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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(3): 261-274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research examining first responders of terrorist incidents has been conducted in early post-disaster periods, utilized quantitative research methods, and focused on psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress. METHODS: Longitudinal follow-up assessments of 124 workers from 181 baseline volunteer rescue and recovery workers originally studied were completed nearly a quarter century after the terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Open-ended qualitative interviews were used in the follow-up study. RESULTS: The rescue and recovery work, vividly described decades later, was gruesome. These workers' descriptions captured their mental toughness and their professional missions, as well as the emotional and mental health (MH) toll on their lives. CONCLUSIONS: The extreme nature of rescue and recovery work in the aftermath of terrorism suggests potential utility for MH interventions to address the psychological toll that can be expected of human beings under the most extraordinary circumstances.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Terrorismo , Humanos , Oklahoma , Terrorismo/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Seguimentos , Feminino , Socorristas/psicologia , Trabalho de Resgate , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Narração
2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 246: 104293, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670044

RESUMO

This analysis examines the relationship between exposure to American wartime bombardments earlier in life and later-life PTSD among current surviving Vietnamese aged 59+. It also assesses whether the relationship varies by military status during the war - formal military, informal military, or civilian - and whether associations are explained by exposure to violence and malevolent conditions. Data link survey responses from the 2018 Vietnam Health and Aging Study to provincial-wide level bombing intensity using U.S. Department of Defense records from the Theater History of Operations Vietnam database. PTSD measured using nine items from the PTSD Checklist. Analyses employ multivariate logistic quantile regression. Findings examined for a sample of 2290 Vietnamese survivors and a subsample of 736 Vietnamese that moved at least once during wartime. Results show a robust and significant positive association between province-wide bombing intensity and later-life PTSD scores. Interaction effects indicate civilians have overall lower levels of PTSD than those that were in the formal or informal military, but the association between bombing and PTSD is stronger among civilians. Much of the association is a function of exposure to violence and less is a function of exposure to malevolent conditions. Findings confirm earlier studies that have shown severe deleterious impacts of war trauma, and arial bombardments particularly, on long-term psychological health, while extending extant literature to civilian populations living in Vietnam during intense aerial bombing episodes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Guerra do Vietnã , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População do Sudeste Asiático
3.
N Engl J Med ; 390(6): 580, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324504
4.
N Engl J Med ; 389(22): 2026-2027, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38009621
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 349: 111771, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385158

RESUMO

Radiocarbon dating is a useful tool in the examination of unknown human remains. Recent studies have shown that the analysis of hair and nail samples can provide a highly accurate estimation of the year of death (YOD). However, little research has examined factors that may influence the uptake and storage of 14C in these tissues, such as diet, or the use of beauty products. This study measured the level of 14C in human hair and nail samples collected from living individuals to determine whether diet, and the use of hair dye or nail polish, has a significant impact on the estimation of YOD. The results of this study showed that diet did not appear to impact the radiocarbon content in human hair and nail, and thus should not be considered a limitation when analysing samples obtained from unidentified human remains. The use of nail polish, and in the majority of cases, hair dye, did not significantly impact the 14C concentration in nails and hair. While the results of this study are preliminary, they suggest that in most cases, both hair and nail can be successfully analysed using radiocarbon dating to estimate an individual's YOD. However, best practice should involve the analysis of multiple tissue types, to minimise any error that may be introduced as a result of the decedent's use of beauty products.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Tinturas para Cabelo , Humanos , Unhas , Restos Mortais , Dieta , Cabelo
7.
Emerg Radiol ; 30(3): 307-313, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37039928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the radiological images of child victims suffering from secondary blast injuries, to reveal organ-based injury patterns and their interrelationships, and to record mortality rates that may develop due to injured systems. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with secondary blast injury due to bomb explosion were included in the study. Injury findings due to shrapnel in radiologic images of the patients were examined. Injured systems and types of injuries were recorded. RESULTS: The most common injuries were intra-abdominal injuries (63%) and fractures (58.5%). Lung injury was observed in 4 (9.8%) of 41 patients with intra-abdominal injury, while 37 (90.2%) did not, and this was statistically significant (p = 0.003). The most common intra-abdominal organ injury was a small bowel injury in 23 (35.4%) patients. The coexistence of small bowel injury and large bowel injury was present in 8 patients (34.8%), and it was statistically significant (p = 0.019). A total of 14 (21.5%) of the patients died. There was no significant relationship between mortality and gender (p = 319). Brain damage was present in 10 (71.4%) of the 14 (21.5%) patients who died, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the most common injuries were intra-abdominal injuries, damage to different organs could occur at the same time, and deaths were especially associated with brain injuries. For this reason, it should not be forgotten that CT scans will have an important place in the triage of the patient, especially in victims with shrapnel at the abdominal and cranial levels in radiography examinations.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Humanos , Criança , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Soc Sci Res ; 110: 102849, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36797006

