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1.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(7): e14659, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949053

RESUMO

Twin pregnancy in cattle is undesirable for a number of reasons, including a higher abortion risk compared to pregnancies with a single foetus. Yet, the abortion risk is significantly influenced by the intrauterine location of the foetuses, that is, the abortion risk is several times higher if they are implanted in the same uterine horn (unilateral twin pregnancy) than if they are implanted with one foetus in each uterine horn (bilateral twin pregnancy). The reason for the higher abortion risk in unilateral twin pregnancies is unknown, but it may be related to malnutrition of the outermost foetus due to a limited placental capacity, as is the case for equine twin foetuses. A slaughterhouse study was performed and the foetuses of cattle pregnant with twins were measured. We identified 65 cases of twin pregnancies, of which 35 were unilateral twin pregnancies and 30 were bilateral twin pregnancies. There was no significant difference between the outermost and the more centrally located foetus in unilateral twin pregnancies in terms of body weight and length of the metacarpal diaphysis. Growth retardation of the outermost foetus could therefore not be confirmed as the cause of the higher abortion risk in unilateral bovine twin pregnancies. Four cases of pre-slaughter foetal mortality were identified. In three of these cases, both twins were dead, of equal size and at a comparable level of degradation. In the fourth case, with approximately 40-day-old twin foetuses of equal size, only one of the foetuses showed signs of pre-slaughter death.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Animais , Bovinos/embriologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Feto , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Gravidez Múltipla , Morte Fetal , Doenças dos Bovinos/congênito , Gêmeos
2.
J Vis Exp ; (208)2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949314

RESUMO

Advancing knowledge of gastrointestinal physiology and its diseases critically depends on the development of precise, species-specific in vitro models that faithfully mimic in vivo intestinal tissues. This is particularly vital for investigating host-pathogen interactions in bovines, which are significant reservoirs for pathogens that pose serious public health risks. Traditional 3D organoids offer limited access to the intestinal epithelium's apical surface, a hurdle overcome by the advent of 2D monolayer cultures. These cultures, derived from organoid cells, provide an exposed luminal surface for more accessible study. In this research, a detailed protocol is introduced for creating and sustaining 2D monolayer cultures from cells of bovine small and large intestinal organoids. This method includes protocols for assessing membrane integrity through transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular permeability alongside immunocytochemistry staining techniques. These protocols lay the groundwork for establishing and characterizing a 2D bovine monolayer culture system, pushing the boundaries of these method applications in biomedical and translational research of public health importance. Employing this innovative approach enables the development of physiologically pertinent in vitro models for exploring both normal and diseased states of cattle intestinal physiology. The implications for biomedical and agricultural advancements are profound, paving the way for more effective treatments for intestinal ailments in cattle, thereby enhancing both animal welfare and food safety.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado , Organoides , Animais , Bovinos , Organoides/citologia , Intestino Delgado/citologia , Intestino Grosso , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 713, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956045

RESUMO

Zooarchaeologists investigate past interactions between animals, humans, and their environments by analyzing the remains of archaeological fauna. Age-at-death distributions are fundamental to faunal analysis and are often estimated by comparing exposed dentine patterns to standardized tooth wear stages that have been associated with relative age classes. We present Bubona, an international dataset of dental wear patterns and associated broad age classes in archaeological cattle mandibles. Our open-access dataset of 1460 data entries from nine counties is being used to create tooth-type specific reference tables of probable age class attribution for cattle mandibles lacking complete dentition. Bubona is a valuable resource for the innovation of new systems of age estimation for cattle and it is the creators hope that researchers will continue to both help expand the dataset by contributing their own data, as well as utilize the data to refine and innovate age-at-death estimation methods.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Mandíbula , Desgaste dos Dentes , Animais , Bovinos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15257, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956118

