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1.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(4): 52, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565801

RESUMO

The increasing use of copper oxide nano particles (nCuO) as nano-fertilizers and pesticides have raised concerns over their impact on soil environment and agricultural products. In this study, two nCuO with different shapes, namely spherical nCuO (CuO NPs) and tubular nCuO (CuO NTs), were selected to investigate their bioavailability and toxicity to pakchoi in two soils with different properties. At the meantime, CuO bulk particles (CuO BPs) and Cu(NO3)2 were used for comparison. Results showed that all the Cu treatments increased the DTPA extractable (DTPA-Cu) concentrations in GD soil (acidic) more than in HN soil (alkaline). The DTPA-Cu concentrations increased in the order of Cu(NO3)2 ≈ CuO NPs > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in GD soil and Cu(NO3)2 > CuO NPs > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in HN soil. While for the contents of Cu in the aerial parts of pakchoi, the order is CuO NPs > Cu(NO3)2 > CuO NTs ≈ CuO BPs in GD soil and CuO NPs ≈ Cu(NO3)2 > CuO BPs ≈ CuO NTs in HN soil. Only CuO NPs reduced pakchoi biomass in GD soil. There are no significant difference among CuO NPs, CuO BPs, and Cu(NO3)2 in reducing the chlorophyll contents in pakchoi in HN soil, whereas in GD soil, CuO NPs and CuO BPs led to significantly lower chlorophyll contents in pakchoi compared to Cu(NO3)2. Additionally, CuO NPs and Cu(NO3)2 increased Mn and Mo in pakchoi leaf in HN soil, while increased Zn in pakchoi leaf in GD soil. These results indicated that CuO NPs showed higher or comparable toxicity and bioavailability to pakchoi compared with Cu(NO3)2 depending on soil properties, and nCuO are more easily to be transferred from roots to the aerial parts than CuO BPs and Cu(NO3)2.


Assuntos
Brassica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Cobre/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Solo , Óxidos , Clorofila , Ácido Pentético , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 21(4): 593-600, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464834

RESUMO

Introduction: Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable that has been shown to have numerous potential therapeutic benefits because of its bioactive compounds. Methods: In this study, we compared the bioactive efficacy of cooked and uncooked (fresh) stems and florets of broccoli extracted with three different solvents: acetonitrile, methanol, and aqueous extracts. The extraction yield and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different broccoli extracts were examined. Results: Fresh and boiled floret stem extracts increased the extraction yield. The extraction yields were higher for the methanol and acetonitrile extracts than for the aqueous extracts. The antioxidant efficacy of the different extracts was studied using ABTS, DPPH, and metal ion reduction assays. The acetonitrile and aqueous extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the methanolic extracts in different antioxidant assays. In addition, increased antioxidant activity was observed in fresh florets and boiled broccoli stems. TPC and TFC contents were higher in the methanolic extracts than in the aqueous extracts. Similar to antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory activities were found to be higher in the acetonitrile and aqueous extracts, particularly in boiled stems and fresh florets. Broccoli extracts have been shown to be active against Bacillus subtilis and moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Acetonitrile and aqueous extraction of broccoli might be an ideal choice for extraction methods, which show increased extraction yield and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. Utilization of phytomolecules from natural sources is a promising alternative approach to synthetic drug development.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/química , Antioxidantes/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Água , Acetonitrilas , Anti-Inflamatórios
3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(3): 63, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427048

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The gene BrABCG26 responsible for male sterility of Chinese cabbage was confirmed by two allelic mutants. Male-sterile lines are an important way of heterosis utilization in Chinese cabbage. In this study, two allelic male-sterile mutants msm3-1 and msm3-2 were obtained from a Chinese cabbage double haploid (DH) line 'FT' by using EMS-mutagenesis. Compared to the wild-type 'FT,' the stamens of mutants were completely degenerated and had no pollen, and other characters had no obvious differences. Cytological observation revealed that the failure of vacuolation of the mononuclear microspore, accompanied by abnormal tapetal degradation, resulted in anther abortion in mutants. Genetic analysis showed that a recessive gene controlled the mutant trait. MutMap combined with kompetitive allele specific PCR genotyping analyses showed that BraA01g038270.3C, encoding a transporter ABCG26 that played a vital role in pollen wall formation, was the candidate gene for msm3-1, named BrABCG26. Compared with wild-type 'FT,' the mutations existed on the second exon (C to T) and the sixth exon (C to T) of BrABCG26 gene in mutants msm3-1 and msm3-2, leading to the loss-of-function truncated protein, which verified the BrABCG26 function in stamen development. Subcellular localization and expression pattern analysis indicated that BrABCG26 was localized in the nucleus and was expressed in all organs, with the highest expression in flower buds. Compared to the wild-type 'FT,' the expressions of BrABCG26 were significantly reduced in flower buds and anthers of mutants. Promoter activity analysis showed that a strong GUS signal was detected in flower buds. These results indicated that BrABCG26 is responsible for the male sterility of msm3 mutants in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Brassica , Infertilidade Masculina , Masculino , Humanos , Brassica rapa/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brassica/genética , Mutação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
4.
Planta ; 259(5): 97, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520529

