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1.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 183, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622363

RESUMO

Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis sp. are single-celled protozoan parasites of humans and animals. Although they are found in the intestines of healthy hosts, the pathogenicity of them is still unclear. To date, there is no report on D. fragilis and only two studies (without subtyping) on the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Musca domestica. In this study, fly samples were collected from livestock farms and their surroundings in the Kirsehir province (Central Anatolia Region) of Türkiye from May to August 2023. A total of 150 microscopically identified M. domestica samples were analyzed for the detection of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. molecularly. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and D. fragilis in M. domestica was determined to be 3.3% (5/150) and 8.0% (12/150), respectively. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of the isolates indicated genotype 1 of D. fragilis. Eleven isolates were identical and represented a single isolate (KAU-Dfrag1). BLAST analysis of KAU-Dfrag1 indicated identity with the isolates reported from humans, cattle, sheep, and budgerigars. The other isolate (KAU-Dfrag2) was polymorphic at two nucleotides from KAU-Dfrag1 and three nucleotides from known genotypes from GenBank and represented a variant of genotype 1. The Blastocystis sp. isolates were found to be identical and represent a single genotype (KAU-Blast1). BLAST analysis revealed that the KAU-Blast1 genotype belonged to the potentially zoonotic subtype 5 (ST5) and exhibited the highest genetic identity (ranging from 99.4 to 99.6%) with pigs, cattle, and sheep from different countries. Our study provides the first data on the molecular prevalence, epidemiology, and genotypic characterization of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. in M. domestica.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Moscas Domésticas , Muscidae , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Bovinos , Suínos , Dientamoeba , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Genótipo , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Nucleotídeos
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 58(2): 196-208, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676586

RESUMO

Blastocystis spp. are the most common intestinal protozoan parasites detected in human stool samples. While identified long before today, its pathogenicity remains controversial. It is generally asymptomatic but in symptomatic cases, many gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea, have been associated with Blastocystis infection. In recent years, the relationship between the symptoms observed in cases and Blastocystis subtypes (ST) has been reported. The aim of this study was to detect Blastocystis in diarrheal cases admitted to the Aydin Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology Laboratory, to determine subtypes and allele diversity and to investigate its relationship with clinical symptoms. For this purpose, diarrheal stool samples of 200 cases were included in the study and their demographic characteristics (age, gender, residence) and clinical findings (abdominal pain, dyspepsia, nausea-vomiting, weakness, weight loss, anal itching, rash, urticaria) were recorded. Blastocystis was detected by direct microscope method (DM) and by molecular analyses which were performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subtype diversity was determined based on DNA sequence analysis by PCR targeting the Blastocystis ribosomal ribonucleic acid small subunit (SSU rRNA) gene. In addition, alleles related to Blastocystis subtypes were determined and statistically compared between all data and clinical findings. In the current study, Blastocystis was detected in 31 (15.5%) samples by DM and in 35 (17.5%) samples by PCR specific to the Blastocystis SSU rRNA gene among 200 diarrheal stool samples. No statistical difference was detected between Blastocystis and demographic characteristics. Dyspepsia and nausea-vomiting symptoms differed significantly in cases with Blastocystis compared to negative ones (p= 0.0025, p= 0.0498). Blastocystis subtype was detected in 33 samples by SSU rRNA sequence analysis, and the subtype distribution was ST1 (n= 10, 30.3%), ST2 (n= 4, 12.1%) and ST3 (n= 19, 57.6%). In the statistical evaluation between clinical findings and Blastocystis subtypes, a relationship was found between dyspepsia and Blastocystis ST3 (p= 0.0039). The allele diversity of Blastocystis subtypes was determined as allele 4 (10/10) in all ST1, allele 11 (2/4) and 12 (2/4) in ST2, allele 34 (14/19), 36 (4/19), and 38 (1/19) in ST3. In conclusion, our study provides important data on the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the Blastocystis by determining positivity, subtypes and alleles in diarrheal cases. Therefore, within the scope of the one health approach, comprehensive molecular epidemiological studies are required to determine the presence and genotypes of Blastocystis in human, animal and environmental samples.