RESUMO

Bovine pain assessment relies on validated behavioral scales related to normal and pain-related behaviors. This study investigated the reliability and applicability of real-time and video-recorded pain assessment, and their agreement, in young, adult bulls undergoing surgical castration. Ten Nelore and nine Angus bulls underwent general anesthesia and surgical castration. Three-minute real-time observations and simultaneous videos were recorded at - 48 h (M0), before sedation, under fasting (M1), after surgery, 3 h after sternal recumbency (M2), after rescue analgesia (M3) and at 24 h (M4). Animals received morphine (after M2), dipyrone (after M3), and flunixin meglumine after surgical castration (M4). Two trained evaluators assessed real-time (n = 95) and video-recorded time-points (n = 95) using the Unesp-Botucatu Cattle Pain Scale (UCAPS). Both assessment methods inferred 'very good' reliability (≥ 0.81) with minimal bias, however, video-recorded assessment (4.33 ± 2.84) demonstrated slightly higher scores compared to real-time (3.08 ± 2.84). The results from this study suggest that UCAPS can be used in real-time or video-recorded to assess pain and guide analgesic therapy in cattle.


Assuntos
Orquiectomia , Medição da Dor , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Masculino , Bovinos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Clonixina/uso terapêutico , Dor/veterinária , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Dipirona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 654, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carcass weight (HCW) and marbling (MARB) are critical for meat quality and market value in beef cattle. In composite breeds like Brangus, which meld the genetics of Angus and Brahman, SNP-based analyses have illuminated some genetic influences on these traits, but they fall short in fully capturing the nuanced effects of breed of origin alleles (BOA) on these traits. Focus on the impacts of BOA on phenotypic features within Brangus populations can result in a more profound understanding of the specific influences of Angus and Brahman genetics. Moreover, the consideration of BOA becomes particularly significant when evaluating dominance effects contributing to heterosis in crossbred populations. BOA provides a more comprehensive measure of heterosis due to its ability to differentiate the distinct genetic contributions originating from each parent breed. This detailed understanding of genetic effects is essential for making informed breeding decisions to optimize the benefits of heterosis in composite breeds like Brangus. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing HCW and MARB by utilizing SNP and BOA information, incorporating additive, dominance, and overdominance effects within a multi-generational Brangus commercial herd. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic data from 1,066 genotyped Brangus steers. BOA inference was performed using LAMP-LD software using Angus and Brahman reference sets. SNP-based and BOA-based GWAS were then conducted considering additive, dominance, and overdominance models. RESULTS: The study identified numerous QTLs for HCW and MARB. A notable QTL for HCW was associated to the SGCB gene, pivotal for muscle growth, and was identified solely in the BOA GWAS. Several BOA GWAS QTLs exhibited a dominance effect underscoring their importance in estimating heterosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that SNP-based methods may not detect all genetic variation affecting economically important traits in composite breeds. BOA inclusion in genomic evaluations is crucial for identifying genetic regions contributing to trait variation and for understanding the dominance value underpinning heterosis. By considering BOA, we gain a deeper understanding of genetic interactions and heterosis, which is integral to advancing breeding programs. The incorporation of BOA is recommended for comprehensive genomic evaluations to optimize trait improvements in crossbred cattle populations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido , Carne , Alelos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0293718, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959213