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Utilizing RNAi, miRNA, siRNA, lncRNA and exploiting genotyping traits can help safeguard the food supply from illnesses and pest damage to Brassicas, as well as reduce yield losses caused by plant pathogens and insect pests. In the natural environment, plants face significant challenges in the form of biotic stress, due to various living organisms, leading to biological stress and a sharp decline in crop yields. To cope with these effects, plants have evolved specialized mechanisms to mitigate these challenges. Plant stress tolerance and resistance are influenced by genes associated with stress-responsive pathogens that interact with various stress-related signaling pathway components. Plants employ diverse strategies and mechanisms to combat biological stress, involving a complex network of transcription factors that interact with specific cis-elements to regulate gene expression. Understanding both plant developmental and pathogenic disease resistance mechanisms can allow us to develop stress-tolerant and -resistant crops. Brassica genus includes commercially important crops, e.g., broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and rapeseed, cultivated worldwide, with several applications, e.g., oil production, consumption, condiments, fodder, as well as medicinal ones. Indeed, in 2020, global production of vegetable Brassica reached 96.4 million tones, a 10.6% rise from the previous decade. Taking into account their commercial importance, coupled to the impact that pathogens can have in Brassica productivity, yield losses up to 60%, this work complies the major diseases caused due to fungal, bacterial, viral, and insects in Brassica species. The review is structured into three parts. In the first part, an overview is provided of the various pathogens affecting Brassica species, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and insects. The second part delves into the exploration of defense mechanisms that Brassica plants encounter against these pathogens including secondary metabolites, duplicated genes, RNA interference (RNAi), miRNA (micro-RNA), siRNA (small interfering RNA), and lncRNA (long non-coding RNA). The final part comprehensively outlines the current applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology aimed at enhancing crop quality. Taken collectively, this review will contribute to our enhanced understanding of these mechanisms and their role in the development of resistance in Brassica plants, thus supporting strategies to protect this crucial crop.


Assuntos
Brassica , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Genótipo , Brassica/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Insetos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , MicroRNAs/genética
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 186: 114563, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442787

RESUMO

Broccoli contains an amount of biologically active substances, which bring beneficial effects on human health. Plant extracellular vesicles have been shown to be novel key factors in cancer diagnosis and tumor therapy. To date, the challenge of overcoming chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to facilitate the clinical management of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been successful. Nevertheless, the functions of broccoli extracellular vesicles (BEVs) in the progression of CRC and 5-FU resistance are predominantly unclear. Herein, we showed that BEVs isolated from broccoli juice were effectively taken up by colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. The co-administration of BEVs and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer HT-29 cells, effectively blocking cell cycle progression. Furthermore, the co-administration of BEVs and 5-FU induced apoptosis by stimulating ROS production and disrupting mitochondrial function. Importantly, we found that BEVs reversed 5-FU resistance in HT-29 cells by suppressing the abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings represent a novel strategy for utilizing BEVs to improve the efficacy of colorectal cancer treatment and enhance 5-FU chemosensitivity.