Assuntos
Alelos , Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Diarreia , Fezes , Variação Genética , Humanos , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Fezes/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Turquia/epidemiologia
3.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(3): e1442, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis sp. is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, and there is limited information about its molecular prevalence and subtypes (STs) distribution in camels globally, especially in Iran. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence, STs distribution, and zoonotic potential of Blastocystis sp. in one-humped and two-humped camels in Ardabil province, northwestern Iran. METHODS: A PCR-sequencing tool using the SSU rRNA gene was employed to examine the occurrence and genetic variation of Blastocystis sp. in 150 faecal samples from Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus, 50 samples) and Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius, 100 samples) camels in Ardabil province. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in camels was determined to be 12% (18/150) through microscopy and PCR analyses. Phylogenetically, this study identified three distinct zoonotic STs: ST7, ST10, and ST14. ST10 was the most prevalent, comprising 50% (9/18) of the isolated STs from camels. ST14 closely followed with 38.9% (7/18), while ST7 made up 11.1% (2/18) of the total STs. In brief, ST10, ST14, and ST7 represented 50% (7/14), 35.7% (5/14), and 14.3% (2/14) of the Blastocystis-positive cases in one-humped camels, respectively. Further, each of the ST10 and ST14 accounted for 50% (2/4) of the Blastocystis-positive samples in two-humped camels. An analysis of the available data reveals that out of the 37-44 identified Blastocystis STs, 15 (ST1-ST7, ST10, ST14, ST15, ST21, ST24, ST25, ST26, and ST30) have been reported in camels. The predominant STs observed are ST10 and ST14. Furthermore, among the 15 zoonotic STs (ST1-ST10, ST12-ST14, ST16, and ST23) of Blastocystis reported thus far, nine zoonotic STs (ST1-ST7, ST10, and ST14) have been found in camels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that camels serve as a proper reservoir for a diverse array of Blastocystis STs and thereby can play a significant role in the transmission of this protozoan infection to humans, animals, and water reservoirs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Humanos , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Camelus , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia
4.
Microb Pathog ; 190: 106629, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522492

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a protozoan parasite that infects the intestines of humans and animals, causing chronic diseases such as skin rashes, abdominal pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. infection in cattle, in Hebei Province, China. 2746 cattle fecal samples were collected from 11 cities in Hebei Province and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction targeting the Blastocystis sp. barcoding gene. MEGA, PhyloSuite, and PopART were used to analyze the subtype, sequence signature, pairwise genetic distance, and genetic diversity indices. The results showed that the Blastocystis sp. detection rate was 12.60% (346/2746). The infection rate in different herds was affected by region, age, breeding mode, and variety; that is, the infection rates in areas of southern Hebei, cattle under one year old, intensive raising, and dairy cattle were higher than the infection rates in northern Hebei, cattle over one year old, scatter feeding, and beef cattle. Seven Blastocystis subtypes were identified, namely, ST1, ST2, ST5, ST10, ST14, ST21, and ST26; ST10 was the dominant subtype, and ST14 was the second most common subtype. A total of 374 polymorphic and conserved sites were obtained, including 273 invariable (monomorphic) sites and 101 variable (polymorphic) sites, accounting for 27.01% of all nucleotides. The nucleotide diversity index (Pi) was 0.07749, and the haplotype (gene) diversity index (Hd) was 0.946. This study provides the first comprehensive information on the epidemiological situation of Blastocystis sp. infection in cattle from Hebei Province, China, and revealed rich genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Bovinos , Fezes , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Bovinos , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 171: 105233, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520840

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a protist that is distributed in the gut tract of humans and animals. However, the reports about Blastocystis infection in Tibetan antelope are scarce. We collected 173 Tibetan antelope feces samples from Xinjiang, Qinghai and Xizang, and amplified the SSU rRNA gene of 600 bp region of Blastocystis in our research. Fifty-one samples in total were positive for Blastocystis, with all subtypes being ST31. The lowest prevalence of Blastocystis was observed in Xizang (2/20, 9.1%), followed by Qinghai (18/92, 16.4%), Xinjiang (31/61, 33.7%). The highest prevalence of Blastocystis in Tibetan antelope was detected during the summer was (19/30, 38.8%). This is the first research work regarding the Blastocystis subtypes ST31 in Tibetan antelope. Our research provides information for future researches on the distribution of this Blastocystis subtype and the control of Blastocystis infection.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Humanos , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Tibet/epidemiologia , Antílopes/genética , Fezes , Filogenia , Prevalência , Variação Genética
6.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 922-928, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489010