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of a rumen-bypass protein (RBP) supplement on growth performance, plasma and urinary N (UN) concentration, hepatic mitochondrial protein complexes, and hepatic mRNA expression of immune genes of beef steers with negative or positive residual feed intake (RFI) phenotype. Forty crossbred beef steers with an average body weight (BW) of 492 ± 36 kg were subjected to a generalized randomized block design over a 42-day experimental period. This study followed a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The factors evaluated were: 1) RFI classification (low-RFI (-2.12 kg/d) vs. high-RFI (2.02 kg/d), and 2) rumen-bypass protein supplement: RBP supplement (RBP; 227 g/steer/d) vs. control diet (CON; 0 g/d), resulting in four distinct treatments: LRFI-CON (n = 10), LRFI-RBP (n = 10), HRFI-CON (n = 10), and HRFI-RBP (n = 10). The RBP supplement (84% crude protein) is a mixture of hydrolyzed feather meal, porcine blood meal, and DL-methionine hydroxy analogue. The beef steers were stratified by BW, randomly assigned to treatments, and housed in four pens (1 treatment/pen) equipped with two GrowSafe feed bunks each to measure individual dry mater intake (DMI). Body weight was measured every 7 d. Liver tissue samples were collected on d 42 from all the beef steers. These samples were used for mRNA expression analysis of 16 immune-related genes and for evaluating the mitochondrial protein complexes I - V. No significant effects due to RBP supplementation or RFI × RBP interactions (P > 0.05) were observed for average daily gain (ADG) and DMI. However, compared to high-RFI steers, low-RFI steers showed a trend towards reduced DMI (12.9 vs. 13.6 kg/d; P = 0.07) but ADG was similar for the two RFI groups. Regardless of RFI status, supplemental RBP increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (P = 0.01), with a lower BUN concentration in low-RFI steers compared to high-RFI ones. A tendency for interaction (P = 0.07) between RFI and RBP was detected for the UN concentrations; feeding the dietary RBP increased the UN concentration in high-RFI beef steers (209 vs. 124 mM), whereas the concentration was lower than that of the CON group for low-RFI beef steers (86 vs. 131 mM). Interactions of RBP and RFI were observed (P ≤ 0.05) for mitochondrial activities of complexes IV, V, and mRNA expressions of some immune genes such as TLR2, TLR3, and IL23A. In conclusion, while RBP supplementation did not alter growth performance, its observed effects on hepatic immune gene expression, mitochondrial protein complexes, BUN, and UN depended on the beef steers' RFI phenotype. Therefore, the RFI status of beef steers should be considered in future studies evaluating the effects of dietary protein supplements.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0299975, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959242

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle growth is an economically important trait in the cattle industry. Secreted muscle-derived proteins, referred to as myokines, have important roles in regulating the growth, metabolism, and health of skeletal muscle in human and biomedical research models. Accumulating evidence supports the importance of myokines in skeletal muscle and whole-body health, though little is known about the potential presence and functional significance of these proteins in cattle. This study evaluates and confirms that secreted proteins acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), myostatin (MSTN), and decorin (DCN) are expressed and SPARC, FGF-21, and DCN are secreted by primary bovine satellite cells from 3- (BSC3; n = 3) and 11- (BSC11; n = 3) month -old commercial angus steers. Cells were cultured and collected at zero, 12, 24, and 48 hours to characterize temporal expression and secretion from undifferentiated and differentiated cells. The expression of SPARC was higher in the undifferentiated (p = 0.04) and differentiated (p = 0.07) BSC11 than BSC3. The same was observed with protein secretion from undifferentiated (p <0.0001) BSC11 compared to BSC3. Protein secretion of FGF-21 was higher in undifferentiated BSC11 (p < 0.0001) vs. BSC3. DCN expression was higher in differentiated BSC11 (p = 0.006) vs. BSC3. Comparing undifferentiated vs. differentiated BSC, MSTN expression was higher in differentiated BSC3 (p ≤ 0.001) for 0, 12, and 24 hours and in BSC11 (p ≤ 0.03) for 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. There is also a change over time for SPARC expression (p ≤ 0.03) in undifferentiated and differentiated BSC and protein secretion (p < 0.0001) in undifferentiated BSC, as well as FGF-21 expression (p = 0.007) in differentiated BSC. This study confirms SPARC, FGF-21, and DCN are secreted, and SPARC, FGF-21, MSTN, and DCN are expressed in primary bovine muscle cells with age and temporal differences.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Decorina , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Osteonectina , Animais , Bovinos , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Osteonectina/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Decorina/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Miostatina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia
8.
Vet Rec ; 195(1): e4151, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cattle lameness is a significant welfare and economic problem facing the livestock industry. Published research has investigated foot trimming practices in dairy herds, but little is known about the practices in beef herds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to obtain information about the current practices of professional cattle foot trimmers concerning beef cattle within the UK. METHODS: An online survey comprising 16 questions was created using the Joint Information Systems Committee platform. The survey was open for 3 months. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the proportions of dairy cattle and beef cattle receiving preventative foot trims. Digital dermatitis was the most commonly recorded cause of lameness when a lame beef animal was trimmed by the respondents, followed by white line disease. A thematic analysis of foot trimmers' opinions of barriers to engagement on beef farms is presented, in addition to their opinions on veterinary involvement with beef lameness. LIMITATIONS: Distribution bias may have affected the results, as the survey was distributed online with support from the Cattle Hoof Care Standards Board and the National Association of Cattle Hoof Trimmers. The percentage of foot trimmers not affiliated with either professional body is not known. CONCLUSION: Further research on the impact of lameness on suckler and finishing cattle, including investigations into preventative actions to reduce lameness in beef systems, is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coxeadura Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Humanos , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/prevenção & controle , Feminino
9.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0303479, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959270

