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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131017, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507213

RESUMO

The decrease in the use of K fertilizers may be relevant for developing countries that depend on imports, as well as for specific groups such as patients with chronic kidney disease, who have restricted K in their diets. However, the decrease in the use of K affects plant yield, requiring the study of alternatives to mitigate nutritional stress. Sodium is a beneficial element that can mitigate K deficiency, but studies on kale plants are lacking. We investigated the role of Na in kale grown with and without K in nutrient feed solution. Four treatments were used: abundant K, abundant K plus Na, deficient K, and deficient K plus Na. Low Na (2 mmol L-1) attenuated the symptoms of K deficiency in kale by minimizing leaf water loss and increasing pigment content, leaf area, and plant dry mass. The synergism between K and Na negatively affected the growth of kale plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Sódio , Água
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 417-424, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiamethoxam is widely used to control pests in Chinese kale, popularly consumed leafy vegetables. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is important to investigate the degradation behavior, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale. RESULTS: A sensitive analytical method for determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin residue in Chinese kale was established and validated through a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries were 85.4-101.2% for thiamethoxam and 79.5-108.1% for clothianidin, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9-10.2% and 1.8-6.0%, respectively. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was degraded with the half-lives of 4.1 to 4.5 days. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of thiamethoxam were 0.017-0.357 mg kg-1 after application 2-3 times with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 7 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessment risk quotient (RQ) values of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale for different Chinese consumers were 0.08-0.19% and 0.05-0.12%, respectively, and those of clothianidin were 0.01-0.04% and 0.02-0.04%, respectively, all of the RQ values were lower than 100%. CONCLUSION: Thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of thiamethoxam and clothianidin through Chinese kale was negligible to consumers. The results from this study are important reference for Chinese governments to developing criteria for the safe and rational use of thiamethoxam, setting maximum residue levels (MRLs), monitoring the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiametoxam/química , Tiametoxam/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brassica/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 426-436, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644828

RESUMO

Vegetables are important contributors to a healthy diet, and their adequate daily intake can help prevent some of the major illnesses. The aim of the study was to examine the content of the major and trace elements in selected organically grown (OG) and conventionally grown (CG) vegetables (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprout, beetroot, carrot, potato, and onion), taken from city green markets. Multi-elemental analysis was carried out by inductively coupled plasma method with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Nutritional quality evaluation in comparison to nutritional reference values was done. In studied vegetables, Al, Ca, K, Fe (with the exception of organic kohlrabi), Mg, Na, P, S, and Zn were quantified in all samples, whereas As, Cd, Co, Hg, Se, and V were below the limit of detection for these elements. Macroelements and trace elements were found at higher concentrations in OG and CG vegetables, respectively. Differences in concentrations of studied elements between the same vegetable species produced in two agricultural systems were significant, except for beetroot (p ≤ 0.05). Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the botanical origin had higher influence on sample differentiation than the agronomic practice, which was in accordance with the results obtained by Mann-Whitney U test. Good quality of both OG and CG vegetables in respect of nutritionally beneficial elements was observed.


Assuntos
Brassica , Oligoelementos , Avaliação Nutricional , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149951, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509845

RESUMO

Cabbage waste (CW) was recycled for generating some potential high-value products by a multi-stage treatment technology. A novel multi-stage utilization process was successfully proposed which consisted of low-temperature extraction, medium-temperature thermolysis, and high-temperature activation. Plant extracts that contain fatty acids, alcohol, furan, and esters were first extracted from raw cabbage waste by ethanol at 70 °C. Pyrolytic oil was obtained by cabbage waste pyrolysis at different medium temperature conditions. The produced carbon residue was further activated at high temperature for environmental purification such as VOCs removal. The performance of this process was characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental results showed that the optimum temperatures for extraction, pyrolysis, and activation were 70 °C, 520 °C and 700 °C, respectively. Phenolic-rich pyrolysis solution with 50% phenolic contents could be obtained with the potential application of botanical pesticide. The produced biochar had a BET surface area of as high as 891.12 m2/g. The yields of biochar, pyrolytic liquid, and pyrolytic gas were 43.86%, 17.47%, 38.67%, respectively, and the process energy efficiency was over 42.7%. Applicability and feasibility of this process were also discussed in the aspects of energy quality balance, economy, and environment. The proposed multi-stage thermal-chemical process could be used as a full recycling method for biomass waste.