Assuntos
Brassica , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 187, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the second largest leafy vegetable, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) is grown globally, and the characteristics of the different varieties, forms, and colors of cabbage may differ. In this study, five analysis methods-variance analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and comprehensive ranking-were used to evaluate the quality indices (soluble protein, soluble sugar, and nitrate), antioxidant content (vitamin C, polyphenols, and flavonoids), and mineral (K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) content of 159 varieties of four forms (green spherical, green oblate, purple spherical, and green cow heart) of cabbage. RESULTS: The results showed that there are significant differences among different forms and varieties of cabbage. Compared to the other three forms, the purple spherical cabbage had the highest flavonoid, K, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Zn content. A scatter plot of the principal component analysis showed that the purple spherical and green cow heart cabbage varieties were distributed to the same quadrant, indicating that their quality indices and mineral contents were highly consistent, while those of the green spherical and oblate varieties were irregularly distributed. Overall, the green spherical cabbage ranked first, followed by the green cow heart, green oblate, and purple spherical varieties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a theoretical basis for the cultivation and high-quality breeding of cabbage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo
7.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14269, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528313

RESUMO

Climate change caused by global warming involves crucial plant growth factors such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ambient temperature or water availability. These stressors usually co-occur, causing intricate alterations in plant physiology and development. This work focuses on how elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, together with the concomitant high temperature, would affect the physiology of a relevant crop, such as broccoli. Particular attention has been paid to those defence mechanisms that contribute to plant fitness under abiotic stress. Results show that both photosynthesis and leaf transpiration were reduced in plants grown under climate change environments compared to those grown under current climate conditions. Furthermore, an induction of carbohydrate catabolism pointed to a redistribution from primary to secondary metabolism. This result could be related to a reinforcement of cell walls, as well as to an increase in the pool of antioxidants in the leaves. Broccoli plants, a C3 crop, grown under an intermediate condition showed activation of those adaptive mechanisms, which would contribute to coping with abiotic stress, as confirmed by reduced levels of lipid peroxidation relative to current climate conditions. On the contrary, the most severe climate change scenario exceeded the adaptive capacity of broccoli plants, as shown by the inhibition of growth and reduced vigour of plants. In conclusion, only a moderate increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature would not have a negative impact on broccoli crop yields.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540770

RESUMO

Sulforaphane (SFN) is one of the hydrolysates of glucosinolates (GSLs), primarily derived from Brassica vegetables like broccoli. In clinical therapy, SFN has been proven to display antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the antimicrobial effects and mechanism of SFN against plant pathogens need to be further elucidated, which limits its application in agriculture. In this study, the genetic factors involved in SFN biosynthesis in 33 B. oleracea varieties were explored. The finding showed that besides the genetic background of different B. oleracea varieties, myrosinase and ESP genes play important roles in affecting SFN content. Subsequently, the molecular identification cards of these 33 B. oleracea varieties were constructed to rapidly assess their SFN biosynthetic ability. Furthermore, an optimized protocol for SFN extraction using low-cost broccoli curds was established, yielding SFN-enriched extracts (SFN-ee) containing up to 628.44 µg/g DW of SFN. The antimicrobial activity assay confirmed that SFN-ee obtained here remarkably inhibit the proliferation of nine tested microorganisms including four plant pathogens by destroying their membrane integrity. Additionally, the data demonstrated that exogenous application of SFN-ee could also induce ROS accumulation in broccoli leaves. These results indicated that SFN-ee should play a dual role in defense against plant pathogens by directly killing pathogenic cells and activating the ROS signaling pathway. These findings provide new evidence for the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of SFN against plant pathogens, and suggest that SFN-ee can be used as a natural plant antimicrobial agent for crop protection and food preservation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Brassica , Isotiocianatos , Sulfóxidos , Brassica/metabolismo , Proteção de Cultivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542284

RESUMO

Climate change, particularly drought stress, significantly impacts plant growth and development, necessitating the development of resilient crops. This study investigated physiological and molecular modulations to drought stress between diploid parent species and their polyploid progeny in the Brassica species. While no significant phenotypic differences were observed among the six species, drought stress reduced growth parameters by 2.4% and increased oxidative stress markers by 1.4-fold. Drought also triggered the expression of genes related to stress responses and led to the accumulation of specific metabolites. We also conducted the first study of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) levels in leaves as a drought indicator. Lower levels of PFOS accumulation were linked to plants taking in less water under drought conditions. Both diploid and polyploid species responded to drought stress similarly, but there was a wide range of variation in their responses. In particular, responses were less variable in polyploid species than in diploid species. This suggests that their additional genomic components acquired through polyploidy may improve their flexibility to modulate stress responses. Despite the hybrid vigor common in polyploid species, Brassica polyploids demonstrated intermediate responses to drought stress. Overall, this study lays the framework for future omics-level research, including transcriptome and proteomic studies, to deepen our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in Brassica species.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas , Proteômica , Poliploidia
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 274: 116200, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479316