RESUMO

Numerous studies confirm the involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the regulation of physiological processes of mammalian sperm cells. It has been proven that they take part in the processes of capacitation, acrosonmal reaction, and anti-oxidation. Despite growing interest in the biomedical potential (including the search for new reproductive biomarkers) of EVs, the role of extracellular seminal vesicles in maintaining semen quality during cryopreservation has not yet been established. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential of bovine sperm and to explain the mechanisms of EV action during cell cryopreservation. Exosomes were isolated from bull semen plasma, measured, and used for extender supplementation. Semen samples were collected from Simmental bulls, diluted, and pre-evaluated. Then they were divided into equal fractions that did not contain EVs or were supplemented with 0.75; 1.5 and 2.25 mg/ml of EVs. The test samples were frozen/thawed and the mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA integrity, and viability were evaluated. EVs have been established to have a positive effect on cryopreserved sperm structures. The most favourable level of EVs was 1.5 mg / ml, which can be successfully to improve cell cryostability during freezing/thawing. In this study, exosomes isolated from the sperm plasma and supplemented with a concentrated dose in the extender for sperm freezing were shown to significantly improve cryostability of cells by supporting the potentials of the mitochondrial membrane and protecting the cytoplasmic membrane of spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Exossomos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Preservação do Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Masculino , Animais , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Bovinos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Análise do Sêmen , Congelamento , Sobrevivência Celular
10.
Afr Health Sci ; 24(1): 295-306, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962330

RESUMO

Background: The Mediterranean thistle Atractylis gummifera L. (Asteraceae; AG) has diterpenoid glucosides; atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside that interact with mitochondrial protein adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and resulted in ATP inhibition. Despite its well-known toxicity, acute poisonings still occur with this plant. Although most symptoms are attributed to ANT and diterpenoids interaction, in-depth investigation of the effects of AG extract on various cellular processes has not been performed. Objective/method: We tested in vitro induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in bovine liver mitochondria and evaluated its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using Allium cepa test. Cell division, mitotic index (MI) and total chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (TAs), that all seem potentially affected by ATP shortage, were studied in root cells of Allium cepa exposed to Atractylis gummifera extract. Results: With the two different doses of two purified AG fractions, stronger induction of MPTP was observed compared to the induction with the standard pure atracyloside. Aqueous AG extract exerted inhibition root growth in A. cepa at 6 different doses. The TAs was increased in a dose-dependent manner too, while mitotic index was decreased at the same doses. Evaluation of mitotic phases revealed mitodepressive effect of AG on A. cepa roots. Conclusion: this work highlights cellular and mitochondrial adverse effects of Atractylis gummifera extracts. A purified fraction that likely corresponds to ATR derivatives induces MPTP opening leading to swelling of mitochondria and its dysfunction. Allium cepa test provides the evidence for A. gummifera genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Atractilosídeo , Extratos Vegetais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Atractilosídeo/farmacologia , Atractilosídeo/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poro de Transição de Permeabilidade Mitocondrial , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Physiol Rep ; 12(13): e16128, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946059