Assuntos
Brassica , Carbono , Pirólise , Reciclagem , Temperatura
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 198-205, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kale and arugula are leafy green vegetables whose sensory properties have not been extensively explored. The objective was to assess the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of commercially available kale and arugula while also discovering drivers of consumer liking and barriers to consumer acceptance. Descriptive analysis and consumer testing were completed. The trained panellists (n = 11) were trained for 15 h to evaluate 11 sensory properties relating to the aroma, taste and texture of the kale and arugula. The consumer testing (n = 108) evaluated the leafy greens for overall liking and their liking of taste, aroma, texture and appearance. RESULTS: Results were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and external preference mapping. Approximately half of the attributes for the kale samples were found to be significantly different. Similarly, significant differences in sensory properties were found in most of the arugula samples. Consumers liked the kale and arugula varieties that were sweet and nutty. Also, they preferred arugula that was described as spicy. CONCLUSION: The majority of consumers preferred sweet and nutty leafy greens. Organic growing methods did not affect consumer liking; however, organic labels do positively affect hedonic ratings of a consumer's overall liking of the product. This study also identified that 'Baby' leafy greens are well liked by consumers, and this area of produce should be expanded. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Comportamento do Consumidor , Odorantes/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/economia , Brassicaceae/química , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Paladar
6.
Food Chem ; 366: 130683, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343952

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of single and dual frequency ultrasound washing on freshly cut cauliflower, by pulsed and sweep frequency modes, with or without the addition of zinc acetate (ZA), tea saponin (TS) and ethanol (ET). Results showed that the surface microorganisms were efficiently decreased by sweep dual frequency ultrasound washing. Moreover, the use of 0.5% ZA, or 0.06% TS or 5% ET as washing solution improved the bacterial reduction efficiency. Reducing the interfacial tension, viscosity and contact angle of washing solution may strengthen ultrasound cavitation. Nearly 2.0 log CFU/g natural microorganisms were decreased, and shelf life was extended from 2 to 4-8 days under 4 °C. Physicochemical parameters of bioactive compounds content, enzyme activity, antioxidant ability, freshness were analyzed. Results showed that 0.5% ZA as washing solution of ultrasound washing was beneficial to the quality maintenance during storage period.


Assuntos
Brassica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
7.
Food Chem ; 367: 130734, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359003

RESUMO

Isocycloseram is a new isoxazoline insecticide that can efficiently control the diamondback moth in cruciferous crops. The aim of this study was to establish a method for the determination of isocycloseram residues in/on cabbage and in the soil using HPLC-UV at 264 nm. A field test was conducted in December 2019 and 2020 to monitor isocycloseram dissipation in Jiangxi, China. Acetonitrile was used to extract isocycloseram from cabbage and soil. C18 and GCB were used to purify cabbage extracts, whereas soil extracts did not require purification. At the addition level of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries in cabbage and soil were 91.81-109.95% and 89.89-104.08% respectively. After having applied 10% isocycloseram DC, isocycloseram dissipated faster in the cabbage matrix. Isocycloseram residues on cabbage leaves could be removed through simple cleaning methods, especially by soaking in 2% citric acid.


Assuntos
Brassica , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Se Pu ; 39(12): 1324-1330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812004

