Oxirredução , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Desnitrificação
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 117, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429597

RESUMO

Biofilm, a microbial community formed by especially pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species, is a critical problem in the food industries. It is an important cause of continued contamination by foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, removing biofilm is the key to solving the high pollution caused by foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the food industry. Lactobacillus, a commonly recognized probiotic that is healthy for consumer, have been proven useful for isolating the potential biofilm inhibitors. However, the addition of surface components and metabolites of Lactobacillus is not a current widely adopted biofilm control strategy at present. This review focuses on the effects and preliminary mechanism of action on biofilm inhibition of Lactobacillus-derived components including lipoteichoic acid, exopolysaccharides, bacteriocins, secreted protein, organic acids and some new identified molecules. Further, the review discusses several modern biofilm identification techniques and particularly interesting new technology of biofilm inhibition molecules. These molecules exhibit stronger inhibition of biofilm formation, playing a pivotal role in food preservation and storage. Overall, this review article discusses the application of biofilm inhibitors produced by Lactobacillus, which would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from environment in the food industries.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Lactobacillus , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Indústria Alimentícia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Biofilmes
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 124, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441804

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms pose a threat to animal health, particularly in integumentary diseases, which can be caused by multiple organisms and often manifest as biofilms, hindering treatment effectiveness. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using a water-soluble tetra-cationic porphyrin (4-H2TMeP) against MDR bacteria cultured in biofilm and in mono and polyculture grown on canine skin samples. We utilized 4-H2TMeP porphyrin against MDR Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. A non-cytotoxic concentration of 4-H2TMeP (40 µM), previously shown to be effective in vitro against these bacteria cultured in solution, was employed. Biofilms were treated with 4-H2TMeP and subjected to light irradiation for 30, 60, and 90 min. Monocultures on canine skin samples were treated with 4-H2TMeP and irradiated for 30 (S. pseudintermedius), 60 (E. coli), or 60 and 90 min (P. aeruginosa). Polycultures of S. pseudintermedius and E. coli were treated with light for 60 and 90 min. The efficacy of aPDT was evaluated by plating light-exposed biofilms, mono and polycultures of bacteria obtained from skin samples exposed to light and kept in the dark. Colony-forming units were counted after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. aPDT using 4-H2TMeP reduced bacterial concentrations of S. pseudintermedius and E. coli biofilms. Additionally, it significantly reduced bacterial concentrations cultivated on skin samples, with a particular emphasis on S. pseudintermedius. These findings indicate that aPDT with 4-H2TMeP is a promising alternative treatment against MDR bacteria in animal skin infections and should be further explored through in vivo research.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Porfirinas , Animais , Cães , Biofilmes , Cátions , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Água
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 123, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441817

RESUMO

Bacteria have the potential to adhere to abiotic surfaces, which has an undesirable effect in the food industry because they can survive for sustained periods through biofilm formation. In this study, an antibacterial peptide (ABP), with a molecular mass of 3861 Da, was purified from hydrolyzed chicken feathers using a locally isolated keratinolytic bacterium, namely Rhodococcus erythropolis, and its antibacterial and antibiofilm potential were investigated against planktonic and biofilm cells of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). The results demonstrated that purified ABP showed the growth inhibition of MRSA cells with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 45 µg/ml and disrupted MRSA biofilm formation at a concentration of 200 ug/ml, which results were confirmed by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Moreover, the secondary structures of the peptide were assessed as part of the FTIR analysis to evaluate its mode of action. ExPASy tools were used to predict the ABP sequence, EPCVQUQDSRVVIQPSPVVVVTLPGPILSSFPQNTA, from a chicken feather keratin sequence database following in silico digestion by trypsin. Also, ABP had 54.29% hydrophobic amino acids, potentially contributing to its antimicrobial activity. The findings of toxicity prediction of the peptide by the ToxinPred tool revealed that ABP had non-toxic effects. Thus, these results support the potential of this peptide to be used as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment or prevention of MRSA biofilm formation in feed, food, or pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Animais , Queratinas/farmacologia , Galinhas , Plumas , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2320410121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498718