RESUMO

Compliance with international treaties is the bedrock of the international order. When it comes to international humanitarian treaties, which regulate war-making, the issue of compliance gains urgency as people's lives are on the line. At the same time, measuring states' actions during an armed conflict is known to be exceedingly challenging. Current measures for states' compliance with their international obligations during armed conflict has been incomplete, offering a broad generalization that does not necessarily capture reality on the ground or alternatively based on proxy measurements, which produce a distorted portray of events in relation to obligations. This study suggests geospatial analysis as a gauging tool for states' compliance with international treaties during armed conflict. Examining the 2014 Gaza War as an instrumental case study, this paper underscores the efficacy of this measure and informs current debates on the success of humanitarian treaties and variation in compliance.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Cooperação Internacional , Humanos
9.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 38(2): 185-192, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The experience of terrorist incidents involving a secondary explosive device that targeted rescue forces led to changes in the safety protocols of these forces in most countries of the world. These protocols are the foundation of the current "Stage-and-Wait" paradigm that prohibits the entry of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from entering the scene and treating casualties until it is deemed safe. These guidelines were established absent of an evidence-base detailing the risk to responders and the potential consequences to the injured on-scene. The lack of clarity is compounded by the fact that different situations, as well as operational considerations, such as the length of time until bomb squad arrival at the scene versus time of massive bleeding injuries, for example, impact outcomes must be taken into account. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to shed light on this matter while employing an evidence-based approach exploring the investigations of the frequency of secondary explosion threats in terrorist attacks over the last 20 years and discussing some of the ethical challenges and ramifications ensuing. While this study does not propose an outright change to current guidelines, in light of the evidence gathered, an open review and discussion based on the findings may be beneficial. METHODS: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was used as the data source of bombing incidents world-wide. RESULTS: The results revealed that approximately 70 per-1,000 bombing incidents involved secondary explosions across regions and countries within the study period. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the need to rethink the current "Stage-and-Wait" paradigm by recommending brainstorming conferences comprised of multi-sectoral experts aimed at deliberating the matter. World-wide experts in emergency medicine, bioethics, and disaster management should cautiously consider all aspects of bomb-related incidents. These brainstorming deliberations should consider the calculated risk of secondary explosions that account for approximately 70 per-1,000 bombing incidents. This study highlights the need to re-examine the current versus new paradigm to achieve a better balance between the need to ensure EMS safety while also providing the necessary and immediate care to improve casualty survival. This ethical dilemma of postponing urgent care needs to be confronted.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Planejamento em Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , Humanos , Traumatismos por Explosões/terapia , Explosões
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114798, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057188

RESUMO

The news from Ukraine is currently full of heart-wrenching stories accompanied by graphic images of civilian casualties and massacres that are telecast world-wide on a daily basis. It is hard to fathom the magnitude of the devastation and disruption to regular lives and everyday routines that war brings with it, the witnessing of countless deaths, the associated trauma of living in perpetual fear, and the daily experience of many families and orphans who are crowded into basement bomb shelters now for months on end. These issues make us contemplate the mental health consequences, among other lasting effects, of this costly war in Ukraine, and wars in other countries not so widely featured in Western news. Despite people of all ages being affected by war, children are especially vulnerable. This commentary outlines some of the epidemiology of the consequences of war, the mental health sequelae specifically, and the complexity of providing culturally and contextually relevant interventions that meet the needs of children.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Criança , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
12.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 3111-3122, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131565