RESUMO

Carbamate pesticides are a class of synthetic pesticides having wide antimicrobial spectrum, good insecticidal efficacy, and a short residual period. These pesticides are used in agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry. Their widespread use in the last two decades has led to the existence of drug residues in the environment, which are transferred to food, thereby raising concerns regarding the potential threat to human health. Rapid and accurate detection of carbamate pesticide residues in food is of great significance for food safety, and this requires pretreatment to purify the target components and maximize the accuracy and precision of the analysis. A rapid and accurate analytical method based on online solid phase extraction/purification-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) was established for the determination of eight carbamate pesticides in tomato, rice, and cabbage. About 5.0 g of tomato (without water), 2.0 g of cabbage, and 2.0 g of rice (mixed with 3 mL of water) were vortexed at 1000 r/min for 1 min. After adding 2 g of sodium chloride and 10 mL of acetonitrile containing 0.5% (v/v) formic acid, the samples were extracted and centrifuged. The supernatants were combined after the samples were extracted again. The reconstituted solutions were then purified on a CAPCELL PAK C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm, 15 µm). When the volume ratio of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile (used as the mobile phases) was 90∶10 and 35∶65, the eight carbamate pesticides could be completely adsorbed and eluted. The carbamate pesticides were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) under gradient elution and analyzed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves of the eight carbamate pesticide residues showed good linearity (r>0.995) within their respective linear ranges. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.05-1.0 ng/mL (S/N=10) and 0.01-0.3 ng/mL (S/N=3). The recoveries were in the range of 73.76%-112.32% at three spiked levels (2, 10, and 20 ng/mL), with relative standard deviations of 1.28%-13.14% (n=6). The online purification method showed better enrichment and purification ability for the target substances than did the offline purification method and greatly improved the pretreatment efficiency. The loading and purification could be completed within 12 min. The developed method has the advantages of high recovery rate, good reproducibility, accuracy, rapidness, sensitivity, and environment friendliness. It can be used for the determination of the eight carbamate pesticides in plant foods, such as tomato, rice, and cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica , Lycopersicon esculentum , Oryza , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Carbamatos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 811, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aerial organs of most terrestrial plants are covered by cuticular waxes, which impart plants a glaucous appearance and play important roles in protecting against various biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite many glossy green (wax-defective) mutants being well characterized in model plants, little is known about the genetic basis of glossy green mutant in broccoli. RESULTS: B156 is a spontaneous broccoli mutant showing a glossy green phenotype. Detection by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that B156 is a cuticular wax-defective mutant, lacking waxes mostly longer than C28. Inheritance analysis revealed that this trait was controlled by a single recessive gene, BoGL5. Whole-genome InDel markers were developed, and a segregating F2 population was constructed to map BoGL5. Ultimately, BoGL5 was mapped to a 94.1 kb interval on C01. The BoCER2 gene, which is homologous to the Arabidopsis CER2 gene, was identified as a candidate of BoGL5 from the target interval. Sequence analyses revealed that Bocer2 in B156 harbored a G-to-T SNP mutation at the 485th nucleotide of the CDS, resulting in a W-to-L transition at the 162nd amino acid, a conserved site adjacent to an HXXXD motif of the deduced protein sequence. Expression analysis revealed that BoCER2 was significantly down-regulated in the leaves, stems, and siliques of B156 mutant than that of B3. Last, ectopic expression of BoCER2 in A. thaliana could, whereas Bocer2 could not, rescue the phenotype of cer2 mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study mapped the locus determining glossy phenotype of B156 and proved BoCER2 is functional gene involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis which would promotes the utilization of BoCER2 to enhance plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and breeding of B. oleracea cultivars with glossy traits.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Ceras
10.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 819, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth involves various pathways. Vernalization is a crucial process for floral organ formation and regulation of flowering time that is widely utilized in plant breeding. In this study, we aimed to identify the global landscape of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) related to vernalization in Chinese cabbage. These data were then used to construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network that provides valuable information to better understand the vernalization response. RESULTS: In this study, seeds sampled from the Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line 'FT' with or without vernalization treatment were used for whole-transcriptome sequencing. A total of 2702 differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs, 151 DE lncRNAs, 16 DE circRNAs, and 233 DE miRNAs were identified in the vernalization-treated seeds. Various transcription factors, such as WRKY, MYB, NAC, bHLH, MADS-box, zinc finger protein CONSTANS-like gene, and B3 domain protein, and regulatory proteins that play important roles in the vernalization pathway were identified. Additionally, we constructed a vernalization-related ceRNA-miRNA-target gene network and obtained 199 pairs of ceRNA relationships, including 108 DEmiRNA‒DEmRNA, 67 DEmiRNA‒DElncRNA, and 12 DEmiRNA‒DEcircRNA interactions, in Chinese cabbage. Furthermore, several important vernalization-related genes and their interacting lncRNAs, circRNAs, and miRNAs, which are involved in the regulation of flowering time, floral organ formation, bolting, and flowering, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the potential mRNA and non-coding RNAs involved in vernalization, providing a foundation for further studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying vernalization in Chinese cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Brassica/genética , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4775-4798, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658044