RESUMO

Low concentration strontium (LC-Sr) can promote the growth of plants. In order to explore its promoting mechanism from the aspect of photosynthesis, the leaf characteristics, CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence kinetics were investigated with hydroponically LC-Sr-treated Chinese cabbage seedlings. After a 28-d treatment to SrCl2 at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mmol L-1), we observed an increase in the specific leaf weight (SLW) of Chinese cabbage compared with the control group. Notably, as the strontium concentration increased, a more pronounced improvement trend in the contents of Chl and protein in the leaves was observed, contributing to the enhancement of photosynthesis. However, the statistical differences in Pn among various LC-Sr treatments were not significant. Nevertheless, the leaf starch content exhibited a significant increase after LC-Sr treatments. Additionally, Chl a fluorescence transient has been used as a sensitive indicator of the promotional effect of LC-Sr on photosynthesis. The results of fluorescence parameters showed that LC-Sr treatments accelerated the light reaction speed of leaves (Tfm, dV/dto, dVG/dto), improved the energy utilization efficiency of photosystem (PSI and PSII) (ETo/CSo, ψET,ψRE, δRo, φRo), and ultimately enhanced the photosynthetic performance of leaves (PIabs, SFIabs, DFabs). The increased RCs/CSo and Sm contributed to the enhancement of the light reaction activity of strontium-treated leaves. The LC-Sr treatments had no interference with the calcium absorption, and notably enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of Chinese cabbage, shedding light on potential benefits of LC-Sr for crop cultivation.


Assuntos
Brassica , Plântula , Clorofila/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo
11.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120632, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531129

RESUMO

To provide a sufficient supply of electron donors for the synthesis of caproic acid, yeast fermentation was employed to increase ethanol production in the anaerobic fermentation of Chinese cabbage waste (CCW). The results showed that the caproic acid yield of CCW with ethanol pre-fermentation was 7750.3 mg COD/L, accounting for 50.2% of the total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), which was 32.5% higher than that of the CCW without yeast inoculation. The synchronous fermentation of yeast and seed sludge significantly promoted the growth of butyric acid consuming bacterium Bacteroides, resulting in low yields of butyric acid and caproic acid. With yeast inoculation, substrate competition for the efficient ethanol conversion in the early stage of acidogenic fermentation inhibited the hydrolysis and acidfication. Without yeast inoculation, the rapid accumulation of TVFAs severely inhibited the growth of Bacteroidetes. In the reactor with ethanol pre-fermentation, the key microorganism for caproic acid production, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12, was selectively enriched.


Assuntos
Brassica , Microbiota , Fermentação , Caproatos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Esgotos/química , Butiratos , Etanol , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reatores Biológicos
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108480, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437751

RESUMO

It is well established that programmed cell death (PCD) occurred in broccoli during postharvest senescence, but no studies have been conducted on the regulation of broccoli cytochrome f by mannose treatment and its relationship with PCD. In this study, we treated broccoli buds with mannose to investigate the changes in color, total chlorophyll content, gene expression related to chlorophyll metabolism, chloroplast structure, and cytochrome f determination during postharvest storage. In addition, to investigate the effect of cytochrome f on PCD, we extracted cytochrome f from broccoli and treated Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cells with extracted cytochrome f from broccoli at various concentrations. The results showed that cytochrome f can induce PCD in tobacco BY-2 cells, as evidenced by altered cell morphology, nuclear chromatin disintegration, DNA degradation, decreased cell viability, and increased caspase-3-like protease production. Taken together, our study indicated that mannose could effectively delay senescence of postharvest broccoli by inhibiting the expression of gene encoding cytochrome f which could induce PCD.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Citocromos f/metabolismo , Manose/metabolismo , Manose/farmacologia , Apoptose , Clorofila/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 447: 138895, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492298

RESUMO

Multispectral imaging, combined with stoichiometric values, was used to construct a prediction model to measure changes in dietary fiber (DF) content in Chinese cabbage leaves across different growth periods. Based on all the spectral bands (365-970 nm) and characteristic spectral bands (430, 880, 590, 490, 690 nm), eight quantitative prediction models were established using four machine learning algorithms, namely random forest (RF), backpropagation neural network, radial basis function, and multiple linear regression. Finally, a quantitative prediction model of RF learning algorithm is constructed based on all spectral bands, which has good prediction accuracy and model robustness, prediction performance with R2 of 0.9023, root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.7182 g/100 g, residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.1220 > 3.0. In summary, this model efficiently detects changes in DF content across different growth periods of Chinese cabbage, which offers technical support for vegetable sorting and grading in the field.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Brassica , Redes Neurais de Computação , Verduras , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540333