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rodents are one of the most abundant and diverse species of mammals and have recently been identified as carriers of numerous human pathogens. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence, subtype (STs) distribution, and zoonotic potential of Blastocystis spp. in various species of rodents in Shiraz, southwestern Iran. METHODS: For this aim, a total of 120 fresh fecal samples were collected from Mus musculus (n = 40), Rattus norvegicus (n = 40), and Rattus rattus (n = 40) in various municipality districts of Shiraz (6 out of 10 districts) between February and November 2020. Upon detecting parasites using light microscopy, a DNA fragment of the Blastocystis SSU rDNA gene was amplified using conventional PCR. RESULTS: By employing direct wet mount examination, 8 out of 120 fecal samples (6.7%; 2 from house mice, 3 from black rats, and 3 from brown rats) tested positive. Similarly, 5% (2/40) of house mice, 7.5% (3/40) of black rats, and 7.5% (3/40) of brown rats tested positive using the molecular method. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Blastocystis infecting different rodent species in Shiraz belonged to two potentially zoonotic STs (ST1 and ST4). Accordingly, rodents should not be overlooked as potential reservoirs of zoonotic Blastocystis infections. Different sampled urban districts and their statistical association with reported prevalence rates were analyzed separately. CONCLUSION:  Overall, the issue of the frequency and ST distribution of Blastocystis in urban rodents of Iran is still open to question and for a proper understanding, wider and more comprehensive studies are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Fezes , Filogenia , Doenças dos Roedores , Zoonoses , Animais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis/classificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Roedores/parasitologia , Humanos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química
7.
Parasite ; 31: 12, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450718

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp., a significant zoonotic parasite with a global distribution, was the focus of this study, which aimed to investigate its prevalence and genetic diversity among diarrheic and asymptomatic children in Wenzhou, China. We collected 1,032 fecal samples from Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou, China, comprising 684 from children with diarrhea and 348 from asymptomatic children. Genomic DNA extracted from these samples was used to detect Blastocystis spp. by PCR, targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Subsequently, a phylogenetic tree was constructed, applying the maximum likelihood method. Blastocystis spp. were detected in 67 (6.5%) of the fecal samples. The prevalence rate of Blastocystis spp. in diarrheic children (8.8%; 60/684) was significantly higher than that in asymptomatic children (2.0%; 7/348) (χ 2 = 17.3, p < 0.001). Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene identified five known Blastocystis spp. subtypes, ST1 (n = 12), ST2 (n = 5), ST3 (n = 35), ST4 (n = 12), and ST7 (n = 3). ST1 and ST3 were present in both diarrheic and asymptomatic children, while ST2, ST4, and ST7 were exclusive to diarrheic children. Intra-subtype genetic polymorphisms were identified, comprising four variations in ST1 (ST1-1 to ST1-4), five in ST3 (ST3-1 to ST3-5), two in ST4 (ST4-1 and ST4-2), and two in ST7 (ST7-1 and ST7-2). Notably, ST1-2 to ST1-4, ST3-3 to ST3-5, and ST7-1 and ST7-2 represent newly identified variations. The composition and genetic characteristics of subtypes among children in this region suggest various sources of infection, including human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission.