RESUMO

To better understand mechanisms of serotonin- (5-HT) mediated vasorelaxation, isolated lateral saphenous veins from cattle were assessed for vasoactivity using myography in response to increasing concentrations of 5-HT or selective 5-HT receptor agonists. Vessels were pre-contracted with 1 × 10-4 M phenylephrine and exposed to increasing concentrations of 5-HT or 5-HT receptor agonists that were selective for 5-HT1B, 5-HT2B, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7. Vasoactive response data were normalized as a percentage of the maximum contractile response induced by the phenylephrine pre-contraction. At 1 × 10-7 M 5-HT, a relaxation was observed with an 88.7% decrease (p < 0.01) from the phenylephrine maximum. At 1 × 10-4 M 5-HT, a contraction was observed with a 165% increase (p < 0.01) from the phenylephrine maximum. Increasing concentrations of agonists selective for 5-HT2B, 5-HT4, or 5-HT7 resulted in a 27%, 92%, or 44% (p < 0.01) decrease from the phenylephrine maximum, respectively. Of these 5-HT receptor agonists, the selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist resulted in the greatest potency (-log EC50) value (6.30) compared with 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor agonists (4.21 and 4.66, respectively). To confirm the involvement of 5-HT4 in 5-HT-mediated vasorelaxation, blood vessels were exposed to either DMSO (solvent control) or a selective 5-HT4 antagonist (1 × 10-5 M) for 5-min prior to the phenylephrine pre-contraction and 5-HT additions. Antagonism of the 5-HT4 receptor attenuated the vasorelaxation caused by 5-HT. Approximately 94% of the vasorelaxation occurring in response to 5-HT could be accounted for through 5-HT4, providing strong evidence that 5-HT-mediated vasorelaxation occurs through 5-HT4 activation in bovine peripheral vasculature.


Assuntos
Veia Safena , Serotonina , Vasodilatação , Animais , Bovinos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Veia Safena/metabolismo , Veia Safena/efeitos dos fármacos , Veia Safena/fisiologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Masculino
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14992, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951540

RESUMO

This study investigates methane emissions from the livestock sector, representing by enteric fermentation and manure management, in Egypt from 1989 to 2021, focusing on spatial and temporal variations at the governorate level. Utilizing IPCC guidelines and emission factors, methane emissions were estimated for dairy and non-dairy cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat, poultry, and other livestock categories. Results reveal fluctuating emission patterns over the study period, with notable declines in certain governorates such as Kafr El-Sheikh and Red Sea, attributed to reductions in livestock populations. However, increasing trends were observed overall, driven by population growth in other regions. Hotspots of methane emissions were identified in delta governorates like Behera and Sharkia, as well as agriculturally rich regions including Menia and Suhag. While livestock populations varied between regions, factors such as water availability, climatic conditions, and farming practices influenced distribution. Notably, cluster analysis did not reveal regional clustering among governorates, suggesting emissions changes were not dependent on specific geographic or climatic boundaries. Manure management accounted for only 5-6% of total emissions, with emissions at their lowest in the last three years due to population declines. Despite the highest livestock populations being sheep and goats, emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management were highest from buffalo and cattle. This study underscores the importance of accurate data collection and adherence to IPCC recommendations for estimating GHG emissions, enabling the development of targeted mitigation strategies to address climate change challenges in the livestock sector.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gado , Metano , Animais , Egito , Metano/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Esterco/análise , Bovinos , Ovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14974, 2024 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951667