RESUMO

The soil-borne pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is the causal agent of clubroot, a major disease in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). The host's resistance genes often confer immunity to only specific pathotypes and may be rapidly overcome. Identification of novel clubroot resistance (CR) from germplasm sources is necessary. In this study, Bap246 was tested by being crossed with different highly susceptible B. rapa materials and showed recessive resistance to clubroot. An F2 population derived from Bap246 × Bac1344 was used to locate the resistance Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) by Bulk Segregant Analysis Sequencing (BSA-Seq) and QTL mapping methods. Two QTL on chromosomes A01 (4.67-6.06 Mb) and A08 (10.42-11.43 Mb) were found and named Cr4Ba1.1 and Cr4Ba8.1, respectively. Fifteen and eleven SNP/InDel markers were used to narrow the target regions in the larger F2 population to 4.67-5.17 Mb (A01) and 10.70-10.84 Mb (A08), with 85 and 19 candidate genes, respectively. The phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of the two QTL were 30.97% and 8.65%, respectively. Combined with gene annotation, mutation site analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, one candidate gene in A08 was identified, namely Bra020861. And an insertion and deletion (InDel) marker (co-segregated) named Crr1-196 was developed based on the gene sequence. Bra013275, Bra013299, Bra013336, Bra013339, Bra013341, and Bra013357 in A01 were the candidate genes that may confer clubroot resistance in Chinese cabbage. The resistance resource and the developed marker will be helpful in Brassica breeding programs.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Brassica , Plasmodioforídeos , Brassica rapa/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Brassica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(10): 5197-5211, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477041

RESUMO

Broccoli has gained popularity as a highly consumed vegetable due to its nutritional and health properties. This study aimed to evaluate the composition profile and the antioxidant capacity of a hydrophilic extract derived from broccoli byproducts, as well as its influence on redox biology, Alzheimer's disease markers, and aging in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The presence of glucosinolate was observed and antioxidant capacity was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was quantified, and the treatment ameliorated the amyloid-ß- and tau-induced proteotoxicity in transgenic strains via SOD-3 and SKN-1, respectively, and HSP-16.2 for both parameters. Furthermore, a preliminary study on aging indicated that the extract effectively reduced reactive oxygen species levels in aged worms and extended their lifespan. Utilizing broccoli byproducts for nutraceutical or functional foods could manage vegetable processing waste, enhancing productivity and sustainability while providing significant health benefits.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Brassica , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Envelhecimento , Caenorhabditis elegans , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Oxirredução , Longevidade , Biologia
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 86, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453734

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The BrrFT paralogues exhibit distinct expression patterns and play different roles in regulating flowering time, and BrrFT4 competes with BrrFT1 and BrrFT2 to interact with BrrFD proteins. Flowering time is an important agricultural trait for Brassica crops, and early bolting strongly affects the yield and quality of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa. Flowering Locus T paralogues play an important role in regulating flowering time. In this study, we identified FT-related genes in turnip by phylogenetic classification, and four BrrFT homoeologs that shared with high identities with BraFT genes were isolated. The different gene structures, promoter binding sites, and expression patterns observed indicated that these genes may play different roles in flowering time regulation. Further genetic and biochemical experiments showed that as for FT-like paralogues, BrrFT2 acted as the key floral inducer, and BrrFT1 seems to act as a mild 'florigen' protein. However, BrrFT4 acts as a floral repressor and antagonistically regulates flowering time by competing with BrrFT1 and BrrFT2 to bind BrrFD proteins. BrrFT3 may have experienced loss of function via base shift mutation. Our results revealed the potential roles of FT-related genes in flowering time regulation in turnip.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544179