Title: Prévalence moléculaire et distribution des sous-types de Blastocystis spp. parmi les enfants diarrhéiques et asymptomatiques à Wenzhou, Province du Zhejiang, Chine. Abstract: Blastocystis sp., un parasite zoonotique important avec une distribution mondiale, était au centre de cette étude, qui visait à étudier sa prévalence et sa diversité génétique parmi les enfants diarrhéiques et asymptomatiques de Wenzhou, en Chine. Nous avons collecté 1 032 échantillons fécaux à l'hôpital pour enfants Yuying de Wenzhou, en Chine, dont 684 provenant d'enfants souffrant de diarrhée et 348 d'enfants asymptomatiques. L'ADN génomique extrait de ces échantillons a été utilisé pour détecter Blastocystis sp. par PCR, ciblant le gène de la petite sous-unité de l'ARN ribosomal. Par la suite, un arbre phylogénétique a été construit, en appliquant la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance. Blastocystis sp. a été détecté dans 67 (6,5 %) des échantillons fécaux. Le taux de prévalence de Blastocystis spp. chez les enfants diarrhéiques (8,8 % ; 60 / 684) était significativement plus élevé que chez les enfants asymptomatiques (2,0 % ; 7 / 348) (χ2 = 17,3, p < 0,001). L'analyse de la séquence du gène de l'ARNr SSU a identifié cinq sous-types de Blastocystis spp., ST1 (n = 12), ST2 (n = 5), ST3 (n = 35), ST4 (n = 12) et ST7 (n = 3). Les sous-types ST1 et ST3 étaient présents chez les enfants diarrhéiques et asymptomatiques, tandis que ST2, ST4 et ST7 étaient exclusifs aux enfants diarrhéiques. Des polymorphismes génétiques intra-sous-types ont été identifiés, comprenant quatre variations dans ST1 (ST1-1 à ST1-4), cinq dans ST3 (ST3-1 à ST3-5), deux dans ST4 (ST4-1 et ST4-2) et deux dans ST7 (ST7-1 et ST7-2). Notamment, ST1-2 à ST1-4, ST3-3 à ST3-5, ST7-1 et ST7-2 représentent des variations nouvellement identifiées. La composition et les caractéristiques génétiques des sous-types chez les enfants de cette région suggèrent diverses sources d'infection, notamment la transmission interhumaine et animale.


Assuntos
Blastocystis , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1 , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , China/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 327: 110147, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364349

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a ubiquitous intestinal protist in humans and animals worldwide. The traditional livestock free-roaming raising system in rural communities increases the risk of infection with contact with a wider range of pathogens transmitted via the faecal-oral route associated with that wildlife-livestock-human interface. However, no studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in livestock in Portugal. Here, we collected 180 faecal samples from herbivore livestock (cattle, goats, horses, and sheep) in different regions of the country to investigate Blastocystis prevalence and subtype diversity using PCR and next-generation amplicon sequencing. Blastocystis was present in 40.6% (73/180; 95% CI: 33.31-48.11) of the samples (goats, 81.0%; sheep, 60.9%; cattle, 32.2%). None of the horse samples were Blastocystis-positive. Eighteen subtypes were detected (ST1-ST3, ST5-ST7, ST10, ST13, ST14, ST21, ST23-ST26, ST30, ST42-ST44). Mixed infections were detected in 97.3% of the Blastocystis-positive samples. Potentially zoonotic subtypes were identified in 75.0%, 96.4%, and 100% of the Blastocystis-positive specimens collected from cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively. These results demonstrate that cattle, sheep, and goats harbour a high diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in the study regions. Importantly, our data provide novel molecular evidence strongly suggesting that some Blastocystis STs/ST subgroups may have differential host specificity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Humanos , Bovinos , Cavalos , Ovinos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Gado , Portugal/epidemiologia , Herbivoria , Cabras , Fezes , Prevalência , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Trop ; 252: 107137, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364930

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to identify any potential association between IL-1ß and TNF-α gene polymorphism and the risk of Blastocystis infection as well as co-infection of Blastocystis with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). METHODOLOGY: A total of 314 stool samples were collected and examined microscopically for the detection of parasitic infection. DNA was extracted from all samples and utilized to identify Blastocystis molecularly. Positive samples were used for H. pylori detection by rapid tests and PCR. Moreover, we investigate polymorphism in the TNF-α gene at position -1031T/C, -308 G/A, and IL-1ß at position +3954C/T using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. RESULTS: Out of the 314 stool samples, Blastocystis was detected in 93 (29.6 %); among them, 54 (58.1 %) had a mixed infection of Blastocystis with H. pylori. The TT genotype of the IL-1ß gene at position +3954 was significantly higher in Blasocystis-infected patients than in uninfected patients (17.2% vs. 6.3 %, P = 0.02), which might be considered a risk factor (OR = 3.2; CI =1.21-8.52). The TNF-α at position -1031 TT genotype was significantly higher in Blastocystis-infected patients than uninfected patients (44.1% vs. 10.8 %, P< 0.0001). The T allele (OR= 2.67; CI=1.51-4.72, P = 0.0008) might be considered a risk factor. The TNF- α at position -308 AA genotype is higher in Blasocystis infected than uninfected (17.2% vs 7.2 %, P = 0.03). TNF-α -308 AA (OR = 2.72; CI = 1.08-6.89) and A allele (OR= 1.46; CI= 0.797-2.66) might be considered risk factors. The TNF- α at position -308 G/A showed that the GG is the most frequent genotype in Blastocystis with H. pylori-positive patients with a significant association (P = 0.004), as well as the G allele (P = 0.02). The G allele (OR=1.924; CI= 1.071-3.454) might be considered a risk factor for co-infection of Blastocystis and H. pylori. CONCLUSION: SNPs (-1031 T/C and -308 G/A) of the TNF-α and (+3954 C/T) of the IL-1ß may be a useful marker in the assessment of the risk of Blastocystis infection, and TNF-α at position -308 G/A) may be a predictor for co-infection of Blastocystis with H. pylori.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Coinfecção , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Citocinas/genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Egito , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Interleucina-1beta/genética
10.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 71(3): e13019, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225853