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing the prevalence worldwide at an alarming rate, becoming a serious public health problem that mainly affects developing countries. Functional food research is currently of great interest because it contributes to developing nutritional therapy strategies for T2DM prevention and treatment. Bioactive compounds identified in some plant foods contribute to human health by mechanisms of action that exert biological effects on metabolic pathways involved in the development of T2DM. Hence, vegetables with high bioactive compounds content may be a source of functional value for the control of T2DM. Cabbages varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) such as green (GCB), white (WCB), and red (RCB) are foods consumed (raw or cooked) and cultivated in different regions of the world. Scientific evidence shows that cabbage has multi-target effects on glucose homeostatic regulation due to its high content of bioactive compounds. It has also been shown to decrease damage to organs affected by T2DM complications, such as the liver and kidney. Additionally, it could contribute as a preventive by attenuating problems underlying the development of T2DM as oxidative stress and obesity. This review highlights the functional properties of cabbage varieties involved in glucose regulation and the main mechanisms of the action exerted by their bioactive compounds. In conclusion, cabbage is a valuable food that can be employed as part of nutritional therapy or functional ingredient aimed at the prevention and treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Brassica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Alimento Funcional , Humanos
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 456, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Although some leaf shape-related genes have been reported in ornamental kale, the detailed mechanism underlying leaf shape formation is still unclear. Here, we report a lobed-leaf trait in ornamental kale, aiming to analyze its inheritance and identify the strong candidate gene. RESULTS: Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1 populations demonstrate that the lobed-leaf trait in ornamental kale is controlled by a single dominant gene, termed BoLl-1 (Brassica oleracea lobed-leaf). By performing whole-genome resequencing and linkage analyses, the BoLl-1 gene was finely mapped to a 127-kb interval on chromosome C09 flanked by SNP markers SL4 and SL6, with genetic distances of 0.6 cM and 0.6 cM, respectively. Based on annotations of the genes within this interval, Bo9g181710, an orthologous gene of LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY 1 (LMI1) in Arabidopsis, was predicted as the candidate for BoLl-1, and was renamed BoLMI1a. The expression level of BoLMI1a in lobed-leaf parent 18Q2513 was significantly higher compared with unlobed-leaf parent 18Q2515. Sequence analysis of the parental alleles revealed no sequence variations in the coding sequence of BoLMI1a, whereas a 1737-bp deletion, a 92-bp insertion and an SNP were identified within the BoLMI1a promoter region of parent 18Q2513. Verification analyses with BoLMI1a-specific markers corresponding to the promoter variations revealed that the variations were present only in the lobed-leaf ornamental kale inbred lines. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a lobed-leaf gene BoLMI1a, which was fine-mapped to a 127-kb fragment. Three variations were identified in the promoter region of BoLMI1a. The transcription level of BoLMI1a between the two parents exhibited great difference, providing new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying leaf shape formation in ornamental kale.


Assuntos
Brassica/anatomia & histologia , Brassica/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710145

RESUMO

In recent years, it is becoming clearer that plant growth and its yield are affected by sound with certain sounds, such as seedling of corn directing itself toward the sound source and its ability to distinguish stuttering of larvae from other sounds. However, methods investigating the effects of sound on plants either take a long time or are destructive. Here, we propose using laser biospeckle, a non-destructive and non-contact technique, to investigate the activities of an arugula plant for sounds of different frequencies, namely, 0 Hz or control, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, including rock and classical music. Laser biospeckles are generated when scattered light from biological tissues interfere, and the intensities of such speckles change in time, and these changes reflect changes in the scattering structures within the biological tissue. A leaf was illuminated by light from a laser light of wavelength 635 nm, and the biospeckles were recorded as a movie by a CMOS camera for 20 sec at 15 frames per second (fps). The temporal correlation between the frames was characterized by a parameter called biospeckle activity (BA)under the exposure to different sound stimuli of classical and rock music and single-frequency sound stimuli for 1min. There was a clear difference in BA between the control and other frequencies with BA for 100 Hz being closer to control, while at higher frequencies, BA was much lower, indicating a dependence of the activity on the frequency. As BA is related to changes from both the surface as well as from the internal structures of the leaf, LSM (laser scanning microscope) observations conducted to confirm the change in the internal structure revealed more than 5% transient change in stomatal size following exposure to one minute to high frequency sound of 10kHz that reverted within ten minutes. Our results demonstrate the potential of laser biospeckle to speedily monitor in vivo response of plants to sound stimuli and thus could be a possible screening tool for selecting appropriate frequency sounds to enhance or delay the activity of plants. (337 words).