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an important role in regulating tumor cell death and metabolism so that they can be potential therapeutic targets. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) represents an attractive antitumor method that induces apoptosis by producing highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria-targeting SDT can cause oxidative damage and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy. However, due to the nonselective distribution of nanosystems and the anti-apoptotic mechanism of cancer cells, the therapeutic effect of SDT is not ideal. Therefore, we proposed a novel mitochondria-targeting nanosystem ('Mito-Bomb') for ferroptosis-boosted SDT. Sonosensitizer IR780 and ferroptosis activator RSL-3 were both encapsulated in biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to form 'Mito-Bomb' (named IRP NPs). IR780 in this nanosystem was used to mediate mitochondria-targeting SDT. RSL-3 inhibited the activity of GPX4 in the antioxidant system to induce ferroptosis of tumor cells, which could rewire tumor metabolism and make tumor cells extremely sensitive to SDT-induced apoptosis. Notably, we also found that RSL-3 can inhibit hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induce ROS production to improve the efficacy of SDT to synergistically antitumor. RSL-3 was applied as a 'One-Stone-Three-Birds' agent for cooperatively enhanced SDT against triple-negative breast cancer. This study presented the first example of RSL-3 boosting mitochondria-targeting SDT as a ferroptosis activator. The 'Mito-Bomb' biocompatible nanosystem was expected to become an innovative tumor treatment method and clinical transformation.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Ferroptose , Terapia por Ultrassom , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mitocôndrias , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos
13.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113994, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931185

RESUMO

Atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) recorded in tree rings has been widely used for atmospheric 14C calibration purposes and climate studies. But atmospheric 14C records have been limited along tropical latitudes. Here we report a sequence from 1938 to 2007 of precisely measured 14C dates in tree rings of the parenchyma-rich Hymenolobium petraeum tree species (Porto Trombetas, 1°S, 56°W) from the Central Brazilian Amazon. H. petraeum has discernible growth ring boundaries that allow dating techniques to be employed to produce calendrical dates. Bomb-peak tree-ring 14C reconstruction coincides with the broader changes associated with reported values of the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric 14C curve (SH zone 3; values within the ±2σ interval), suggesting that inter-hemispheric air-mass transport of excess-14C injected into the stratosphere during intensive atmospheric nuclear tests is relatively uniform across distinct longitudinal regions. From the early 1980s onwards, H. petraeum had lower 14C values than other pantropical 14C records. Through 14C-based estimation, we found a strong influence of fossil-fuel CO2 contributions from Porto Trombetas mining operations and shipping traffic on inland waterways. An increase of at least 6.3 ± 0.8 ppm of fossil-fuel CO2 has been detected by 14C. Our findings invite further 14C analyses using tree rings of tropical tree species as a potential tracer for a wide range of environmental sources of atmospheric 14C-variability.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Combustíveis Fósseis , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Clima , Mineração
14.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 183-191, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissociation is a serious psychological condition that is characterized as a pathological outcome of trauma-related experience. Thus, dissociation could be expected to develop in survivors of disaster trauma and to be associated with trauma exposure and psychopathology. METHODS: A sample of 278 disaster-affected Kenyans was assessed 8 to 10 months after the 1998 terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi for a study of trauma-related psychopathology and dissociation in the context of personality and culture. Instruments of assessment were the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: Dissociation appeared to represent a largely nonpathological response to the disaster experience that reflected personality variables and a cultural context. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dissociation encountered in disaster-exposed groups in this cultural setting does not necessarily represent psychopathology, but attention to dissociative responses might help clinicians identify and provide interventions for individuals experiencing distressing intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Terrorismo , Transtornos Dissociativos , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia
15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 625: 532-543, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749848

RESUMO

The rising risk of lung cancer has become a primary global concern with high mortality and mobility. Presently, clinically used anticancer drugs show limited efficacy and significant side effects. A new generation of anticancer weapons is in great demand for lung cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel style of biomimetic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) based on the merits of cell membranes derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), which can navigate biological bombs herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase-encoded plasmids (pHSVtk) and ganciclovir (GCV) to treat lung cancer. The biological bomb-loaded structure can kill transfected lung cancer cells and neighboring lung cancer cells through the "bystander effect," which induces efficient suppression of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The biomimetic nanoparticles show an enhanced circulation lifetime and drug accumulation in the tumor tissues and significantly inhibit the tumors. We have developed a straightforward approach to deliver biological bombs with biomimetic metal-organic frameworks for efficient lung cancer therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a strategy for lung cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Biomimética , Ganciclovir/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia
16.
Adv Mater ; 34(29): e2201978, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606680