RESUMO

Downy mildew caused by Hyaloperonospora brassicae is a severe disease in Brassica oleracea that significantly reduces crop yield and marketability. This study aims to evaluate different vegetation indices to assess different downy mildew infection levels in the Brassica variety Mildis using hyperspectral data. Artificial inoculation using H. brassicae sporangia suspension was conducted to induce different levels of downy mildew disease. Spectral measurements, spanning 350 nm to 1050 nm, were conducted on the leaves using an environmentally controlled setup, and the reflectance data were acquired and processed. The Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) and signal sensitivity calculation were used to extract the most informative wavelengths that could be used to develop downy mildew indices (DMI). A total of 37 existing vegetation indices and three proposed DMIs were evaluated to indicate downy mildew (DM) infection levels. The results showed that the classification using a support vector machine achieved accuracies of 71.3%, 80.7%, and 85.3% for distinguishing healthy leaves from DM1 (early infection), DM2 (progressed infection), and DM3 (severe infection) leaves using the proposed downy mildew index. The proposed new downy mildew index potentially enables the development of an automated DM monitoring system and resistance profiling in Brassica breeding lines.


Assuntos
Brassica , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas
18.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104495, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431315

RESUMO

This study assessed the fate of a Salmonella enterica cocktail (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Agona and S. Anatum; initial counts 3.5 log CFU/g) in minimally processed sliced chard, broccoli and red cabbage at 16 conditions of different temperature (7, 14, 21 and 37 °C) and relative humidity (RH; 15, 35, 65 and 95%) over six days (144 h). Linear regression was used to estimate the rate change of Salmonella in cut vegetables as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH). R2 value of 0.85, 0.87, and 0.78 were observed for the rates of change in chard, broccoli, and red cabbage, respectively. The interaction between temperature and RH was significant in all sliced vegetables. Higher temperatures and RH values favored Salmonella growth. As temperature or RH decreased, the rate of S. enterica change varied by vegetable. The models developed here can improve risk management of Salmonella in fresh cut vegetables.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Brassica , Salmonella enterica , Temperatura , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Umidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Salmonella , Verduras
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171313, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417508

RESUMO

The resource-based treatment of Chinese cabbage waste by anaerobic fermentation can effectively mitigate air, soil, and groundwater pollution. However, the compatibility between fermentative microorganisms and the environment might be a crucial limiting factor for the resource recycling of Chinese cabbage waste. Therefore, the gain effect of microbial consortia (JMRS, JMRST, JMRSZ, JCCW, JCCWT and JCCWZ) induced by adaptive domestication for efficient conversion of Chinese cabbage waste by anaerobic fermentation were explored in this study. A total of 42 single subsamples with same weights were randomly divided into seven treatments: sterile deionized water (Control); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JMRS (MRS); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JMRST (MRST); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JMRSZ (MRSZ); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JCCW (CCW); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JCCWT (CCWT); anaerobic fermentation inoculated with JCCWZ (CCWZ) and samples were taken on days 30 and 60 after anaerobic fermentation. The results exhibited that all the treatments contributed to high levels of lactic acid (178.77-201.79 g/kg dry matter) and low levels of ammonia-N (12.99-21.03 g/kg total nitrogen). Meanwhile, MRSZ enhanced (p < 0.05) acetic acid levels (1.53 g/kg dry matter) and resulted in the lowest yeast counts. Microbiologically, the addition of microbial consortia decreased the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) scores of Massilia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Moreover, MRSZ enriched (p < 0.05) Lactobacillus hilgardii, and decreased (p < 0.05) the abundance of bacteria containing mobile elements and potentially pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, JMRSZ improved the efficient conversion of Chinese cabbage waste for resource utilization.


Assuntos
Brassica , Consórcios Microbianos , Fermentação , Anaerobiose , Domesticação , Brassica/microbiologia
20.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 236: 113830, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422667

RESUMO

Novel colorimetric films based on gellan gum (GG) containing red cabbage anthocyanins extract (RCAE) were prepared as pH-freshness smart labels for real-time visual detection of mushroom freshness. The GG/RCAE films had excellent pH and ammonia sensitivity. The GG/RCAE-0.2-0.3 films had the highest sensitivity to acetic acid. The SEM micrographs, AFM images, FT-IR and XRD spectra demonstrated that RCAE were successfully combined into the film-forming substrate. The incorporation of RCAE resulted in the increase of thermal stability, opacity and surface hydrophobicity of films. Meanwhile, the GG/RCAE-0.2 film exhibited stronger tensile strength and excellent color stability at 4℃. The color changes of GG/RCAE-0.2 film were visually easier to distinguish during the storage of mushroom. The results showed the GG/RCAE films could be used as pH-freshness smart labels to detect the freshness of fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Brassica , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Antocianinas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Embalagem de Alimentos
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