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Lasers , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Som , Estimulação Acústica
14.
Planta ; 254(5): 92, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633541

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: From Brassica oleracea genome, 88 anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were identified. They expanded via whole-genome or tandem duplication and showed significant expression differentiation. Functional characterization revealed BoMYB113.1 as positive and BoMYBL2.1 as negative regulators responsible for anthocyanin accumulation. Brassica oleracea produces various health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, and vitamins. Despite the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana being well characterized, little is known about the genetic basis of anthocyanin biosynthesis in B. oleracea. In this study, we identified 88 B. oleracea anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (BoABGs) representing homologs of 46 Arabidopsis anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (AtABGs). Most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, having expanded via whole-genome duplication and tandem duplication, retained more than one copy in B. oleracea. Expression analysis revealed diverse expression patterns of BoABGs in different tissues, and BoABG duplications showed significant expression differentiation. Additional expression analysis and functional characterization revealed that the positive regulator BoMYB113.1 and negative regulator BoMYBL2.1 may be key genes responsible for anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage and ornamental kale by upregulating the expression of structural genes. This study paves the way for a better understanding of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in B. oleracea and should promote breeding for anthocyanin content.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Antocianinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12270-12277, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609877

RESUMO

Volatile compounds of raw and cooked green kohlrabi were investigated using a sensomics approach. A total of 55 odor-active compounds were detected and identified in raw and cooked green kohlrabi using GC-O. Twenty-eight odor-active compounds with high flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 64 to 1024 were quantitated, and odor activity values (OAVs) were determined. Eight compounds showed high OAVs in raw and cooked kohlrabi: five sulfur compounds (dimethyl trisulfide, methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, and three isothiocyanates (1-isothiocyanato-3-(methylsulfanyl)propane, benzyl isothiocyanate, and 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfanyl)butane)), two lipid oxidation products (1-octen-3-one and trans-4,5-epoxy-(2E)-dec-2-enal), and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Among these, the sulfur compounds contributed most to the overall smell of the raw and cooked vegetables. The quantitation analysis indicates that the eight odorants are the backbone compounds for raw and cooked kohlrabi. The OAVs for the backbone compounds and also for minor odorants are clearly higher in raw kohlrabi than in the cooked one. Differences can be explained by the influence of the cooking process.


Assuntos
Brassica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Culinária , Aromatizantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110674, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600676

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the influence of different indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolates - as a single culture or bacterial consortium - on the functional and physicochemical properties of fermented curly kale juice. All tested variants exhibited good growth parameters, manifested by efficient pH lowering, increases in acidity, and fructose and glucose metabolism, as well as a significant inhibition of pathogens. A slight increase in total phenolic content was observed, while antioxidant activity remained unchanged. L. sakei and MIX A were associated with an increase in riboflavin and pyridoxine content, while L. plantarum only contributed to an increase in vitamin B6 content. Bioconversion of individual phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and glucosinolates strongly depended on the strain-specific metabolism. In the process, the levels of ferulic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids were maintained, while the content of 9-cis lutein increased. Considering presented results and our previous research regarding probiotic features of LAB strains, among tested starter cultures - L. plantarum seemed to possess the best characteristics as a potential starter culture for controlled fermentation of curly kale juice.


Assuntos
Brassica , Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639187

RESUMO

Fenitrothion is an insecticide belonging to the organophosphate family of pesticides that is widely used around the world in agriculture and living environments. Today, it is one of the most hazardous chemicals that causes severe environmental pollution. However, detection of fenitrothion residues in the environment is considered a significant challenge due to the small molecule nature of the insecticide and lack of molecular recognition elements that can detect it with high specificity. We performed in vitro selection experiments using the SELEX process to isolate the DNA aptamers that can bind to fenitrothion. We found that newly discovered DNA aptamers have a strong ability to distinguish fenitrothion from other organophosphate insecticides (non-specific targets). Furthermore, we identified a fenitrothion-specific aptamer; FenA2, that can interact with Thioflavin T (ThT) to produce a label-free detection mode with a Kd of 33.57 nM (9.30 ppb) and LOD of 14 nM (3.88 ppb). Additionally, the FenA2 aptamer exhibited very low cross-reactivity with non-specific targets. This is the first report showing an aptamer sensor with a G4-quadruplex-like structure to detect fenitrothion. Moreover, these aptamers have the potential to be further developed into analytical tools for real-time detection of fenitrothion from a wide range of samples.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Brassica/metabolismo , Fenitrotion/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenitrotion/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade
18.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111036, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620440