RESUMO

A total of 360 fecal samples were randomly collected from 150 cattle, 150 sheep, and 60 humans (30 people with close animal contact and 30 individuals without close animal contact) at 10 farms in Ilam, western Iran from June 2022 to August 2023. All samples were directly examined for Blastocystis by zinc sulfate flotation, followed by microscopic observation. Positive samples were further subtyped using conventional PCR and sequencing methods. A mean prevalence of 5.3% (16/300) was estimated for Blastocystis infection among examined animals, with 6% and 4.7% for cattle and sheep, respectively. Among the people who had close and non-close animal contact, 16.7% (5/30) and 3.3% (1/30) were infected with Blastocystis, respectively (p < 0.05). All 22 positive samples were successfully sequenced at the SSU rRNA locus. Accordingly, Blastocystis isolates infecting domestic animals in Ilam belonged to the four STs (ST1-ST3, and ST10). Of the 16 animal isolates, nine sequences (four ST10, three ST3, and two ST1) were related to cattle, and seven sequences (three ST10, two ST3, and two ST2) were isolated from sheep. Among the six human isolates, ST3 was the most predominant ST, followed by STs 1, 2, 6, and 7 (one case each). Of note, ST1-ST3 were isolated in various farms both from animals and their breeders, which indicates the possible circulation of these STs between animal and human populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Bovinos , Fezes , Zoonoses , Animais , Bovinos , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 446-452, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presence of Blastocystis sp. is commonly observed in humans and different animals, displaying a wide range of genetic variations with the discovery of multiple subtypes (STs). However, the prevalence and distribution of these STs in edible marine fish and marine mammals remain uncertain. This study marks the first survey conducted in Iran and the second global molecular investigation to examine the occurrence and STs distribution of Blastocystis in various species of edible marine fish. METHODS: This study screened 200 fresh intestinal contents from 10 well-known fish species (Narrow-barred mackerel, Indo-pacific king mackerel, Tigertooth croaker, Silver pomfret, Black pomfret, Longtail tuna, John's snapper, Blackspotted croaker, Four-finger threadfin, and Javelin grunter) in southern Iran, caught in the Persian Gulf. All collected samples were evaluated by microscopy and SSU-PCR methods. RESULTS: Based on both microscopy and PCR, the overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in evaluated fish species was 2% (4/200). In brief, Blastocystis sp. was reported from Narrow-barred mackerel [10% (2/20)], Silver pomfret [5% (1/20)], and Tigertooth croaker [5% (1/20)]. Interestingly, among infected fish species three zoonotic STs (ST1, ST2, and ST7) were identified. ST2 was the most predominant ST [50% (2/4)], followed by ST1 and ST7, one sample each [5% (1/20)]. CONCLUSION: Overall, the prevalence and STs distribution of Blastocystis in edible marine fish along with the possibility of its zoonotic transmission are still open to question and require extensive and more detailed studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Animais , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Prevalência , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Humanos
12.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 106: 102124, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262257