RESUMO

Bovine alveolar macrophages (AMs) defend the lungs against pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. However, little is known about the surface molecules expressed by bovine AMs and whether there is heterogeneity within the population. The purpose of this study was to characterise the bovine AM cell surface phenotype using flow cytometry. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from four different calves were stained with a combination of antibodies against immune cell molecules prior to flow cytometric analysis. To assess the degree of expression, we considered the distribution and relative intensities of stained and unstained cells. We demonstrated that bovine AMs have high expression of CD172a, ADGRE1, CD206, and CD14, moderate expression of CD80, MHC II, CD1b, and CD40, low expression of CX3CR1 and CD86, and little or no expression of CD16 and CD26. Two distinct subsets of bovine AMs were identified based on CD163 expression. Subsequent analysis showed that the CD163+ subset had greater expression of other typical macrophage molecules compared to the CD163- subset, suggesting that these cells may perform different roles during infection. The characterisation of the uninfected bovine AM phenotype will provide a foundation for the examination of M. bovis-infected AMs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica , Macrófagos Alveolares , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Animais , Bovinos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Tuberculose Bovina/metabolismo , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Imunofenotipagem , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar
14.
Parasitol Res ; 123(7): 267, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990228

RESUMO

Exsheathment is crucial in the transition from free-living to parasitic phase for most strongyle nematode species. A greater understanding of this process could help in developing new parasitic control methods. This study aimed to identify commonalities in response to exsheathment triggers (heat acclimation, CO2 and pH) in a wide range of species (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Chabertia ovina, and members of the subfamily Ostertagiinae) from sheep, cattle and farmed deer. The initial expectation of similarity in pH requirements amongst species residing within the same organ was not supported, with unexpected pH preferences for exsheathment of Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia oncophora. We also found differences between species in their response to temperature acclimation, with higher exsheathment in response to heat shock observed for H. contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi, T. axei, T. vitrinus and Oesophagostomum sikae. Furthermore, some species showed poor exsheathment under all experimental conditions, such as Cooperia curticei and the large intestinal nematodes C. ovina and Oesophagostomum venulosum. Interestingly, there were some significant differences in response depending on the host from which the parasites were derived. The host species significantly impacted on the exsheathment response for H. contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, T. vitrinus and T. colubriformis. Overall, the data showed variability between nematode species in their response to these in vitro exsheathment triggers, highlighting the complexity of finding a common set of conditions for all species in order to develop a control method based on triggering the exsheathment process prematurely.


Assuntos
Cervos , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nematoides/fisiologia , Nematoides/classificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dióxido de Carbono , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Temperatura Alta
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(6): 201, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990398

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of replacing protein pellets with soybean grain in high-concentrate diets with or without the addition of silage, on the intake, digestibility, and rumen and blood parameters of feedlot cattle in tropical regions. Four cannulated, crossbred steers were used, 4.5 ± 0.5 years old, with an average weight of 685.55 ± 111.78 kg. The steers were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square, in a 2 × 2 factorial scheme (two sources of protein: protein pellets or whole soybean grain, with or without added dietary bulk). There was no effect (P ≥ 0.109) from the interaction between the source of protein and the addition of silage to the diet on dry matter (DM) and nutrient intake, or the digestibility (P ≥ 0.625) of DM or crude protein (CP). However, both factors affected (P ≤ 0.052) the intake of DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), as well as the independent digestibility (P ≤ 0.099) of fat, NFC, total carbohydrates (TC), and total cholesterol concentration. There was an effect (P ≤ 0.053) from the interaction between the source of protein and the addition of silage to the diet on the digestibility of NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN), as well as on the glycose concentration (P = 0.003). Blood parameters (i.e. protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) were not affected (P ≥ 0.139) by the source of protein, the addition of silage, or their interaction. Lastly, including 150 g/kg silage DM in a high-grain diet, and using soybean grain as a source of protein in substitution of protein pellet could be a suitable nutritional strategy to ensure adequate DM and nutrient intake and digestibility, with no detrimental effects on rumen and blood parameters of feedlot cattle in the tropics.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta , Digestão , Glycine max , Rúmen , Clima Tropical , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Silagem/análise , Proteínas Alimentares/metabolismo , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5450, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982039