RESUMO

Hypoxia, as a characteristic feature of solid tumors, has a close relationship with tumor resistance to photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is reported to relieve hypoxic in solid tumors by acting as an oxygen carrier via several nanostructures. However, the oxygen delivery process is mostly driven by a concentration gradient, which is uncontrollable. Herein, a photothermally controlled "oxygen bomb" PSPP-Au980 -D is designed by encapsulating a PFC core within a functionalized bilayer polymer shell. Near-infrared second window photothermal agent gold nanorods with excellent photo-to-heat energy-conversion ability are fabricated on the surface of the polymer shell via an innovative modified two-step seedless ex situ growth process to thermally trigger O2  release. Then, a programmed cascade therapy strategy is customized for hypoxic orthotopic pancreatic cancer. First, PSPP-Au980 -D is irradiated by a 980 nm laser to photothermally trigger O2  infusing into the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, which is accompanied by local hyperemia and doxorubicin release. Subsequently, a 680 nm laser is used to generate singlet oxygen in the oxygenated tumor microenvironment for PDT. This choreographed programmed cascade therapy strategy will provide a new route for suppressing hypoxic tumor growth under mild conditions based on controllable and effective oxygen release.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipóxia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxigênio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592329

RESUMO

CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the main cellular effectors of the adaptive immune response against cancer cells, which in turn have evolved sophisticated cellular defense mechanisms to withstand CTL attack. Herein we provide a critical review of the pertinent literature on early and late attack/defense events taking place at the CTL/target cell lytic synapse. We examine the earliest steps of CTL-mediated cytotoxicity ("the poison arrows") elicited within seconds of CTL/target cell encounter, which face commensurately rapid synaptic repair mechanisms on the tumor cell side, providing the first formidable barrier to CTL attack. We examine how breach of this first defensive barrier unleashes the inextinguishable "Greek fire" in the form of granzymes whose broad cytotoxic potential is linked to activation of cell death executioners, injury of vital organelles, and destruction of intracellular homeostasis. Herein tumor cells deploy slower but no less sophisticated defensive mechanisms in the form of enhanced autophagy, increased reparative capacity, and dysregulation of cell death pathways. We discuss how the newly discovered supra-molecular attack particles (SMAPs, the "scorpion bombs"), seek to overcome the robust defensive mechanisms that confer tumor cell resistance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the aforementioned attack/defense mechanisms on the induction of regulated cell death (RCD), and how different contemporary RCD modalities (including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis) may have profound implications for immunotherapy. Thus, we propose that understanding and targeting multiple steps of the attack/defense process will be instrumental to enhance the efficacy of CTL anti-tumor activity and meet the outstanding challenges in clinical immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Venenos , Animais , Grécia , Venenos/metabolismo , Escorpiões , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
18.
Clin Radiol ; 77(7): 522-528, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469661

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the radiological images of children with musculoskeletal injuries and accompanying organ injuries caused by explosions to determine the differences and frequency of injury types and to emphasise the importance of radiology in war injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four children with injuries caused by bomb explosions were included in the study. The paediatric trauma scores evaluated in the emergency department on the first admission were recorded. All radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images were evaluated for musculoskeletal injuries and accompanying organ injuries. RESULTS: The highest incidence of fracture in the primary blast injury (PBI) group was skull fracture in 15 (62.5%) patients (p=0.01) and fractures in the other groups were most common in the lower extremities. Amputation was observed in nine (31%) patients in the PBI group (p=0.003); however, there were no patients with amputations in the secondary blast injury (SBI) group (p=0.002). The frequency of pneumothorax (79.3%) and pulmonary contusion (59.4%) was high in the PBI group (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Skull fractures were observed in 15 (88.2%) of 17 patients with brain injury (p<0.001), and skull fractures were the most common fracture site accompanying pulmonary trauma. The average paediatric trauma score of individuals exposed to shrapnel was found to be high (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Because paediatric musculoskeletal injuries vary with the type of blast injury and severe trauma can occur in children due to blast effects, radiologists who triage mass injuries should understand the effects of blast injury patterns and the spectrum of injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Fraturas Cranianas , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Criança , Explosões , Humanos , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Síria/epidemiologia
19.
Can J Surg ; 65(2): E242-E249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS: Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS: Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION: Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Hemostáticos , Robótica , Constrição , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos
20.
Child Abuse Negl ; 128: 105622, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366414

RESUMO

As the Russia-Ukraine conflict continues to unfold, the ever-evolving situation can be particularly difficult for children and teenagers. Children living in these areas face serious threats from bombing, landmines and unexploded ordnance. Their lives are also threatened by the destruction of vital infrastructure - health centers, schools and water supplies - because of the fighting. War can have a devastating effect on children's mental and physical health, with potentially lifelong consequences. Fears can generate fantasies of the end of the world, as well as the fear of losing a loved one or life itself, nightmares and regressions to previous evolutionary stages. This situation is creating dramatic scenes at train stations, where families are forced to say goodbye.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Adolescente , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Ucrânia
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