RESUMO

A total of 500 fecal samples were collected from Equus animals in six different cities (Ardabil, Namin, Nir, Meshginshahr, Germi, and Khalkhal) of Ardabil Province, northwestern Iran, with 200 samples from horses, 200 from donkeys, and 100 from mules. Of the horse samples, 100 were from racing horses under special monitoring and care, while the remaining 100 were from non-racing horses, including those used for herding or in rural areas. All fecal samples were examined for the presence of Blastocystis sp. using PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene's barcode region after DNA extraction. The molecular prevalence of Blastocystis infection in Equus animals was 7.6% (38/500). Blastocystis was more common in horses [11.5% (23/200)] than in donkeys [5.5% (11/200)] and mules [4% (4/100)] (P > 0.05). Compared to racing horses [3% (3/100)], non-racing/rural horses [20% (20/100)] exhibited a substantially higher prevalence of Blastocystis (P < 0.05). The prevalence of Blastocystis in diarrheal samples and younger animals was remarkably higher than in formed samples and older animals, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference in Blastocystis infection prevalence was found between the genders of examined animals (P > 0.05). In Equus animals, 38 Blastocystis isolates included eight STs: ST10 [31.6% (12/38)], ST1 [21.1% (8/38)], ST2 [15.8% (6/38)], ST3 [10.5% (4/38)], ST4 [7.9% (3/38)], ST7 [5.2% (2/38)], ST14 [5.2% (2/38)], and ST6 [2.6% (1/38)]. These results suggest that Equus animals act as a proper reservoir for numerous Blastocystis STs, consequently playing a crucial part in the spread of this protozoan infection to humans, animals, and water reservoirs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Humanos , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Equidae/genética , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Variação Genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes , Prevalência , Filogenia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 123(1): 108, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263530

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Blastocystis may cause diarrhea in humans and various animals. However, little information is available regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi and Blastocystis in donkeys. To fill this gap, we molecularly assessed E. bieneusi and Blastocystis in fecal samples from donkeys (n = 815) in Shanxi Province, north China. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi and Blastocystis in donkeys was 8.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Region and age were risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection in donkeys. Three internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified in the current study, including two previously described genotypes (D and Henan-IV) and one novel genotype (named SXD1). Of which, genotype D was found to be the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the three genotypes belonged to group 1, implying a potential of zoonotic transmission. Multilocus sequence typing showed that 19, 15, 13, and 22 types were identified at the loci MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7, respectively, forming six multilocus genotypes (MLGs) distributed in the genotype D. One Blastocystis subtype (ST33) was identified, which has previously been reported only in horses. This is the first molecular-based description of E. bieneusi and Blastocystis infections in donkeys in Shanxi Province, north China, contributing to a better understanding of transmission dynamics and molecular epidemiological characteristics of the two intestinal protozoa.


Assuntos
Blastocystis , Enterocytozoon , Humanos , Cavalos , Animais , Equidae , Filogenia , Prevalência , China , Genótipo
14.
Parasitology ; 151(2): 125-134, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38087868

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a prevalent protistan parasite found globally in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and various animals. This review aims to elucidate the advancements in research on axenic isolation techniques for Blastocystis sp. and their diverse applications. Axenic isolation, involving the culture and isolation of Blastocystis sp. free from any other organisms, necessitates the application of specific media and a series of axenic treatment methods. These methods encompass antibiotic treatment, monoclonal culture, differential centrifugation, density gradient separation, micromanipulation and the combined use of culture media. Critical factors influencing axenic isolation effectiveness include medium composition, culture temperature, medium characteristics, antibiotic type and dosage and the subtype (ST) of Blastocystis sp. Applications of axenic isolation encompass exploring pathogenicity, karyotype and ST analysis, immunoassay, characterization of surface chemical structure and lipid composition and understanding drug treatment effects. This review serves as a valuable reference for clinicians and scientists in selecting appropriate axenic isolation methods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Blastocystis , Animais , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal , Cariótipo , Temperatura
15.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 71(2): e13012, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37975433