RESUMO

Cultured meat is emerging as a new type of food that can provide animal protein in a sustainable way. Many previous studies employed various types of scaffolds to develop cultured meat with similar properties to slaughtered meat. However, important properties such as flavor were not discussed, even though they determine the quality of food. Flavor characteristics vary dramatically depending on the amount and types of amino acids and sugars that produce volatile compounds through the Maillard reaction upon cooking. In this study, a flavor-switchable scaffold is developed to release meaty flavor compounds only upon cooking temperature mimicking the Maillard reaction of slaughtered meat. By introducing a switchable flavor compound (SFC) into a gelatin-based hydrogel, we fabricate a functional scaffold that can enhance the aromatic properties of cultured meat. The temperature-responsive SFC stably remains in the scaffold during the cell culture period and can be released at the cooking temperature. Surprisingly, cultured meat fabricated with this flavor-switchable scaffold exhibits a flavor pattern similar to that of beef. This research suggests a strategy to develop cultured meat with enhanced sensorial characteristics by developing a functional scaffold which can mimic the natural cooking flavors of conventional meat.


Assuntos
Culinária , Aromatizantes , Reação de Maillard , Carne , Animais , Carne/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Paladar , Bovinos , Hidrogéis/química , Humanos , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Temperatura , Gelatina/química , Carne in vitro
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1420389, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983117

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota assumes a pivotal role in modulating host metabolism, immune responses, overall health, and additional physiological dimensions. The structural and functional characteristics of the intestinal microbiota may cause alterations within the host's body to a certain extent. The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with environmental factors, dietary habits, and other pertinent conditions. The investigation into the gut microbiota of yaks remained relatively underexplored. An examination of yak gut microbiota holds promise in elucidating the complex relationship between microbial communities and the adaptive responses of the host to its environment. In this study, yak were selected from two distinct environmental conditions: those raised in sheds (NS, n=6) and grazed in Nimu County (NF, n=6). Fecal samples were collected from the yaks and subsequently processed for analysis through 16S rDNA and ITS sequencing methodologies. The results revealed that different feeding styles result in significant differences in the Alpha diversity of fungi in the gut of yaks, while the gut microbiota of captive yaks was relatively conserved. In addition, significant differences appeared in the abundance of microorganisms in different taxa, phylum Verrucomicrobiota was significantly enriched in group NF while Firmicutes was higher in group NS. At the genus level, Akkermansia, Paenibacillus, Roseburia, Dorea, UCG_012, Anaerovorax and Marvinbryantia were enriched in group NF while Desemzia, Olsenella, Kocuria, Ornithinimicrobium and Parvibacter were higher in group NS (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There was a significant difference in the function of gut microbiota between the two groups. The observed variations are likely influenced by differences in feeding methods and environmental conditions both inside and outside the pen. The findings of this investigation offer prospective insights into enhancing the yak breeding and expansion of the yak industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Bovinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Filogenia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Biodiversidade
18.
Vet Q ; 44(1): 1-23, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973225

RESUMO

Mastitis is an inflammatory condition that affects dairy cow's mammary glands. Traditional treatment approaches with antibiotics are increasingly leading to challenging scenarios such as antimicrobial resistance. In order to mitigate the unwanted side effects of antibiotics, alternative strategies such as those that harness the host immune system response, also known as immunotherapy, have been implemented. Immunotherapy approaches to treat bovine mastitis aims to enhance the cow's immune response against pathogens by promoting pathogen clearance, and facilitating tissue repair. Various studies have demonstrated the potential of immunotherapy for reducing the incidence, duration and severity of mastitis. Nevertheless, majority of reported therapies are lacking in specificity hampering their broad application to treat mastitis. Meanwhile, advancements in mastitis immunotherapy hold great promise for the dairy industry, with potential to provide effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional antibiotic-based approaches. This review synthesizes immunotherapy strategies, their current understanding and potential future perspectives. The future perspectives should focus on the development of precision immunotherapies tailored to address individual pathogens/group of pathogens, development of combination therapies to address antimicrobial resistance, and the integration of nano- and omics technologies. By addressing research gaps, the field of mastitis immunotherapy can make significant strides in the control, treatment and prevention of mastitis, ultimately benefiting both animal and human health/welfare, and environment health.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Mastite Bovina/terapia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Mastite Bovina/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoterapia/veterinária , Imunoterapia/métodos , Bovinos , Lacunas de Evidências
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 713, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976163