RESUMO

Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) like Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) can facilitate metal corrosion in various industrial and environmental settings leading to substantial economic losses. Although the mechanisms of biofilm formation by DvH are not yet well understood, recent studies indicate the large adhesin, DvhA, is a key determinant of biofilm formation. The dvhA gene neighborhood resembles the biofilm-regulating Lap system of Pseudomonas fluorescens but is curiously missing the c-di-GMP-binding regulator LapD. Instead, DvH encodes an evolutionarily unrelated c-di-GMP-binding protein (DVU1020) that we hypothesized is functionally analogous to LapD. To study this unusual Lap system and overcome experimental limitations with the slow-growing anaerobe DvH, we reconstituted its predicted SRB Lap system in a P. fluorescens strain lacking its native Lap regulatory components (ΔlapGΔlapD). Our data support the model that DvhA is a cell surface-associated LapA-like adhesin with a N-terminal "retention module" and that DvhA is released from the cell surface upon cleavage by the LapG-like protease DvhG. Further, we demonstrate DVU1020 (named here DvhD) represents a distinct class of c-di-GMP-binding, biofilm-regulating proteins that regulates DvhG activity in response to intracellular levels of this second messenger. This study provides insight into the key players responsible for biofilm formation by DvH, thereby expanding our understanding of Lap-like systems.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(12): 6424-6431, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470989

RESUMO

Six new 9H-carbazole derivatives (1-6) and nine previously reported compounds (7-15) were isolated from a fermented solid medium of the Thailand mangrove-derived Streptomyces strain, OUCMDZ-5511, under fluoride stress. Compounds 2-5, 12, and 15 were exclusively present in the fluoride-supplemented fermentation medium, while compounds 7-9, 13, and 14 were newly discovered natural products. The molecular structures of the compounds were identified by a spectroscopic analysis. The new compound 2 displayed antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 by reducing the violacein production and inhibiting the biofilm formation in a concentration-dependent manner. The study revealed that compound 2 could be a novel potential inhibitor of quorum sensing.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Streptomyces , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Biofilmes
17.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(3)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488860

RESUMO

Integrons are genetic platforms that capture, rearrange and express mobile modules called gene cassettes. The best characterized gene cassettes encode antibiotic resistance, but the function of most integron gene cassettes remains unknown. Functional predictions suggest that many gene cassettes could encode proteins that facilitate interactions with other cells and with the extracellular environment. Because cell interactions are essential for biofilm stability, we sequenced gene cassettes from biofilms growing on the surface of the marine macroalgae Ulva australis and Sargassum linearifolium. Algal samples were obtained from coastal rock platforms around Sydney, Australia, using seawater as a control. We demonstrated that integrons in microbial biofilms did not sample genes randomly from the surrounding seawater, but harboured specific functions that potentially provided an adaptive advantage to both the bacterial cells in biofilm communities and their macroalgal host. Further, integron gene cassettes had a well-defined spatial distribution, suggesting that each bacterial biofilm acquired these genetic elements via sampling from a large but localized pool of gene cassettes. These findings suggest two forms of filtering: a selective acquisition of different integron-containing bacterial species into the distinct biofilms on Ulva and Sargassum surfaces, and a selective retention of unique populations of gene cassettes at each sampling location.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Integrons , Integrons/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Biofilmes
18.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 23(3): 539-560, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457119