RESUMO

To determine the infection status and assess the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis spp. in Hotan Black chickens in southern Xinjiang, China, fecal samples were collected from 617 chickens on 18 large-scale farms. The presence of Blastocystis spp. was determined using polymerase chain reaction based on the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) locus. The results revealed an overall infection rate of 26.3% (162/617). Samples from Farm 1 in Luopu County showed the highest infection rate (76.3%, 29/38). The highest and lowest infection rates were detected in the <30-day (34.4%, 43/125) and > 90-day age groups (12.4%, 11/89), respectively. The infection rate decreased with increasing age. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the infection rates of Blastocystis spp. among the different sampling sites (p < 0.05) and age groups (p < 0.05). Four Blastocystis spp. subtypes (ST6, ST7, ST10, and ST23) were identified. The infection rates of the zoonotic subtypes, ST6 and ST7, were 3.2% (20/617) and 22.2% (137/617), respectively. The presence of Blastocystis spp. and zoonotic subtypes provided evidence for the potential transmission of this pathogen between Hotan Black chickens and humans, especially in animal handlers in this area.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Humanos , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Galinhas , Variação Genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fezes , Prevalência , Filogenia
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(1): 130-136, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of Dientamoeba fragilis (DF) and Blastocystis species (Bs) in human stool. METHODS: Observational study of patients ≥18 years, who were tested by stool multiplex PCR for bacteria and parasites between April 2019 and March 2022. Although DF and Bs are part of the PCR kit, these results are not routinely reported to the patient or the ordering physician. The main outcomes were the incidence of symptoms during 14 days before the referral to stool PCR test, and the incidence of several clinical outcomes during 60 days after the PCR test (symptoms, referrals to further evaluation, prescription of symptomatic, or antibiotic treatment). RESULTS: A total of 27 918 patients were tested by stool PCR during the 3 study years. A total of 6215 (22.3%) and 5337 (19.2%) were positive for DF and Bs, respectively. The incidence of symptoms before the test was similar in those positive for Bs or DF and those with all-negative PCR (adjusted OR and 95% CI of 0.87 [0.80-0.95] and 0.82 [0.76-0.88] for Bs and DF, respectively), whereas significantly higher (2.47 [2.23-2.73]) in those positive for the other multiplex PCR assay components. During the 60 days after the test, the prevalence of any of the outcomes was similar in those positive for Bs or DF and those with negative PCR (adjusted OR and 95% CI of 0.92 [0.83-1.02] and 0.89 [0.81-0.97] for symptoms, 0.84 [0.75-0.94] and 0.93 [0.85-1.01] for referrals, 0.88 [0.75-1.03] and 0.82 [0.71-0.94] for symptomatic treatment, and 0.88 [0.75-1.02] and 0.86 [0.75-0.98] for antibiotic treatment in the Bs and DF positive individuals, respectively). The PCR cycle threshold was not associated with any of the outcomes. DISCUSSION: Positive stool PCR for DF or Bs was not associated with any of the measured clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Blastocystis , Humanos , Blastocystis/genética , Dientamoeba/genética , Relevância Clínica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Antibacterianos
17.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 71(1): e12998, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37658622

RESUMO

The Blastocystis subtype ST10 has been recognized to contain a great deal of diversity at the sequence level, potentially indicating the presence of multiple new STs within the clade. However, the data needed to validate these new STs were not available. To help resolve this diversity, full-length small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene reference sequences were generated using Oxford Nanopore MinION long-read sequencing from 21 samples representing multiple domestic and wild hosts and geographic regions and covering the sequence diversity previously described using fragments of the SSU rRNA gene. Phylogenetic and pairwise distance analyses were used to compare full-length sequences of the SSU rRNA gene generated in this study with all other valid STs of Blastocystis. We present data supporting the division of ST10/ST23 cluster into five subtypes, ST10, ST23, and three new subtypes with the proposed ST designations of ST42, ST43, and ST44. As the host range of Blastocystis continues to expand with new subtypes and new hosts being frequently identified, the reference sequences provided in this study will assist in accurate sequence classification and help to clarify the epidemiology of this common intestinal microeukaryote.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Humanos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Filogenia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Fezes , Variação Genética , Prevalência
18.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(1): 1-4, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980258

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite that has been linked to gut pathology in humans. In this article, we highlight recent publications that offer insight into how these organisms can influence human cognition and the gut microbiome. We also suggest a potential mechanism of action by which this might occur.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Encéfalo , Fezes/parasitologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 249: 107090, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048971