RESUMO

South Africa faces the urgency to comprehensively understand and manage its methane (CH4) emissions. The primary aim of this study is to compare CH4 concentrations between Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga regions dominated by cattle farming and coal mining industries, respectively. CH4 concentration trends were analyzed for the period 2019 to 2023 using satellite data. Trend analysis revealed significant increasing trends in CH4 concentrations in both provinces, supported by Mann-Kendall tests that rejected the null hypothesis of no trend (Eastern Cape: p-value = 8.9018e-08 and Mpumalanga: p-value = 2.4650e-10). The Eastern Cape, a leading cattle farming province, exhibited cyclical patterns and increasing CH4 concentrations, while Mpumalanga, a major coal mining province, displayed similar increasing trends with sharper concentration points. The results show seasonal variations in CH4 concentrations in the Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces. High CH4 concentrations are observed in the northwestern region during the December-January-February (DJF) season, while lower concentrations are observed in the March-April-May (MAM) and June-July-August (JJA) seasons in the Eastern Cape province. In the Mpumalanga province, there is a dominance of high CH4 concentrations in southwestern regions and moderately low concentrations in the northeastern regions, observed consistently across all seasons. The study also showed an increasing CH4 concentration trend from 2019 to 2023 for both provinces. The study highlights the urgent need to address CH4 emissions from both cattle farming and coal mining activities to mitigate environmental impacts and promote sustainable development. Utilizing geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, policymakers and stakeholders can identify and address the sources of CH4 emissions more effectively, thereby contributing to environmental conservation and sustainable resource management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Metano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Bovinos , Minas de Carvão
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15667, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977741

RESUMO

The microreactor with two types of immobilized enzymes, exhibiting excellent orthogonal performance, represents an effective approach to counteract the reduced digestion efficiency resulting from the absence of a single enzyme cleavage site, thereby impacting protein identification. In this study, we developed a hydrophilic dual-enzyme microreactor characterized by rapid mass transfer and superior enzymatic activity. Initially, we selected KIT-6 molecular sieve as the carrier for the dual-IMER due to its three-dimensional network pore structure. Modification involved co-deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and acrylamide (AM) as amine donors, along with dopamine to enhance material hydrophilicity. Remaining amino and double bond functional groups facilitated stepwise immobilization of trypsin and Glu-C. Digestion times for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on the dual-IMER were significantly reduced compared to solution-based digestion (1 min vs. 36 h), resulting in improved sequence coverage (91.30% vs. 82.7% for BSA; 90.24% vs. 89.20% for BHb). Additionally, the dual-IMER demonstrated excellent durability, retaining 96.08% relative activity after 29 reuse cycles. Enhanced protein digestion efficiency can be attributed to several factors: (1) KIT-6's large specific surface area, enabling higher enzyme loading capacity; (2) Its three-dimensional network pore structure, facilitating faster mass transfer and substance diffusion; (3) Orthogonality of trypsin and Glu-C enzyme cleavage sites; (4) The spatial effect introduced by the chain structure of PEI and glutaraldehyde's spacing arm, reducing spatial hindrance and enhancing enzyme-substrate interactions; (5) Mild and stable enzyme immobilization. The KIT-6-based dual-IMER offers a promising technical tool for protein digestion, while the PDA/PEI/AM-KIT-6 platform holds potential for immobilizing other proteins or active substances.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Dopamina , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Polietilenoimina , Soroalbumina Bovina , Tripsina , Polietilenoimina/química , Dopamina/química , Dopamina/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Acrilamida/química , Tripsina/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Porosidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Proteólise
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