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance represents a pressing global health challenge, now acknowledged as a critical concern within the framework of One Health. Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI) offers an attractive, non-invasive approach known for its flexibility, independence from microbial resistance patterns, broad-spectrum efficacy, and minimal risk of inducing resistance. Various photosensitizers, including porphyrin derivatives have been explored for pathogen eradication. In this context, we present the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical characteristics as well as antimicrobial properties of a palladium(II)-porphyrin derivative (PdF2POH), along with its zinc(II)- and free-base counterparts (ZnF2POH and F2POH, respectively). Our findings reveal that the palladium(II)-porphyrin complex can be classified as an excellent generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), encompassing both singlet oxygen (Φ△ = 0.93) and oxygen-centered radicals. The ability of photosensitizers to generate ROS was assessed using a variety of direct (luminescence measurements) and indirect techniques, including specific fluorescent probes both in solution and in microorganisms during the PDI procedure. We investigated the PDI efficacy of F2POH, ZnF2POH, and PdF2POH against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. All tested compounds proved high activity against Gram-positive species, with PdF2POH exhibiting superior efficacy, leading to up to a 6-log reduction in S. aureus viability. Notably, PdF2POH-mediated PDI displayed remarkable effectiveness against S. aureus biofilm, a challenging target due to its complex structure and increased resistance to conventional treatments. Furthermore, our results show that PDI with PdF2POH is more selective for bacterial than for mammalian cells, particularly at lower light doses (up to 5 J/cm2 of blue light illumination). This enhanced efficacy of PdF2POH-mediated PDI as compared to ZnF2POH and F2POH can be attributed to more pronounced ROS generation by palladium derivative via both types of photochemical mechanisms (high yields of singlet oxygen generation as well as oxygen-centered radicals). Additionally, PDI proved effective in eliminating bacteria within S. aureus-infected human keratinocytes, inhibiting infection progression while preserving the viability and integrity of infected HaCaT cells. These findings underscore the potential of metalloporphyrins, particularly the Pd(II)-porphyrin complex, as promising photosensitizers for PDI in various bacterial infections, warranting further investigation in advanced infection models.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fotoquimioterapia , Porfirinas , Animais , Humanos , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Porfirinas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Staphylococcus aureus , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Plâncton , Paládio/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Biofilmes , Oxigênio , Mamíferos
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(12): 14573-14582, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484043

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms comprise three main polysaccharides: alginate, psl, and pel, which all imbue tolerance against exogenous antimicrobials. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an exciting new strategy to overcome the biofilm matrix for therapeutic delivery applications; however, zero existing FDA approvals for biofilm-specific NP formulations can be attributed to the complex interplay of physiochemical forces at the biofilm-NP interface. Here, we leverage a set of inducible, polysaccharide-specific, expressing isogenic P. aeruginosa mutants coupled with an assembled layer-by-layer NP (LbL NP) panel to characterize biofilm-NP interactions. When investigating these interactions using confocal microscopy, alginate-layered NPs associated more than dextran-sulfate-layered NPs with biofilms that had increased alginate production, including biofilms produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates from people with cystic fibrosis. These differences were further confirmed in LbL NPs layered with polysaccharide- or hydrocarbon-based polymers with pendent carboxylate or sulfate functional groups. These data suggest carboxylated NP surfaces have enhanced interactions specifically with mucoid biofilms as compared to sulfated surfaces and lay the foundation for their inclusion as a design element for increasing biofilm-NP interactions and efficacious drug delivery.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Humanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Biofilmes , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Alginatos , Sulfatos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(13): 5899-5910, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502922

RESUMO

The established benefits of ozone on microbial pathogen inactivation, natural organic matter degradation, and inorganic/organic contaminant oxidation have favored its application in drinking water treatment. However, viable bacteria are still present after the ozonation of raw water, bringing a potential risk to membrane filtration systems in terms of biofilm accumulation and fouling. In this study, we shed light on the role of the specific ozone dose (0.5 mg-O3/mg-C) in biofilm accumulation during long-term membrane ultrafiltration. Results demonstrated that ozonation transformed the molecular structure of influent dissolved organic matter (DOM), producing fractions that were highly bioavailable at a specific ozone dose of 0.5, which was inferred to be a turning point. With the increase of the specific ozone dose, the biofilm microbial consortium was substantially shifted, demonstrating a decrease in richness and diversity. Unexpectedly, the opportunistic pathogen Legionella was stimulated and occurred in approximately 40% relative abundance at the higher specific ozone dose of 1. Accordingly, the membrane filtration system with a specific ozone dose of 0.5 presented a lower biofilm thickness, a weaker fluorescence intensity, smaller concentrations of polysaccharides and proteins, and a lower Raman activity, leading to a lower hydraulic resistance, compared to that with a specific ozone dose of 1. Our findings highlight the interaction mechanism between molecular-level DOM composition, biofilm microbial consortium, and membrane filtration performance, which provides an in-depth understanding of the impact of ozonation on biofilm accumulation.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Ultrafiltração , Biofilmes
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