RESUMO

Like in mammals, the plant immune system has evolved to perceive damage. Damaged-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous signals generated in wounded or infected tissue after pathogen or insect attack. Although extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a DAMP signal that induces immune responses, plant responses after eDNA perception remain largely unknown. Here, we report that signaling defenses but not direct defense responses are induced after eDNA applications enhancing broad-range plant protection. A screening of defense signaling and hormone biosynthesis marker genes revealed that OXI1, CML37 and MPK3 are relevant eDNA-Induced Resistance markers (eDNA-IR). Additionally, we observed that eDNA from several Arabidopsis ecotypes and other phylogenetically distant plants such as citrus, bean and, more surprisingly, a monocotyledonous plant such as maize upregulates eDNA-IR marker genes. Using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) and aniline blue staining methods, we observed that H2O2 but not callose was strongly accumulated following self-eDNA treatments. Finally, eDNA resulted in effective induced resistance in Arabidopsis against the pathogens Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Pseudomonas syringae, and Botrytis cinerea and against aphid infestation, reducing the number of nymphs and moving forms. Hence, the unspecificity of DNA origin and the wide range of insects to which eDNA can protect opens many questions about the mechanisms behind eDNA-IR.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , DNA/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Brassica/genética , Brassica/imunologia , Brassica/microbiologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/imunologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/imunologia , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum/genética , Solanum/imunologia , Solanum/microbiologia , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Spinacia oleracea/imunologia , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638781

RESUMO

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is an important vegetable crop cultivated around the world. Previous studies of cabbage gene transcripts were primarily based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology which cannot provide accurate information concerning transcript assembly and structure analysis. To overcome these issues and analyze the whole cabbage transcriptome at the isoform level, PacBio RS II Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology was used for a global survey of the full-length transcriptomes of five cabbage tissue types (root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique). A total of 77,048 isoforms, capturing 18,183 annotated genes, were discovered from the sequencing data generated through SMRT. The patterns of both alternative splicing (AS) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) were comprehensively analyzed. In total, we detected 13,468 genes which had isoforms containing APA sites and 8978 genes which underwent AS events. Moreover, 5272 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were discovered, and most exhibited tissue-specific expression. In total, 3147 transcription factors (TFs) were detected and 10 significant gene co-expression network modules were identified. In addition, we found that Fusarium wilt, black rot and clubroot infection significantly influenced AS in resistant cabbage. In summary, this study provides abundant cabbage isoform transcriptome data, which promotes reannotation of the cabbage genome, deepens our understanding of their post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms, and can be used for future functional genomic research.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Brassica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo
20.
Funct Plant Biol ; 48(11): 1186-1198, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600597

RESUMO

There is limited information concerning the formation of dot-like browning appearing at the base of trichomes on mature leaves on the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis). This study confirmed for the first time that enhanced autofluorescence can be induced in the base of trichomes when pressure stimuli is applied to trichomes; the enhanced autofluorescence gradually moves to the top of trichomes and the neighbouring mesophyll tissue within 15min. The excitation of autofluorescence in trichomes was found to be more effective in mature leaves compared to newly emergent leaves. Increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were also detected in the basal region of trichomes that were subjected to mechanical stimuli. Enhanced fluorescence was observed at the top of the trichomes in senescencing leaves. A browning in the base of the trichomes during leaf senescence was observed. In contrast, no browning occurred at the base of the trichomes in leaves that were subject to pressure stimuli. The blue fluorescence in the trichomes in senescent leaves arises mainly from the condensed cytoplasm. No direct evidence was able to prove that the enhanced autofluorescent substances in the trichomes during leaf senescence are the cause of the browning at the early growth stages.


Assuntos
Brassica , China , Folhas de Planta , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tricomas
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