RESUMO

Blastocystis is an intestinal microeukaryote that has raised attention due to its wide distribution in animals and humans. The risk of zoonotic circulation primarily arises from close contact with infected animals. Therefore, the following study aimed to evaluate the diversity and frequency of Blastocystis subtypes in Colombian human and animal samples using complete sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. For this purpose, 341 human stool samples and 277 animal fecal samples (from cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, cats, and dogs), were collected from different Colombian regions and analyzed using PCR-based detection and full-length 18S SSU rRNA gene Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Among the 618 samples from both hosts, humans and animals, the results revealed widespread Blastocystis frequency, with 48.09% (n = 164) in humans and 31.4% (n = 87) detection in animals. Dogs, cats, sheep, pigs, and wild animals tested positive, aligning with global prevalence patterns. Also, 29 human samples and 23 animal samples were sequenced using ONT technology from which 11 long-read unique sequences were generated and cluster with their compared reference sequences. The subtype distribution varied within hosts, detecting ST1 and ST3 in both human and animal samples. Subtypes ST5, ST10, ST14, ST15, ST21, ST24, ST25 and ST26 were limited to animals hosts, some of which are considered to have zoonotic potential. On the other hand, ST2 was found exclusively in human samples from Bolivar region. Mixed infections occurred in both animal and humans, 60.86% and 27.58% respectively. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first study in Colombia identifying ST15 in pigs and ST25 in sheep. The subtypes (STs) identified in this study indicate that certain animals may serve as reservoirs with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The identification of zoonotic subtypes highlights the use of Next Generation Sequencing as the depth and resolution of the sequences increases providing insights into STs of medical and veterinarian significance. It also reveals the coexistence of diverse subtypes among hosts. Further research is essential for understanding transmission dynamics, health implications, and detection strategies for Blastocystis occurrence in animals and humans, mainly associated to the role of animals as reservoirs and their close interaction with humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Nanoporos , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Suínos , Ovinos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Colômbia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Genes de RNAr , Animais Selvagens , Prevalência , Variação Genética , Cabras , Fezes , Filogenia
20.
Parasite ; 30: 64, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117274

RESUMO

Blastocystosis is an infection caused by Blastocystis sp., which colonizes the digestive tract of various hosts, including humans, although its pathogenicity is debated. It is crucial to detect and distinguish the different forms of Blastocystis to understand better its impact on human health and its epidemiological evolution. This study evaluated three diagnostic methods on 105 stool samples: direct examination, culture in Jones' medium, and conventional PCR. PCR is considered the gold standard and revealed a high prevalence of Blastocystis (67.62%) compared to direct examination (20.95%) and culture in Jones' medium (51.43%). Although the sensitivity of direct examination and culture was 31% and 76.1%, respectively, their specificity was 100%. No significant risk factors were identified. A statistically significant association was observed between Blastocystis infection and abdominal pain. Microscopic analysis revealed various morphological forms. Molecular diagnosis is an essential tool to determine the true prevalence of Blastocystis, and studying the different forms of this microorganism will contribute to a better understanding of its biological cycle and, therefore, the impact of this emerging infection on human health.


Title: Prévalence de Blastocystis sp. au Maroc : évaluation comparative de trois méthodes de diagnostic et caractérisation des formes parasitaires en milieu de culture Jones. Abstract: La blastocystose est une infection causée par Blastocystis sp., qui colonise le tractus digestif de divers hôtes, y compris l'homme, bien que son pouvoir pathogène soit débattu. Il est crucial de détecter et de distinguer les différentes formes de Blastocystis pour mieux comprendre son impact sur la santé humaine et son évolution épidémiologique. Cette étude a évalué trois méthodes de diagnostic sur 105 échantillons de selles : l'examen direct, la culture en milieu de Jones et la PCR conventionnelle. La PCR, considérée comme méthode de référence, a révélé une prévalence élevée de Blastocystis (67,62 %) par rapport à l'examen direct (20,95 %) et à la culture en milieu de Jones (51,43 %). Bien que la sensibilité de l'examen direct et de la culture soit respectivement de 31 % et 76,1 %, leur spécificité était de 100 %. Aucun facteur de risque significatif n'a été identifié. Une association statistiquement significative a été observée entre l'infection à Blastocystis et les douleurs abdominales. L'analyse microscopique a révélé diverses formes morphologiques. Le diagnostic moléculaire est un outil essentiel pour déterminer la véritable prévalence de Blastocystis, et l'étude des différentes formes de ce microorganisme contribuera à une meilleure compréhension de son cycle biologique et, par conséquent de l'impact de cette infection émergente sur la santé humaine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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